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Estudo experimental da co-injeção de vapor e gases efluentes de combustão na recuperação melhorada de óleo pesado; Experimental study of steam and flue gas co-injection in improved heavy oil recovery

Lucas Soares Monte-Mor
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/07/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.18%
A injeção de vapor produzido na superfície é o método de recuperação avançada de petróleo mais utilizado para produção de óleo pesado no mundo. No entanto, há grandes limitações no uso no método devido a perdas de calor quando os reservatórios são profundos e no caso de campos offshore. Os geradores de fundo de poço ("Downhole steam generators, DHSG") são uma nova tecnologia que abre caminho para a recuperação de óleo pesado de reservatórios profundos, campos offshore e locais extremamente frios. Os DHSGs eliminam a necessidade dos sistemas de distribuição e geração de vapor na superfície como as linhas de escoamento de vapor. A saída de um DHSG entrega uma mistura de vapor e gases efluentes de combustão. No presente trabalho, um estudo experimental na célula linear de injeção foi desenvolvido para compreender melhor como a injeção combinada de vapor e gases efluentes de combustão contribui no processo de recuperação e para a possível redução na quantidade de vapor injetado. O estudo experimental foi realizado num aparato construído e desenvolvido na Unicamp para a injeção contínua de vapor puro ou vapor combinado com outro fluido. Todo o estudo foi realizado em escala de laboratório utilizando óleo proveniente da bacia Potiguar e do Espírito Santo. Nos experimentos...

Diffusion and swelling of CO2/light oil mixtures using pressure decay and CT-scan = : Difusão e inchamento de misturas de CO2/óleo leve usando as técnicas de queda de pressão e de tomografia computadorizada; Difusão e inchamento de misturas de CO2/óleo leve usando as técnicas de queda de pressão e de tomografia computadorizada

Susana Vasconcelos Araújo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/02/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.15%
O CO2 utilizado na recuperação avançada em reservatórios de petróleo é um importante agente de injeção devido a suas características de miscibilidade e de inchamento. No que tange a miscibilidade, a difusão molecular é o processo que descreve a mistura natural de fluidos miscíveis, e seu principal parâmetro é o coeficiente de difusão molecular. O objetivo deste estudo é medir o coeficiente de difusão bem como o fator de inchamento do CO2 em óleos leves em diferentes condições experimentais envolvendo pressão, temperatura e composição do óleo. Com intuito de obter o coeficiente de difusão, duas técnicas experimentais foram realizadas em paralelo: uma primeira técnica conhecida como decaimento de pressão e outra chamada de tomografia computadorizada. Esta última, apesar de ainda estar em processo de investigação, permitiu também a obtenção do fator de inchamento nas condições experimentais selecionadas. O óleo estudado é um óleo leve proveniente dos reservatórios do pré-sal no Brasil. Os testes foram efetuados em uma célula para altas pressões especialmente desenvolvida para esses ensaios que envolvem tomografia computadorizada. As pressões e temperatura variaram de 2.76 MPa a 28.96 MPa a 293.15 K e somente 10.34 MPa a 341.15 K. A difusão molecular é considerada um mecanismo chave que controla a miscibilidade entre o óleo e o gás. Sabendo que o coeficiente de difusão determina a taxa de transferência de massa durante o processo...

Recuperação de óleo por injeção de polímeros : abordagens experimental, analítica e numérica em pequena escala; Oil recovery by polymer flooding - experimental, analytical and numerical approaches

Vinicius de Souza Rios
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/07/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.28%
Dadas as práticas atuais de gerenciamento de reservatórios, motivadas pelos altos preços do petróleo e baixa eficiência de métodos convencionais de recuperação, as empresas operadoras têm considerado a aplicação de métodos de recuperação avançada (EOR) cada vez mais cedo na vida produtiva dos seus campos. Neste contexto, a importância de pesquisas e desenvolvimento de métodos avançados como injeção de polímeros tem aumentado fortemente nas últimas décadas. A injeção de polímero é um método químico de recuperação indicado para casos de reservatórios heterogêneos ou em que a razão de mobilidades entre água e o óleo é alta, dita desfavorável. Este método mostra-se bastante eficaz, atuando no aumento da viscosidade da água, que reflete em deslocamentos mais eficientes devido à redução da razão de mobilidades. Visando avaliar o desempenho deste método de recuperação, este trabalho apresenta um estudo da técnica de injeção de polímeros através de três abordagens: experimental, analítica e numérica. O trabalho experimental envolveu testes utilizando uma amostra de arenito, em que se realizou o deslocamento de óleo mineral grau SAE 15W-40, com viscosidade acima de 200 cP em condição ambiente. Como fluido deslocante...

Efeitos de histerese de permeabilidade relativa em reservatórios de óleo leve com injeção WAG-CO2; Effects of relative permeability hysteresis in light oil reservoirs with WAG-CO2 injection

Gustavo Menezes Santana
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/06/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.22%
Os reservatórios do pré-sal brasileiro apresentam grandes volumes de óleo leve com quantidade significativa de CO2 dissolvido. O CO2 produzido no pré-sal pode ser utilizado como gás de injeção no método especial de recuperação de injeção alternada de água e gás (WAG). Neste trabalho, a injeção WAG-CO2 miscível é empregada na recuperação de um óleo leve com teor de cerca de 8% molar de CO2 em condições análogas às do pré-sal de alta pressão e baixa temperatura, onde fenômenos físicos inerentes à injeção WAG-CO2 são incorporados aos modelos de simulação de reservatórios através dos modelos de histerese da permeabilidade relativa, tal como o modelo trifásico de Larsen e Skauge (1998). Este trabalho tem como foco o estudo dos efeitos da modelagem da histerese de permeabilidade relativa em simulações de injeção WAG-CO2 miscível. Dois modelos sintéticos de reservatório com óleo leve e com diferentes graus de heterogeneidade são estudados. Os modelos de simulações empregam a formulação composicional por ser mais apropriada em casos de injeção de gás miscível em óleo leve. A histerese causa redução da permeabilidade relativa aos fluidos, o que pode gerar dois efeitos: o aumento da eficiência local de varrido de óleo e a perda de injetividade. O primeiro efeito contribui para o aumento da recuperação de óleo...

Análise de fatores que influenciam a recuperação de petróleo por injeção de polímero; Analysis of factors influencing oil recovery by polymer injection

Kemily Keiko Miyaji Sanches
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/12/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.29%
A grande dependência da sociedade por produtos feitos a partir do petróleo e seus derivados, bem como seu preço elevado, motivam o estudo e o desenvolvimento de métodos de recuperação avançada. Estes métodos viabilizam explotar o maior volume possível de petróleo de forma contínua e por mais tempo. Os métodos de recuperação avançada de petróleo podem ser classificados como miscíveis, térmicos e químicos. A injeção de polímero é um método químico, onde polímero é adicionado à água de injeção com o objetivo de aumentar sua viscosidade e, consequentemente, reduzir a razão de mobilidade e aumentar a eficiência de varrido. Entretanto, este processo não é aplicável a qualquer caso, sendo necessário o uso de métodos de seleção e descarte, além de uma atenção especial para que suas propriedades não sejam degradadas durante a aplicação do método. Este trabalho apresenta uma análise da recuperação de petróleo por injeção de água alternada com banco de polímero (WAP) em comparação com a injeção contínua de água (WF) através da utilização de um simulador comercial. Além disso, foram analisadas variações em relação ao volume de solução polimérica injetada, ao instante de início da injeção de polímero...

Biosurfactant producing microorganisms and its application to enhanced oil recovery at lab scale

Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Pereira, J. F.; Rodrigues, L. R.; Coutinho, J. A.; Teixeira, J. A.; Soares, L. P.
Fonte: Society of Petroleum Engineers Publicador: Society of Petroleum Engineers
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.26%
Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a tertiary oil recovery process where microorganisms and their metabolites are used to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. Stimulation of biosurfactant production by indigenous microorganisms can reduce the capillary forces that retain the oil into the reservoir. The studied reservoir is characterized by alternated oil and water sand layers, with an average porosity of 25% and a permeability of 50 mD. It’s a flat structure at 450 m depth, with an initial pressure of 32.4 bars and a temperature of 42.5ºC. The oil is paraffinic, with low viscosity, high pour point and a gravity of 25º API, with no gas dissolved. Due to these properties, the wells can’t flow naturally and the production has to be lifted, making this reservoir a good candidate for MEOR application. This work addresses the isolation and identification of microorganisms capable of producing biosurfactants and degrading heavy oil fractions at the oil reservoir conditions. Five Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from oil samples were able to grow and produce extracellular biosurfactants at 40ºC under anaerobic conditions in medium supplemented with hydrocarbons. In addition, some of the isolates displayed a capacity to degrade...

Enhanced oil recovery under laboratory conditions using biosurfactant-producing microorganisms

Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Pereira, Jorge F. B.; Rodrigues, L. R.; Coutinho, J. A. P.; Teixeira, J. A.
Fonte: Portuguese Society of Microbiology and the Portuguese Society of Biotechnology Publicador: Portuguese Society of Microbiology and the Portuguese Society of Biotechnology
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
Oil recovery comprises a primary phase, which produces oil using the natural pressure drive of the reservoir, and a secondary phase, which includes the injection of water to improve the flow of oil to the wellhead [1,2]. While primary recovery produces 5-10% of the original oil in place, recovery efficiencies in the secondary stage vary from 10% to 40% [1]. Most of the unrecovered oil (up to two-thirds of the total oil reserves) is trapped in the reservoir pores by high capillary forces [2]. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a tertiary oil recovery process where microorganisms and their metabolites are used to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. Stimulation of biosurfactant production by indigenous or injected microorganisms can reduce the capillary forces that retain the oil into the reservoir. In this work, a sand pack column model was designed to simulate the oil recovery operations in oil reservoirs and evaluate the mobilization of residual oil by microorganisms. Three Bacillus subtilis strains (309, 311 and 573), previously isolated from crude oil samples, were used in this study. They grow and produce extracellular biosurfactants at 40ºC under anaerobic conditions in medium supplemented with hydrocarbons. Biosurfactants produced by those isolates reduce the surface tension of water from 72 to 30 mN/m...

Bioconversion of agro-industrial by-products in rhamnolipids toward applications in enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation

Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Rodrigues, A. I.; Alves, Eliana; Domingues, M. R. M.; Teixeira, J. A.; Rodrigues, L. R.
Fonte: Elsevier BV Publicador: Elsevier BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.13%
In this work, biosurfactant production by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain was optimized using low-cost substrates. The highest biosurfactant production (3.2 g/l) was obtained using a culture medium containing corn step liquor (10% (v/v)) and molasses (10% (w/v)). The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension of water up to 30 mN/m, and exhibited a high emulsifying activity (E24= 60%), with a critical micelle concentration as low as 50 mg/l. The biosurfactant produced in this alternative medium was characterized as a mixture of eight different rhamnolipid congeners, being the most abundant the mono-rhamnolipid Rha-C10-C10. However, using LB medium, nine different rhamnolipid congeners were identified, being the most abundant the di-rhamnolipid Rha-Rha-C10-C10. The rhamnolipid mixture produced in the alternative medium exhibited a better performance in removing oil from contaminated sand when compared with two chemical surfactants, suggesting its potential use as an alternative to traditional chemical surfactants in enhanced oil recovery or bioremediation.

Experimental investigation of the enhanced oil recovery process using a polymeric solution

Rangel,Ithamar R.; Thompson,Roney L.; Pereira,Roberto G.; Abreu,Fernando L. B. de
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia e Ciências Mecânicas - ABCM Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia e Ciências Mecânicas - ABCM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.29%
Enhanced oil recovery methods are becoming an important source of oil production of wells that have already been explored and, by these methods, of increase of the total volume of oil extracted. An important example is the injection of polymeric solutions after the injected water has reached the breakthrough point. In the present work an experimental apparatus was built in order to test the ability of enhanced oil recovery of polymeric solutions, composed by Xanthan Gum (XG) dissolved in distilled water. This apparatus consists of an idealized porous media made with small spheres inserted in a cylindrical cell and then filled with oil with the same viscosity as the petroleum found in Campos Basin (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). As displacing fluid, we tested polymeric solutions of different concentrations of Xanthan Gum and these non-Newtonian fluids were characterized using a rotational rheometer. The resulting characterization has shown that increasing the concentration, not only the level of viscosity, but also the elasticity of the fluid increases. The shear-thinning behavior of the solution can be well captured by a power-law model. For higher concentrations the shear-thinning feature of the Xanthan Gum solution is more pronounced. We conducted an experimental procedure to mimic enhanced oil recovery process by first injecting water until the breakthrough point. Increasing the polymer concentration...

Avaliação do comportamento de fluidos micelares na recuperação avançada de petróleo

Santos, Francisco Klebson Gomes dos
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Tecnologias Regionais Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Tecnologias Regionais
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
In heavy oil fields there is a great difficulty of the oil to flow from the reservoir to the well, making its production more difficult and with high cost. Most of the original volumes of oil found in the world are considered unrecoverable by the use of the current methods. The injection of micellar solutions has a direct action in the oil interfacial properties, resulting in an enhanced oil recovery. The objective of this research was the study and selection of micellar solutions with ability to decrease the interfacial interactions between fluids and reservoir formation, increasing oil production. The selected micellar solutions were obtained using commercial surfactants and surfactants synthesized in laboratory, based on the intrinsic properties of these molecules, to use in the enhanced oil recovery. Petroleum Reservoirs were simulated using sandstone plugs from Botucatu formation. Experiments with conventional and enhanced oil recovery techniques were accomplished. The obtained results showed that all micellar solutions were able to enhance oil recovery, and the micellar solution prepared with a SB anionic surfactant, at 2% KCl solution, showed the best recovery factor. It was also accomplished an economic analysis with the SB surfactant solution. With the injection of 20% porous volume of micellar solution...

Scale up and application of biosurfactant from bacillus subtilis in enhanced oil recovery

Amani, H.; Mehrnia, M.; Sarrafzadeh, M.; Haghighi, M.; Soudi, M.
Fonte: Humana Press Inc Publicador: Humana Press Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.02%
There is a lack of fundamental knowledge about the scale up of biosurfactant production. In order to develop suitable technology of commercialization, carrying out tests in shake flasks and bioreactors was essential. A reactor with integrated foam collector was designed for biosurfactant production using Bacillus subtilis isolated from agricultural soil. The yield of biosurfactant on biomass (Y(p/x)), biosurfactant on sucrose (Y(p/s)), and the volumetric production rate (Y) for shake flask were obtained about 0.45 g g(-1), 0.18 g g(-1), and 0.03 g l(-1) h(-1), respectively. The best condition for bioreactor was 300 rpm and 1.5 vvm, giving Y(x/s), Y(p/x), Y(p/s), and Y of 0.42 g g(-1), 0.595 g g(-1), 0.25 g g(-1), and 0.057 g l(-1) h(-1), respectively. The biosurfactant maximum production, 2.5 g l(-1), was reached in 44 h of growth, which was 28% better than the shake flask. The obtained volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (K(L)a) values at optimum conditions in the shake flask and the bioreactor were found to be around 0.01 and 0.0117 s(-1), respectively. Comparison of K(L)a values at optimum conditions shows that biosurfactant production scaling up from shake flask to bioreactor can be done with K(L) a as scale up criterion very accurately. Nearly 8% of original oil in place was recovered using this biosurfactant after water flooding in the sand pack.; Hossein Amani...

Production and optimization of microbial surfactin by bacillus subtilis for Ex situ enhanced oil recovery

Amani, H.; Haghighi, M.; Keshtar, M.
Fonte: Marcel Dekker Inc Publicador: Marcel Dekker Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.12%
In the research, biosurfactant production and the optimization of biosurfactant production conditions have been examined have been examined using one strain of Bacillus subtilis isolated from agricultural soil. For biosurfactant production, the optimum conditions were sucrose as carbon source, temperature at 37°C and 250 rpm. At 250 rpm, the optimum filling volume of culture media in a 500 mL Erlenmeyer flask was determined as 100 mL. The results show that shaking the flask should increase the oxygen transfer rate from gas phase to liquid phase, but if the filling volume of culture media is more than 100 mL, the oxygen limitation will be governed on the culture medium which results in the reduction of biomass and biosurfactant at 250 rpm. The oxygen limitation causes 23% and 18% reductions of biomass and biosurfactant, respectively. The biosurfactant produced also attained emulsion indexes as 80%, 75%, 68%, and 65% for crude oil, hexadecane, kerosene, and diesel, respectively. Oil displacement experiments in micromodel with kerosene show 25% higher recovery rate in residual oil using the proposed biosurfactant.; H. Amani, M. Haghighi, and M. J. Keshtkar

Alkaline Surfactant Polymer enhanced oil recovery process

Liu, Shunhua
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
This thesis improves the understanding of the Alkaline Surfactant Polymer (ASP) enhanced oil recovery process in order to optimize the ASP operational strategy. The conventional oil recovery methods leave large amounts of oil in the reservoir. ASP process is considered as a promising method for enhanced oil recovery. This dissertation reveals the ASP characteristics by using phase behavior, interfacial tension, surfactant consumption and numerical simulation techniques. The flooding experiments that I performed show that my ASP strategies successfully recover the oil trapped after waterflooding. The optimal salinity varies when either synthetic surfactant concentration or Water Oil Ratio (WOR) changes in ASP system. In this thesis, these results could be collapsed to a single curve for each synthetic surfactant/crude oil combination in which the optimal salinity depends only on the molar ratio of natural soap to synthetic surfactant, or soap fraction of total soap plus surfactant. The ASP system studied here has a much wider low IFT region (< 0.01 mN/m) than the system without alkali. In much of the Winsor I region where an oil-in-water microemulsion coexists with excess oil, a second surfactant-containing phase was seen to exist in colloidal form. This colloidal dispersion plays an important role in reaching the ultra-low tension. A new protocol...

Study of Foam Mobility Control in Surfactant Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes in One-Dimensional, Heterogeneous Two-Dimensional, and Micro Model Systems

Li, Robert F.
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.29%
The focus of this thesis was conducting experiments which would help in understanding mechanisms and in design of surfactant enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes in various scenarios close to reservoir conditions such as heterogeneity, effects of crude oil, wettability, etc. Foam generated in situ by surfactant alternating gas injection was demonstrated as a substitute for polymer drive in a 1-D FOR process. It was effective in a similar process for a 266 cp crude oil even though the system did not have favorable mobility control. Foam enhanced sweep efficiency in a layered sandpack with a 19:1 permeability ratio. Foam diverted surfactant from the high- to the low-permeability layer. Ahead of the foam front, liquid in the low-permeability layer crossflowed into the high-permeability layer. Foam completely swept the system in 1.3 TPV (total pore volume) fluid injection while waterflood required 8 TPV. When the same 2-D system was oil-wet, the recovery by watertlood was only 49.1% of original oil-in-place (OOIP) due to injected water flowing through high-permeability zone leaving low-permeability zone unswept. To improve recovery, an anionic surfactant blend (NI) was injected that altered the wettability and lowered the interfacial tension (IFT) and consequently enabled gravity and capillary pressure driven vertical counter-current flow to occur and exchange fluids between layers during a 42-day system shut-in. Cumulative recovery after a subsequent foamflood was 94.6% OOIP. The addition of lauryl betaine to NI at a weight ratio of 2:1 made the new NIB a good IFT-reducing and foaming agent with crude oil present. It showed effectiveness in water-wet homogeneous and oil-wet heterogeneous sandpacks. The unique attribute of foam with higher apparent viscosity in high- than in low-permeability regions makes it a better mobility control agent than polymer in heterogeneous systems. One single surfactant formulation such as NIB in this study that can simultaneously reduce IFT and generate foam will improve the microscopic displacement and sweep efficiency from the beginning of a chemical flooding process. Foam generation mechanisms...

Transport of Surfactant and Foam in Porous Media for Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes

Ma, Kun
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.1%
The use of foam-forming surfactants offers promise to improve sweep efficiency and mobility control for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). This thesis provides an in depth understanding of transport of surfactant and foam through porous media using a combination of laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. In particular, there are several issues in foam EOR processes that are examined. These include screening of surfactant adsorption onto representative rock surfaces, modeling of foam flow through porous media, and studying the effects of surface wettability and porous media heterogeneity. Surfactant adsorption onto rock surfaces is a main cause of foam chromatographic retardation as well as increased process cost. Successful foam application requires low surfactant adsorption on reservoir rock. The focus of this thesis is natural carbonate rock surfaces, such as dolomite. Surfactant adsorption was found to be highly dependent on electrostatic interactions between surfactants and rock surface. For example, the nonionic surfactant Tergitol 15-S-30 exhibits low adsorption on dolomite under alkaline conditions. In contrast, high adsorption of cationic surfactants was observed on some natural carbonate surfaces. XPS analysis reveals silicon and aluminum impurities exist in natural carbonates...

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION O F SODIUM METHYL ESTER SULFONATE FOR CHEMICALLY-ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

Babu,K.; Maurya,N. K.; Mandal,A.; Saxena,V. K.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering Publicador: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.24%
AbstractAttention has been given to reduce the cost of surfactant by using castor oil as an alternative natural source of feedstock. A new surfactant, sodium methyl ester sulfonate (SMES) was synthesised using ricinoleic acid methyl ester, which is obtained from castor oil, for enhanced oil recovery in petroleum industries. The performance of SMES was studied by measuring the surface tension with and without sodium chloride and its thermal stability at reservoir temperature. SMES exhibited good surface activity, reducing the surface tension of surfactant solution up to 38.4 mN/m and 27.6 mN/m without and with NaCl, respectively. During the thermal analysis of SMES, a 31.2% mass loss was observed from 70 ˚C to 500 ˚C. The phase behavior of the cosurfactant/SMES-oil-water system plays a key role in interpreting the performance of enhanced oil recovery by microemulsion techniques. Flooding experiments were performed using a 0.5 pore volume of synthesized SMES solutions at three different concentrations. In each case chase water was used to maintain the pressure gradient. The additional recoveries in surfactant flooding were found to be 24.53%, 26.04% and 27.31% for 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 mass% of surfactant solutions, respectively.

Avaliação da injeção de surfactantes como método de recuperação avançada em reservatórios de arenito; Surfactant flooding evaluation for enhanced oil recovery in sandstone reservoirs

Fabian Camilo Bonilla Sanabria. ¿
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/07/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.32%
Os surfactantes são utilizados para diferentes propósitos na indústria do petróleo. As formulações de recuperação avançada utilizando surfactantes são aplicadas visando incrementar o fator de recuperação em reservatórios de óleo, tanto na etapa de recuperação secundária como na etapa terciária. Através de poços injetores, os volumes requeridos de uma solução aquosa com uma concentração definida de surfactante são introduzidos no reservatório para induzir à geração de um novo banco de óleo móvel por meio da diminuição da tensão interfacial água-óleo. Tensões interfaciais ultra baixas são obtidas e, consequentemente, o número capilar e a recuperação de óleo são incrementados. A eficiência do processo de deslocamento é influenciada por várias características das soluções de surfactantes, incluindo o comportamento de fases, a tensão interfacial, a concentração de eletrólitos em solução (salinidade) e a adsorção à superfície sólida da rocha. Assim sendo, um projeto de injeção de surfactantes deve ser planejado adequadamente para a obtenção do melhor cenário para a implementação da técnica. Este trabalho mostra um processo metodológico para identificar e avaliar formulações de surfactantes a serem aplicadas como método de recuperação química. Três surfactantes aniônicos e dois surfactantes não-iônicos foram selecionados da literatura para a análise experimental: Dodecil Sulfato de Sódio (SDS)...

Isolation and study of microorganisms from oil samples for application in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Pereira, Jorge F. B.; Rodrigues, L. R.; Coutinho, João A. P.; Teixeira, J. A.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.3%
"Author's personal copy"; Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from a reservoir beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using microorganisms and their metabolites. Stimulation of bacterial growth for biosurfactant production and degradation of heavy oil fractions by indigenous microorganisms can enhance the fluidity and reduce the capillary forces that retain the oil into the reservoir. MEOR offers major advantages over conventional EOR, namely low energy consumption and independence of the price of crude oil. In this work, the isolation and identification of microorganisms capable of producing biosurfactants and promote degradation of long-chain n-alkanes under conditions existent in oil reservoirs were addressed. Among the isolated microorganisms, five Bacillus strains were able to produce extracellular biosurfactants at 40 C under anaerobic conditions in medium supplemented with hydrocarbons. Three isolates were selected as the higher biosurfactant producers. The obtained biosurfactants reduced the surface tension of water from 72 to 30 mN/m, exhibited emulsifying activity and were not affected by exposure to high temperatures (121 C). These characteristics make them good candidates for use at conditions usually existing in oil reservoirs. Furthermore...

An Analysis of the Distribution and Economics of Oil Fields for Enhanced Oil Recovery-Carbon Capture and Storage

Hall, Kristyn Ann
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012
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The rising carbon dioxide emissions contributing to climate change has lead to the examination of potential ways to mitigate the environmental impact. One such method is through the geological sequestration of carbon (CCS). Although there are several different forms of geological sequestration (i.e. Saline Aquifers, Oil and Gas Reservoirs, Unminable Coal Seams) the current projects are just initiating the large scale-testing phase. The lead entry point into CCS projects is to combine the sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) due to the improved economic model as a result of the oil recovery and the pre-existing knowledge of the geological structures. The potential scope of CCS-EOR projects throughout the continental United States in terms of a systematic examination of individual reservoir storage potential has not been examined. Instead the majority of the research completed has centered on either estimating the total United States storage potential or the potential of a single specific reservoir.

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between oil recovery, carbon dioxide storage and cost during CCS-EOR. The characteristics of the oil and gas reservoirs examined in this study from the Nehring Oil and Gas Database were used in the CCS-EOR model developed by Sean McCoy to estimate the lifting and storage costs of the different reservoirs throughout the continental United States. This allows for an examination of both technical and financial viability of CCS-EOR as an intermediate step for future CCS projects in other geological formations.

One option for mitigating climate change is to store industrial CO2 emissions in geologic reservoirs as part of a process known as carbon capture and storage (CCS). There is general consensus that large-scale deployment of CCS would best be initiated by combining geologic sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR)...

Unified formulation of enhanced oil-recovery methods

Herrera,Ismael; Herrera,Graciela S.
Fonte: Instituto de Geofísica, UNAM Publicador: Instituto de Geofísica, UNAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2011 EN
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At present enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques are essential for maintaining the oil supplies of the world. In turn, mathematical and computational models of the processes that occur in EOR are fundamental for the application and advancement of such methods. Due to the great diversity of processes occurring in EOR, it is valuable to possess unified general procedures for constructing them, which can be easily applied independently of the complexity of the system considered. The leitmotiv of this paper is to present a unified mathematical model, including both: the governing system of partial differential equations and shock conditions. It is based on an axiomatic formulation, since axiomatic formulations are the most effective means for achieving generality, simplicity and clarity. In the approach here proposed, the construction of the mathematical model is to a large extent automatic; all what is required in order to define the partial differential equations and the shock conditions that constitute such a basic model is to identify the phases and extensive properties that participate in the EOR system. Such a basic model supplies a very firm basis on which the phenomenology is incorporated. The procedure is illustrated by deriving the mathematical models of the most commonly occurring EOR models: black-oil...