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English as medium of instruction in Finland and in Portugal

Santos, Ana Sofia Ribeiro dos
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
Esta tese explora o tema do Inglês como língua de instrução no ensino superior europeu, através da comparação de dois países, Portugal e Finlândia. Duas universidades (a Universidade de Aveiro e a Universidade de Tampere) foram seleccionadas como estudos de caso. A investigação segue uma metodologia qualitativa aplicada às especificidades de um estudo comparativo, e a recolha de dados foi feita através de análise documental, bem como de entrevistas em ambas as instituições. A revisão da literatura sobre o tema sugere que o Inglês como língua de instrução está associado à internacionalização, à globalização e à Europeização, e tais conceitos são esclarecidos. A política de língua no contexto Europeu e sua definição também é debatida. O neo-institucionalismo é o suporte teórico em torno do qual os dados são organizados, e consideramse os mecanismos coercivos, miméticos e normativos ao analisar os racionais, as condições e os efeitos da introdução de programas ministrados em língua inglesa. Os documentos nacionais e análise política de ambas as instituições revelam que a internacionalização do ensino é cada vez mais proeminente em ambos os países e que o processo de Bolonha adjuvou a sua importância...

FURTHER INVESTIGATIONS ON THE ORIGIN OF TUMORS IN MICE : V. THE TUMOR RATE IN HYBRID STRAINS.

Lathrop, A. E. C.; Loeb, Leo
Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/1918 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.82%
1. In order to test our previous conclusions concerning the tumor rate in hybrid strains, we carried out additional hybridizations. For this we selected strains which differed markedly in their tumor rate and which had been followed through a number of generations and found constant in their behavior. Hybridizations between strains or families of a similar (either high, medium, or low) tumor rate served as control experiments. In these cases the offspring showed a tumor rate similar to that of the parents. 2. In selecting for hybridization various groups of Cream mice representing a very low tumor strain and English Sable mice representing a high tumor strain, we obtained in the majority of cases hybrid strains with a tumor rate intermediate between that of both parent strains. In a few instances it approached somewhat the high tumor strain of the English, and in a few others the low tumor rate of the Cream. 3. In several hybrids between the high tumor strain English and the low tumor strain Silver, the latter of which was split off from the English, the high tumor rate of the English prevailed. A number of mice which served for hybridization were followed throughout their life and found to behave typically as to tumor rate. 4. If we omit the strains in which both parents had a similar tumor rate...

Part II. Analysis of data gaps pertaining to Shigella infections in low and medium human development index countries, 1984–2005

RAM, P. K.; CRUMP, J. A.; GUPTA, S. K.; MILLER, M. A.; MINTZ, E. D.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.68%
The global incidence of Shigella infection has been estimated at 80–165 million episodes annually, with 99% of episodes occurring in the developing world. To identify contemporary gaps in the understanding of the global epidemiology of shigellosis, we conducted a review of the English-language scientific literature from 1984 to 2005, restricting the search to low and medium human development countries. Our review yielded 11 population-based studies of Shigella burden from seven countries. No population-based studies have been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa or in low human development countries. In studies done in all age groups, Shigella incidence varied from 0·6 to 107 episodes/1000 person-years. S. flexneri was the most commonly detected subgroup in the majority of studies. Case-fatality rates ranged from 0% to 2·6% in population-based studies and from 0% to 21% in facility-based studies. This review highlights the large gaps in data on the burden of Shigella infections for low human development index countries and, more specifically, for sub-Saharan Africa.

Average Daily Gains of Brahman-Crossbred and English x Exotic Feeder Heifers Exposed to Low, Medium, and High Levels of Stable Flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

Catangui, Michael A.; Campbell, John B.; Thomas, Gustave D.; Boxler, David J.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
Brahman-crossbred and English × Exotic feeder heifers were exposed to low (5 per leg), medium (12 per leg), and high (30 per leg) stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), population levels to test relative tolerance of these cattle breeds to stable flies. The Brahman-crossbred heifers were tolerant to stable Hies only when they were 12–13 mo old. At the same age, the English × Exotic heifers sustained reductions in average daily gain (ADG) at all three stable fly population levels of 0.22 kg/d (11.2%). At 14–15 mo of age, both breeds were affected only by the high stable fly level. The reduction in ADG was ≈0.16 kg/d (10.6%) for both breeds. Stable fly numbers on the heifers varied with time of day. Both breeds appeared equally attractive to stable flies. With or without stable flies, the Brahman-crossbred heifers consistently gained less weight than the English × Exotic heifers by 0.24 kg/d (15%).

CREATING SUCCESS IN ACADEMIC WRITING: FROM SECONDARY TO HIGHER EDUCATION

Wong Sowat, Nang Saluna
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Project
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.99%
The academic transition from one’s native language to English medium instruction is a challenging experience for second language learners (L2). This is especially true for students who are learning a new subject at the same time. Research has shown that although L2 students have undergone at least eleven years of learning English as a communicative language, this does not guarantee success in their tertiary education. Some common challenges include understanding textbooks written in English, being aware of the academic writing process, lack of confidence in their writing and unfamiliarity with the nature of academic writing and disciplinary genres, such as citing references and writing expectations. Students in Malaysia do not learn academic English explicitly in secondary schools. Yet, students who envisage pursuing their tertiary education abroad must be equipped with English academic skills. Certainly, these skills must be taught directly, extensively, and explicitly, prior to their tertiary education abroad. As such, this project focuses on the English academic gap. There are four chapters. After the introduction which traces the evolution of English language instruction in Malaysia is a chapter that reviews studies on genres of academic writing...

Using drama in education to develop pre-service English teachers’ understanding and capacity in teaching social justice at post-primary level

Hennessy, Jennifer
Fonte: Liffey Press Dublin Publicador: Liffey Press Dublin
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bookPart; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.8%
peer-reviewed; One of the most common forms of non-recognition in education is for a group to be generally left outside educational discourse by not being named or known (Lynch and Baker 2005). Addressing inequalities of respect and recognition involves, amongst other things, the development of critical and empathetic perspectives and of educational experiences which enable critical dialogue (Lynch and Baker 2005). This paper examines a project conducted in the University of Limerick in 2010 with a cohort of 3rd year pre-service English teachers. The aim of the project was to facilitate an understanding of how drama in education could be used as a successful pedagogical tool for the critique of social inequality issues and the promotion of social justice. Tuition was provided by the author to four pre-service English teachers in both drama in education and development education (with a specific focus on social justice) over the course of a semester. The cohort were then challenged to employ a post-engagement approach to the development of a resource pack which would illustrate how drama in education could be used as an effective pedagogical tool for developing awareness and reflection on a variety of social justice issues. Resource packs developed by the cohort illustrated the capacity of drama in education to act as an effective medium for enhancing awareness and critical understanding in the area.

Reading other worlds, reading my world

Hinchion, Carmel; Hennessy, Jennifer
Fonte: Centre for Global Education Publicador: Centre for Global Education
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.8%
peer-reviewed; In this article, Carmel Hinchion and Jennifer Hennessy reflect on a project undertaken by the Ubuntu Network in partnership with pre-service English teachers and their lecturers at the University of Limerick. The project was set in the context of an English pedagogy course as part of the undergraduate initial teacher education (ITE) programme where student English teachers prepare for teaching in post-primary classrooms. Their article focuses on a literature unit where ‘culturally salient’ texts were chosen to promote, not only a reading of the word but of the world (Freire, 1970). A culturally salient text, as understood by Kress (1995), is one that allows us to ask questions about its significance in its own cultural domain and for other cultures. Drawing on the metaphor of a ‘reconstitutive mirroring experience’ (O’Loughlin, 2009), literature acts as a reflexive and reflective medium in shaping a world view.

Intercultural postgraduate supervision meetings: an exploratory discourse study

Cargill, M.
Fonte: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research Publicador: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.82%
Students studying in a second language medium may find face to face meetings daunting. Teachers of English for Academic Purposes, working to help international postgraduate students acculturate successfully to a particular English-speaking university department, have been hampered by a lack of information on the discourse practices of these meetings. This paper reports findings from an analysis of transcripts of meetings between two student/supervisor pairs in agricultural science. The supervisors were native English speakers and students were international postgraduates and second language speakers of English. The analysis suggests that these students did not take up turns at talk without very clear signals to do so, and did not act to repair misunderstandings that went beyond the surface propositional level. It is suggested that examples of authentic interaction such as these could usefully be included in language-based training programs to enhance the success of intercultural supervision and other types of transactions for students, supervisors and other interlocutors.; Margaret Cargill

Students’ preparation for IELTS: development of written and oral argumentative texts.

Moghaddam, Sharif
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2010
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.94%
This study is an investigation into opportunities provided for experiencing literacy in an IELTS Academic Version preparation course in Tehran. The purpose of this research project is to identify class tasks that generate opportunities for experiencing literacy and to describe aspects of the literacies that develop in the preparation course. The focus is on literacy practices for developing argumentative texts (written and oral). Increasing numbers of students whose first language is not English seek to continue their education in English-medium universities, for example in Australia. They are required by different universities to sit for the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) to evidence their language proficiency. Based on the IELTS organizers, “Over 1.2 million candidates take the test each year to start their journeys into international education and employment” (http://www.ielts.org, viewed 25/05/2009). However, despite meeting the required IELTS band scores, a growing number of them face difficulties and may fail academic requirements. To address this problem this study aims to investigate and analyse classroom tasks. In particular it examines the development of argumentative texts (written and oral). In this ethnographic case study I taught and recorded an IELTS academic preparation class over a period of five months. The investigation was conducted in normal classroom settings where the candidates experienced written and oral argumentative tasks to prepare for the IELTS Academic Version examination. Classroom discourse analysis and systemic functional linguistics were used to support the analysis and interpretations. This study discusses the objectives of the preparation course and addresses the findings which indicated that participation in the IELTS academic course provided the candidates with opportunities to acquire to some extent the literacy for: (a) communicating appropriately with prompts and contentious topics in order to develop relevant written and oral argumentative texts...

Needs of the language community and sustaining the demand for Irish-medium university education. Riachtanais an phobail teanga agus cothú an éilimh ar ollscolaíocht Ghaeilge

Ó hIfearnáin, Tadhg
Fonte: Fiontar - DCU Publicador: Fiontar - DCU
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bookPart; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
peer-reviewed; The continuous development of both Irish itself and the linguistic skills of its speakers are essential for the wellbeing of the language community. Because of the unavoidable power of English in every Irish-speaker's life, language development is a conscious, personal action no matter how one first acquires one's Irish. Because of this, the continuing use of Irish as a community language depends on individual attitudes and motivations. Universities play an important role in language development and in promoting its value as a powerful communication tool and medium of education. The language community in turn needs graduates who have high level competency in the language as well as a wide variety of other skills. Of the large numbers who claim to be able to speak Irish, only a small percentage would be able to follow a full third-level course through the language. Indeed, for many Gaeltacht Irish speakers and those who have come through the Irish-medium schooling system, reading and writing easily and accurately is a challenge. As we are discussing Irish-medium third level rather than lrishlanguage studies at third level, we are dealing with the requirements of the whole community. To this end Irish in the second level and its status in the community need to be developed as well as at university level...

THE ROLE OF MOTHER TONGUE AT PRIMARY LEVEL IN THE PRESERVATION OF CULTURE

KHAN, SHAHIDA HABIB
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.77%
The UN Charter recognizes the right to culture as a human right and UNESCO mandates the preservation and enhancement of indigenous cultures – reflecting how the international community values cultural diversity. Ignoring the acculturating effects of education in foreign languages in indigenous societies comes in conflict with these mandates. Current research in the instructional languages of primary school education usually revolves around the learning advantages. But the focus on learning advantages has diminished the impact of instructional language on culture to relative oblivion, despite the acculturating effects visibly found in indigenous, multilingual, and pluralist societies; effects that threaten the existence of many indigenous cultures in the wake of globalization. As remarked by Ngugi Wa Thiong’o in his book titled The Future of African Literature, language is “a system of communication” and “the carrier of culture”, therefore, striking a balance between its role in education and culture is essential. Indigenous culture and language should not be sacrificed by education that seeks to educate for inclusion in a world viewed as a global; the latter representative of the western culture and English language. Therefore...

Officious men of state: Early Modern Drama and Early English Bureaucratic Identity

Christopher, Brandon Whiting
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1103369 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.79%
This dissertation investigates representations of bureaucracy in early modern drama and culture. Focusing on a group of plays that feature bureaucratic figures among their characters, and reading those plays in the context of contemporary discussions of administration, this project attempts to understand the role played by the increasingly bureaucratic state in developing conceptions of individual subjectivity. Specifically, this dissertation seeks to show that bureaucratic administrative structures and the methods deployed to maintain them provide a conceptual space in which early modern writers could conceive of themselves as possessing a private, inscrutable interiority. Chapter Two argues that whereas the binary relationship of secretary and master is often characterized in contemporary accounts as intensely, and problematically, intimate, the multivalent bureaucratic relationship is characterized, for the most part, as impersonal. Chapter Three links bureaucratic labour with one product of that labour, the bureaucratic document, in order to analyze the way in which early modern representations and discussions of bureaucratic documents constitute a medium through which a form of bureaucratic identity is conceptualized. Chapter Four examines a problem inherent to the bureaucratic delegation of authority – the combination of a desire to see everything and an inability to trust in the observations of others to aid you in fulfilling that desire – and seeks to find a solution to that problem in the way in which Much Ado About Nothing presents a vision of a disciplinary surveillance that is diffused throughout society...

Teaching it "Write": Teacher Perspectives on Writing Instruction Within English and French Immersion Classrooms

McKechnie, Yvonne
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.88%
Writing today is a means of communication: a medium through which we learn, share and self-express (Graham, 2006). In the classroom, writing is used to acquire, remember, and share knowledge; writing aids in the process of discovering, shaping and refining ideas about a topic (Durst & Newell, 1989). Although writing instruction is a fundamental component of both Academic English and French Immersion language courses at the Grade 9 level (Ontario Ministry of Education, 1999, 2007), concern remains that many adolescents do not develop the skills necessary in writing to be successful in academic, workplace or personal life domains (Graham & Perin, 2007). Yet, little research has been conducted to determine what teachers are doing instructionally at the high school level. This study investigated the described individual pedagogies of teachers regarding writing instruction within two Grade 9 language contexts: English and French Immersion. I interviewed seven teachers, one-on-one, about their approach to writing instruction and the function of writing within their classroom, either in person or over the phone. A corresponding document of teaching materials referenced by teachers during the interviews was conducted. The data were thematically analyzed individually...

Developing autonomy through portfolios and networks in CLIL lectures

Adamson, John Lindsay; University of Niigata Prefecture
Fonte: Universidade La Sabana Publicador: Universidade La Sabana
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.67%
This study has explored the use of portfolios and of awareness-raising of literacy networks in a CLIL lecture preparation class for first-year undergraduates in a Japanese university.  It is argued that CLIL-related literature has a paucity of practical studies investigating these two elements essential to autonomy-building, particularly for students who have been previously mostly exposed to teacher-centered modes of instruction. Questionnaires asking students their perceptions of portfolio use and self-study were gathered over three years and were coupled with a one year small-scale data set of student-drawn ‘literacy maps’ exploring who and what materials students had consulted to produce a final lecture-related report. Findings revealed increased awareness of the importance of portfolio and self-study and even their cross-fertilization over to other classes across the language and content curricula; however, some reticence was evident regarding self-scoring in self-study mode, showing that the transition from traditional teacher-centredness at high school had not yet been overcome. Also, of importance was the initially extensive use of self-access center advisors which, when withdrawn, may have negatively impacted students’ literacy networks. Implications to be drawn from this study lie primarily in the expanded use of portfolios and increased awareness-raising of student networks as important means towards the development of autonomous study skills and literacy. Questions do...

"This english writing thing": students' perceptions of their writing experiences at an english-medium university

Petri, Bojana
Fonte: Universidad de Granada Publicador: Universidad de Granada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.1%
This article explores five students??? perceptions of their writing experiences at an English-medium post-graduate university in a non-English speaking country as compared to writing in their home country universities in their native languages. Three types of differences are found to be relevant: language and rhetorical differences, disciplinary differences, and differences in educational systems (such as the number of assignments required, the focus of writing instruction, and feedback practices). The analysis shows that some of these differences are unexpected for the students and require a period of adjustment during their transition to an English-medium university. The article concludes by discussing the implications of the findings for English for academic purposes.

Britain?s Money Supply Experiment, 1971?73

Needham, Duncan
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.71%
This is the accepted manuscript of a paper published in The English Historical Review (Needham D, English Historical Review, 2015, 130 (542), 89-122, doi:10.1093/ehr/ceu339). The final version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehr/ceu339; This article challenges the claim that neglect of monetary policy was responsible for the unprecedented UK inflation of the 1970s. It departs from the historiography by showing that the Bank of England and UK Treasury were following unpublished money supply objectives from 1971, two years earlier than is currently acknowledged and five years before Denis Healey first published a money supply target. This early experiment in monetary targeting was not a success. Despite having unpublished monetary targets in place, 1972?73 saw unprecedented growth in the UK money supply. Two years later, inflation hit record levels, apparently vindicating Milton Friedman?s claim that excess monetary growth leads inexorably to higher prices after a long and variable lag. The experience convinced senior Bank and Treasury officials that it was impossible to exercise tight control over the UK money supply. Paradoxically, it also persuaded influential politicians, academics, and commentators, less aware of the technical difficulties and realities of monetary policy implementation...

A.W.N. Pugin's English residential architecture in its context

Brittain-Catlin, Timothy John
Fonte: University of Cambridge Publicador: University of Cambridge
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
The electronic file comprises both volumes of the original thesis. For copyright reasons a number of images were removed.; This Dissertation investigates all of A.W.N. Pugin?s known English residential architecture for the first time, placing it in the context of the domestic and institutional architecture of comparable small buildings, particularly Anglican parsonages, of the period in which he lived and worked. The Dissertation is preceded by a summary of the theoretical issues that architects were addressing from the beginning of the nineteenth century, in particular those which Pugin was later to make a central part of his own theoretical writings. Following an examination of the conventions of the domestic architecture of the period, the Dissertation analyses Pugin?s own buildings, primarily categorising them by plan type. Pugin?s attitude to the orientation, location and landscape of his work is then considered, followed by an analysis of his preferred building forms, their materials, their detailing, and their decoration. In addition, the Dissertation investigates the extent to which Pugin?s architecture was actually historicist, reviving English or Continental Gothic forms and details. The Dissertation further investigates Pugin?s professional practice as a domestic architect...

Dvds, video games, and the cinema of interactions; Dvds, video games, and the cinema of interactions

Grusin, Richard; Wayne State University
Fonte: UFSC Publicador: UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/04/2006 POR
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35.97%
The “cinema of interactions” in the title of my paper alludes to Tom Gunning’s paradigmatic conception of early cinema as a “cinema of attractions.” Borrowing from the idea that electronic textuality marks what has been called the late age of print, I argue that the history of cinema up to the present moment can be seen as an extension of early cinema. In describing the current cinematic moment in this fashion, I do not mean to suggest that film will disappear in the face of video games and other digital media, but rather that it will continue increasingly to be engaged with the social, technological, and aesthetic forms and practices of digital media. This engagement will not be marked (as many digital enthusiasts contend) by the emergence of a distinctively new digital medium (and the concomitant abandonment of the technologically outmoded medium of celluloid film), but rather by the emergence of multiply networked, distributed forms of cinematic production and exhibition. Indeed I am convinced that in this sense we already find ourselves with a digital cinema—not as a distinctively new medium but as a hybrid network of media forms and practices.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2006n51p69The “cinema of interactions” in the title of my paper alludes to Tom Gunning’s paradigmatic conception of early cinema as a “cinema of attractions.” Borrowing from the idea that electronic textuality marks what has been called the late age of print...

"Taal op Tuks": A reappraisal of the change in language policy at the University of Pretoria, 1932

van der Merwe,D.M.
Fonte: Historia Publicador: Historia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.79%
This article is an attempt to explore the value, as well as possible pitfalls, in the use of official institutional histories in historical research and specifically the way in which a particular school of historical writing can influence the interpretation of certain events in the past. This article focuses on the events surrounding the change of the language policy of the University of Pretoria (UP) from a dual medium to an Afrikaans-only policy. It compares the account of the language question at UP as portrayed in the official commemorative book of the university, Ad Destinatum 1910-1960, with information from other sources, including Afrikaans and English newspaper reports, minutes of meetings of university bodies, oral and written testimonies of former students, as well as articles written on the language question at South African universities. It also examines some of the leading personalities who played a role in the language question.

Mother tongue as the medium of instruction at developing country universities in a global context

Nyika,Aceme
Fonte: South African Journal of Science Publicador: South African Journal of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.79%
One of the factors attributed to poor performance of some indigenous students at universities in developing countries is the use of a second language - mainly English and to some extent French - as the language of instruction at the universities. Consequently, policymakers in some developing countries have introduced, or are debating the idea of introducing, local vernacular languages as the official languages of instruction at their respective universities. Indeed, learning the official language of instruction as a second language is an additional hurdle, which to some extent hinders some students from performing well in their university studies. Thus students whose mother tongue is used as the language of instruction at their universities have an advantage over students whose mother tongue is not the language of instruction at their universities. Policies regarding the medium of instruction at universities have a range of short-term and long-term implications, some of which may be easily overlooked yet they may have far reaching repercussions for current and future generations. In this paper, a repertoire of pertinent issues surrounding the use of vernacular languages at universities is explored. These issues include performance of students...