Página 1 dos resultados de 689 itens digitais encontrados em 0.017 segundos

The impact of intelligent transportation systems on supply chain management

Beinhaker, Ross, 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 195 leaves; 9987423 bytes; 10012520 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
106.02%
Businesses are constantly searching for ways to reduce costs and increase revenue. This is a fact of life in a world where shareholder value drives corporate actions. In order to become more profitable, these businesses develop new processes and techniques to create efficiency. This paper is focused on one particular new technology that can be used to increase corporate profitability--intelligent transportation systems. The primary research objective of this thesis is to determine the impact that differing levels of information can have on transportation practices, and therefore, in turn on corporate profitability. This information is collected, analyzed, and disseminated through the use of intelligent transportation systems. The end result of this work is a quantification of this impact and conclusions related to which informational practices should be implemented into the supply chain. An experimental setup is designed that uses the Los Angeles Highway System as a test-bed. Traffic data is collected on this network over a two-week period. This data is used as the foundation to perform a series of simulations using differing levels of information. Each of these information levels is compared to a baseline to yield a % time savings. Next...

Real options "in" projects and systems design : identification of options and solutions for path dependency

Wang, Tao, 1973-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 337 p.; 14812215 bytes; 14855847 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
106.06%
This research develops a comprehensive approach to identify and deal with real options in" projects, that is, those real options (flexibility) that are integral parts of the technical design. It represents a first attempt to specify analytically the design parameters that provide good opportunities for flexibility for any specific engineering system. It proposes a two-stage integrated process: options identification followed by options analysis. Options identification includes a screening and a simulation model. Options analysis develops a stochastic mixed-integer programming model to value options. This approach decreases the complexity and size of the models at each stage and thus permits efficient computation even though traditionally fixed design parameters are allowed to vary stochastically. The options identification stage discovers the design elements most likely to provide worthwhile flexibility. As there are often too many possible options for systems designers to consider, they need a way to identify the most valuable options for further consideration, that is, a screening model. This is a simplified, conceptual, low-fidelity model for the system that conceptualizes its most important issues. As it can be easily run many times...

Multiobjective collaborative optimization of systems of systems; Multi objective collaborative optimization of systems of systems

Wolf, Robert A. (Robert Allen)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 166 p.; 9303014 bytes; 9309978 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
106.07%
Concept studies for warship designs typically focus on ship performance characteristics by setting design goals for such things as speed, range, and cost. However, warships generally operate as part of a larger battle or strike group. Therefore, the designs should be evaluated as part of a system of multiple ship systems since designing each ship individually may result in underutilized and excess equipment and capability; in other words an inefficient design of the system of systems. This thesis examines the simultaneous design of several ships using the sea base concept as an example application of a network of ships working together. The number and characteristics of these ships determine the mission performance of the sea base. To properly design any of the sea base ships, the interrelationships must be included. A mission simulation is used to combine the performance characteristics of different ship designs into a single performance objective: the time to deliver a brigade size combat force to its assigned objectives.; (cont.) To enable the design of multiple ships, collaborative optimization, a multilevel optimization approach, was used to decompose the problem into individual ship design optimizations with system level interfaces controlled by a system of systems optimization algorithm. This allowed each ship to use techniques and algorithms best suited to reach an optimal design without impacting the design approaches used by the other ships. The classical collaborative optimization approach was relaxed to include multiple objectives such as performance and cost...

System development technical interactions and innovation : a network-based investigation

Makumbe, Pedzisayi O
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 79 leaves; 4951142 bytes; 4954376 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.09%
The development of complex engineering systems such as aircraft engines involves many cross functional teams that are usually geographically distributed. These teams interact in several ways but one of the most important set of interactions during the product development phase is the flow of technical information which is largely used for coordination and problem solving. For analytical purposes, these technical information flows can be represented as a directed network. This thesis develops a context and a research design that can help one investigate the impact of the resultant network structure on innovation in complex engineering systems. The broad context can be divided into two: theoretical and real world contexts. The theoretical context is developed by reviewing literature at the intersection of networks and innovation, and the real world context is typified by a modular enterprise developing a complex engineering system. Within this broad context, the research area of interest is framed by a set of hypotheses that lead to precise innovation measures and characterizations. The research design is motivated by the context and intended theoretical contributions. It consists of two major sections.; (cont.) The first section discusses and critiques methodologies for constructing networks and proposes a methodology more suited to this engineering systems development context. The second section describes a two-stage model whose variables include network structural properties such as structural holes...

Scale-free information systems networks

Ang, Wee Horng
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 79 leaves; 4012743 bytes; 4015983 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
106.01%
Many real, complex networks have been shown to be scale-free. Scale-free in networks mean that their degree distribution is independent of the network size, have short path lengths and are highly clustered. We identify the qualities of scale-free networks, and discuss the mathematical derivations and numerically simulated outcomes of various deterministic scale-free models. Information Systems networks are a set of individual Information Systems that exchange meaningful data among themselves. However, for various reasons, they do not naturally grow in a scale-free manner. In this topic, we will specifically examine a technique proposed by MITRE that allows information to be exchanged in an efficient manner between Information System nodes. With this technique, we will show that a scale-free Information System Network is sound in theory and practice, state the characteristics of such networks and demonstrate how such a system can be constructed.; by Wee Hong Ang.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Engineering Systems Division, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 77-79).

Public-private partnerships : security and emergency response collaboration in a new threat environment

Disraelly, Deena S. (Deena Sara), 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 225 leaves; 14752547 bytes; 14752352 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.05%
September 11th, 2001 marks the worst terrorist action to occur on United States soil and opens a new period in history in which indiscriminate terrorist acts are possible, if not probable. Many of these possible acts, as well as the actions to prevent and recover, will have an impact on the supply chain and services in ways that we cannot yet understand. Previous research has focused on theft prevention and the disruptions such thefts might cause, and very little research on the supply chain impacts of September 11th exist. What is clear, however, is that as government agencies include the creation of public-private partnerships as well as the introduction of new technology, increasing inventory, and building system resilience, among others. Limited examples of public-private partnerships for security exist, however, there are several examples of partnerships for emergency response. Since both emergency response partnerships and security collaboratives share the same objective - to protect and secure the personnel, facilities, and supply chain - this thesis investigates emergency response, early detection, and propose new policies and regulations and the threat of international terrorism continues, corporate America needs to find a method for securing their operations. These methods may post-September 11th security examples to determine the key factors in establishing successful public-private partnerships. The learnings indicate collaborative partnerships and emergency response cooperatives are the most commonly used for promoting security and that motivation...

Creating high performance enterprises

Stanke, Alexis K. (Alexis Kristen), 1977-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 216 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.03%
How do enterprises successfully conceive, design, deliver, and operate large-scale, engineered systems? These large-scale projects often involve high complexity, significant technical challenges, a large number of diverse stakeholders, distributed execution, and aggressive goals. In this context, simultaneously meeting technical performance, cost, and schedule goals effectively and efficiently is a serious challenge. In fact, it is rarely accomplished. The nature of an enterprise contributes to this challenge. Enterprises are interorganizational networks with distributed leadership and stakeholders with both common and diverse interests. They are unique from traditional levels of analysis in organizational studies, and in general their behavior is not well understood. They are a prevalent form of organizing work in these large engineering projects, where one organization simply does not have the capability or willingness to take on the entire project by themselves. This work explores the factors that distinguish high performance enterprises from those that are less successful in these large-scale projects. The setting for this research is programs in the aerospace industry.; (cont.) A comparative case study method was used to study nineteen programs spanning the U.S. (mainly defense) aerospace industry in order to develop grounded theory regarding contemporary program execution strategies and distinguishing attributes. Drawing on prior research with high performance teams...

Future value chains in the computer hardware industry

Roy, Shaunak, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 97 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.05%
Companies in the computer hardware industry can benefit by incorporating future business scenarios in their present decision-making processes. Any decision regarding strategic supply chain design is one such area where long-range planning can especially help. This is primarily because investments in new supply chains have a long return period, which also influence the chances of future success of a company. However, developing such long-range views of the whole industry is a challenging task, because of inherent uncertainties of the future and rapid changes in the computer industry itself. This paper takes a step towards achieving this goal by introducing several frameworks for the development of future scenarios and their analysis.; by Shaunak Roy.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Engineering Systems Division, Technology and Policy Program; and, (M. Eng. in Logistics)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Engineering Systems Division, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 96-97).

A systems-theoretic security model for large scale, complex systems applied to the US air transportation system; systems-theoretic security model for large scale, complex systems applied to the US air transportation system

Laracy, Joseph R. (Joseph Raymond)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 132 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
106.06%
Classical risk-based or game-theoretic security models rely on assumptions from reliability theory and rational expectations economics that are not applicable to security threats. Additionally, these models suffer from serious deficiencies when they are applied to software-intensive, socio-technical systems. Recent work by Leveson in the area of system safety engineering has led to the development of a new accident model for system safety that acknowledges the dynamic complexity of accidents. Systems-Theoretic Accident Models and Processes (STAMP) applies principles from control theory to enforce constraints on hazards and thereby prevent accidents. Appreciating the similarities between safety and security while still acknowledging the differences, this thesis extends STAMP to security problems. In particular, it is applied to identify and mitigate the threats that could emerge in critical infrastructures such as the Air Transportation System. Furthermore, recommendations are provided to assist systems engineers and policy makers in securely transitioning to the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS).; by Joseph R. Laracy.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Engineering Systems Division, 2007.; This electronic version was submitted by the student author. The certified thesis is available in the Institute Archives and Special Collections.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 129-132).

Enabling systems thinking to accelerate the development of senior systems engineers

Davidz, Heidi L
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 440 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
106.11%
As engineering systems become more complex, the roles involved in developing and managing such systems also become more complex. Thus, there is increasing interest in educating and training engineering professionals to think more systemically. In particular, there is an increasing need to accelerate the development of senior systems engineers. As new educational degree programs in systems rapidly emerge and as companies scurry to establish systems training programs to meet this need, fundamental questions still remain about how systems thinking develops in engineers. Increased understanding of the mechanisms that develop systems thinking will enable effective and efficient development of senior systems professionals. After reviewing related literature, an exploratory and inductive study was designed to gather data on enablers, barriers, and precursors to systems thinking development in engineers. In a field study conducted primarily in the United States aerospace sector, 205 interviews were conducted in 10 host companies. Senior systems engineers were studied to better understand how they developed systems thinking, and information was collected on company procedures for developing systems engineers. Using interview and survey data...

Prospects for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the United States : a general equilibrium analysis; Prospects for PHEVs in the United States : a general equilibrium analysis

Karplus, Valerie Jean
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 80 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.04%
The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) could significantly contribute to reductions in carbon dioxide emissions from personal vehicle transportation in the United States over the next century, depending on the cost-competitiveness of the vehicle, the relative cost of refined fuels and electricity, and the existence of an economy-wide carbon emissions constraint. Using a computable general equilibrium model, I evaluated the potential for the PHEV to enter the U.S. personal vehicle market before 2100 and alter electricity output, refined oil consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and the economic welfare losses associated with the imposition of a strict climate policy. The PHEV is defined by its ability to run on battery-stored electricity supplied from the grid as well as on refined fuel in an internal combustion engine. Sectors that produce PHEV transportation as well as other electric-drive vehicle technologies were added to the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) Model as a perfect substitute for internal combustion engine (ICE)-only vehicles. Engineering cost estimates for the PHEV, as well as information about the pre-existing fleet, were used to specify PHEV sector input shares and substitution elasticities in the model. Based on the model results...

Knowledge integration for problem solving in the development of complex aerospace systems

Haddad, Marc George
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 279 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
106.04%
The development of complex products requires widespread knowledge interactions among a significant number of individuals and teams designing numerous interrelated components. Increasing product complexity typically leads to a corresponding increase in the types and sources of knowledge that need to be tapped during development, and a common strategy for managing product complexity is to outsource parts and components to external suppliers. As a result, the knowledge required for development is increasingly specialized and distributed across multiple boundaries spanning large-scale organizational networks, thus requiring the subsequent integration of this knowledge in order to accomplish the development task. A framework for knowledge integration in the development of complex systems in a large-scale organizational context is proposed in this thesis using an extensive review of the pertinent literature. The framework consists of the main channels, strategies, practices and mechanisms most commonly used to transfer, share and apply knowledge in the course of complex technical problem solving. The framework is progressively refined using empirical data collected through several rounds of interviews and a questionnaire instrument administered across three major aircraft programs in the defense aerospace industry. We find that knowledge integration in routine problem solving situations is most efficiently and effectively accomplished through extensive transfer and sharing of codified information using formal mechanisms such as information systems...

Group decision making in a prototype engineering system : the Federal Open Market Committee; Exploration of group decision making in engineering systems : data, models, and lateral alignment

Lawson, Christopher M. (Christopher Michael)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 156 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
116.03%
All ES evolve as the result of stakeholder decisions and decision processes that affect their design and operation. These decision making problems often involve many stakeholders, each of whom have a say in the outcome. This has been termed a lateral alignment problem, as opposed to a unitary decision making problem. Lateral alignment focuses on group decision making where stakeholders are nominally organizationally independent, interact to maximize their own goals and simultaneously a common goal, and who are able to influence decision outcomes to varying degrees through power and influence. Previous work in the relevant literatures has focused on two variants used to assess and model group decision making. Type 0 Group Decision problems involve anonymous voting, where stakeholders do not interact. Type 1 Group Decision problems involve non-cooperative interaction where stakeholders try to maximize their self-interest through negotiation. We define the lateral alignment problem as a Type 2 Group Decision problem, which involve elements of both non-cooperative and cooperative behavior. Type 2 Group Decisions have not been fully treated in the existing literatures. In this thesis, we evaluate a prototype Type 2 Group Decisions: the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) from 1970-1994 as a test case. One major advantage of studying the FOMC is the availability of data and relevant analytical published work. Our original empirical findings include: 1. Information ambiguity is the major factor that impacts coalition dynamics...

Qualitative knowledge construction for engineering systems : extending the design structure matrix methodology in scope and procedure

Bartolomei, Jason E
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 191 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
116.1%
This thesis presents a new modeling framework and research methodology for the study of engineering systems. The thesis begins with a formal conceptualization of Engineering Systems based upon a synthesis of various literatures. Using this conceptualization, a new modeling framework is presented called the Engineering Systems Matrix (ESM). The ESM is an improvement to existing system-level modeling frameworks, such as the Design Structure Matrix (DSM), by providing a dynamic, end-to-end representation of an engineering system. In support of this contribution, a new research methodology is presented called Qualitative Knowledge Construction (QKC). QKC can be thought of as a Bayesian-type approach to grounded theory. The methodology integrates qualitative social science with quantitative methods by developing a procedure for translating textual reports of observations, interview transcripts, system documentation, and figures into coded data represented in the ESM. The thesis develops the ESM framework and the QKC methodology in the context of a real world engineering system, a US Air Force miniature uninhabited air vehicle (MAV) product development system.; by Jason E. Bartolomei.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

Performance collaborative, distributed systems engineering (CDSE) : lessons learned from CDSE enterprises; Performance CDSE : lessons learned from CDSE enterprises

Utter, Darlene Ann
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 291 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
106.08%
The United States aerospace and defense budgets are shrinking, resources are scarce and requirements are more demanding: aerospace and defense enterprises are expected to deliver a more capable product in less time and with fewer resources. To achieve this tough mission, the enterprises that comprise the United States aerospace and defense industries must form strategic partnerships and collaborations to utilize their respective resources, knowledge, and expertise to meet their customers' needs. Collaboration, be it between competing companies or within different divisions of the same company, is necessary for the survival of each company and the defense industry. In the past. United States aerospace and defense company relationships consisted mostly of a prime contractor. with sub-contractors providing a specific hardware or software subsystem. as specified by the prime contractor. Today, aerospace and defense company relationships are moving more toward that of "partners" where the previous supplier or sub-contractor for hardware or software subsystems is now sharing in the overall system design and engineering efforts.; (cont.) Since the partner companies and intra-company divisions are still geographically distributed throughout the United States...

A meta-language for systems architecting

Koo, Hsuehyung Benjamin, 1967-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 168 leaves; 5113686 bytes; 5116548 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
106.04%
(cont.) To demonstrate its practical value in large-scale engineering systems, the research applied OPN to two space exploration programs and one aircraft design problem. In our experiments, OPN was able to significantly change the modeling and architectural reasoning process by automating a number of manual model construction, manipulation, and simulation tasks.; The aim of this research is to design an executable meta-language that supports system architects' modeling process by automating certain model construction, manipulation and simulation tasks. This language specifically addresses the needs in systematically communicating architects' intent with a wide range of stakeholders and to organize knowledge from various domains. Our investigation into existing architecting approaches and technologies has pointed out the need to develop a simple and intuitive, yet formal language, that expresses multiple layers of abstractions, provides reflexive knowledge about the models, mechanizes data exchange and manipulation, while allowing integration with legacy infrastructures. A small set of linguistic primitives, stateful objects and processes that transform them were identified as both required and sufficient building blocks of the meta-language...

The micro-foundations of alignment among sponsors and contractors on large engineering projects

McKenna, Nicholas A. (Nicholas Alan)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 273 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
106.07%
Large engineering projects design, engineer and construct much of the world's energy, transportation and defense infrastructure. These large scale engineering endeavors are highly visible, have long lasting impacts and are of major economic significance. Yet despite their importance they frequently suffer from cost overruns and long delays and deliver systems with operational shortcomings. A contributing factor to the challenge of large projects is that the project enterprise is created by separate firms being brought together by the project sponsor, typically via formal contracts. Success requires multiple firms with hundreds (possibly thousands) of engineers working together to efficiently create complex product systems within an environment of high uncertainty. In an attempt to improve project outcomes, sponsors often endeavor to create "alignment" between themselves and their key contractors. In practice, alignment has proved difficult to create and to sustain. This research explores the policies and actions taken by firms that give rise to alignment. The large engineering projects studied for this research were offshore oil and gas field developments. grounded theory method, supplemented by formal dynamic model building, was used to investigate the causal mechanisms that support...

Air quality and Intelligent Transportation Systems : understanding Integrated Innovation, Deployment and Adaptation of Public Technologies; Air quality and ITS : understanding IIDAPT

Dodder, Rebecca Susanne
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 510 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
106.01%
During the past two decades, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have provided transportation organizations with increasingly advanced tools both to operate and manage systems in real-time. At the same time, federal legislation has been tightening the linkages between state and local transportation investments and metropolitan air quality goals. In this context, ITS seems to represent a case of the potential synergies - or so-called "win-win" outcomes - that could be realized for the dual policy goals of air quality and mobility. If the various public sector organizations responsible for air quality and transportation could cooperate in deploying, assessing and further adapting these new technologies to take advantage of these synergies, they could achieve a "sustainable use" of ITS. However, looking beyond ITS and air quality, these issues point to broader questions of how to appropriately manage technology and its impacts on society, specifically those technologies deployed by the public sector. In particular, how does the public sector innovate and deploy technologies in ways that maximize the benefits, and minimize or avoid the negative impacts? In order to examine this phenomenon, this thesis takes the example of ITS and air quality to develop and test a broader framework of Integrated Innovation...

Corporate decision analysis : an engineering approach

Tang, Victor, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 331 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
106.11%
We explore corporate decisions and their solutions under uncertainty using engineering methods. Corporate decisions tend to be complex; they are interdisciplinary and defy programmable solutions. To address these challenges, we take an engineering approach. Our proposition is that as in an engineering system, corporate problems and their potential solutions deal with the behavior of systems. Since systems can be studied with experiments, we use Design of Experiments (DOE) to understand the behavior of systems within which decisions are made and to estimate the consequences of candidate decisions as scenarios. The experiments are a systematically constructed class of gedanken experiments comparable to "what if' studies, but organized to span the entire space of controllable and uncontrollable options. In any experiment, the quality of data is important. Grounded on the work of scholars, we develop a debiasing process for eliciting data. And consistent with our engineering approach, we consider the composite consisting of the organization, their knowledge, data bases, formal and informal procedures as a measurement system. We then use Gage theory from Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA) to analyze the quality of the measuring composite.; (cont.) To test this engineering approach to decision analysis...

Platforms and real options in large-scale engineering systems

Kalligeros, Konstantinos C., 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 151 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
116.09%
This thesis introduces a framework and two methodologies that enable engineering management teams to assess the value of real options in programs of large-scale, partially standardized systems implemented a few times over the medium term. This enables value creation through the balanced and complementary use of two seemingly competing design paradigms, i.e., standardization and design for flexibility. The flexibility of a platform program is modeled as the developer's ability to choose the optimal extent of standardization between multiple projects at the time later projects are designed, depending on how uncertainty unfolds. Along the lines of previous work, this thesis uses a two-step methodology for valuing this flexibility: screening of efficient standardization strategies for future developments in a program of projects; and valuing the flexibility to develop one of these alternatives. The criterion for screening alternative future standardization strategies is the maximization of measurable standardization effects that do not depend on future uncertainties.; (Cont.) A novel methodology and algorithm, called "Invariant Design Rules" (IDR), is developed for the exploration of alternative standardization opportunities, i.e., collections of components that can be standardized among systems with different functional requirements. A novel valuation process is introduced to value the developer's real options to choose among these strategies later. The methodology is designed to overcome some presumed contributors to the limited appeal of real options theory in engineering. Firstly...