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Usinas hidrelétricas 'botox': aspectos regulatórios e financeiros nos leilões de energia; Hydroelectric power plants named "Botox": regulatory and financial issues in electric energy auctions

Rego, Erik Eduardo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/11/2007 PT
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Este trabalho tem o objetivo de relatar e analisar a história dos projetos hidrelétricos conhecidos por "botox" (expressão cunhada aos projetos mais velhos com roupagem de novos), desde sua origem, ainda na primeira reforma do setor elétrico brasileiro em 1998, até seu desfecho, no leilão de energia nova de 2007, já no âmbito da segunda reforma do setor elétrico iniciada em 2004. Para sua total compreensão, é feita a historiografia do setor elétrico desde o Código de Águas, vis-à-vis da política econômica mundial e de seus reflexos na economia nacional. A dissertação prossegue com a descrição das alterações regulatórias, principalmente no que se refere ao critério de licitação de concessões de aproveitamentos hidrelétricos, caracterizando e identificando como se formou essa categoria de empreendimentos "botox". Após a conceituação teórica de leilões, são analisadas as participações desse tipo de projeto nos cinco leilões de energia nova, ocorridos entre 2005 e 2007. Além de uma abordagem sob o ponto de vista do produtor independente de energia elétrica, também é feita análise de que forma a alteração da regulamentação para outorga de concessões de geração e para comercialização de energia modificou a perspectiva de evolução do valor da energia elétrica para os autoprodutores. Por fim...

Energia incentivada: uma análise integrada dos aspectos regulatórios, de comercialização e de sustentabilidade.; Energy with incentive: an analysis of integrated regulatory aspects, commercialization and sustainability.

Tatemoto, Kátia Audi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2013 PT
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O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma análise dos aspectos regulatórios e de comercialização sob a visão da sustentabilidade, com foco na questão de como a participação crescente das fontes consideradas incentivadas na matriz elétrica brasileira pode proporcionar benefícios energéticos e de redução nas emissões de gases de efeito estufa, contemplando possíveis aperfeiçoamentos regulatórios que possam vir a ser definidos pelas instituições do setor elétrico que detém essa competência. Destaca-se a seqüência de fatos que contribuíram para a ampliação da oferta das fontes alternativas (FA's), sublinhando: (i) a criação do Programa de Incentivo às FA's (PROINFA); (ii) o regramento para a comercialização de Energia Incentivada; (iii) o Mecanismo de Realocação de Energia (MRE); (iv) facilidades para compra de Geração Distribuída pelas distribuidoras, mitigar o risco de variação de mercado; (v) Leilões de Fontes Alternativas e (vii) Leilões de Energia de Reserva (LER). Nesse âmbito de análise, inclui-se uma aferição de risco de comercialização da Energia Incentivada e de como esse risco pode ser mitigado através de hedge contratual entre fontes incentivadas. Para avaliar e qualificar a sinergia entre energia eólica e da biomassa...

O desempenho da energia eólica frente ao seu ambiente regulatório

Martins, Ana Paula Salis
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
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Este trabalho busca analisar, a regulação do mercado de energia eólica no Brasil. Para tanto serão utilizadas como referencial a Teoria do Interesse Público, a Teoria da Captura, a Teoria Econômica da Regulação e a Teoria dos Custos de Transação. Será analisada a situação regulatória deste setor em diversos países, paralelamente com o desempenho da energia eólica nos mesmos. Logo após, este cenário será estudado no Brasil, em meio à reestruturação do ambiente regulatório ocorrida no País e frente ao aumento da participação da energia eólica na matriz energética brasileira. Neste trabalho foi possível verificar a necessidade de se estudar a regulação do mercado de energia eólica a partir da regulação energética, visto que não foram encontradas diretrizes específicas para tal setor, tanto no Brasil como nos demais países estudados. Além disso, foi possível perceber que o Brasil está acompanhando a tendência mundial de aumentar a participação da energia eólica em sua matriz energética, visando o crescimento da utilização de energias renováveis, e está buscando um ambiente regulatório que promova a eficiência de mercado.; This present paper analysis the regulation of the wind energy market in Brazil. For that will be used as a reference the Theory of Public Interest...

Changes in Components of Energy Regulation in Mouse Cortex with Increases in Wakefulness

Nikonova, Elena V.; Naidoo, Nirinjini; Zhang, Lin; Romer, Micah; Cater, Jacqueline R.; Scharf, Matthew T.; Galante, Raymond J.; Pack, Allan I.
Fonte: Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC Publicador: Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/07/2010 EN
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Energy Regulation in Young People

Dodd, Caroline J.
Fonte: Asist Group Publicador: Asist Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/09/2007 EN
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Obesity in young people is now realised as a worldwide crisis of epidemic proportion. The aetiology of this disease suggests a disruption in regulation of energy at the population level, leading to a positive energy balance and excess adiposity. The relative contribution of food intake and physical inactivity remains to be elucidated. Treatment interventions have aimed to create a deficit in energy balance through manipulation of physical activity, behavioural components or, to a lesser extent, dietary modification. Whether such intervention is maintained in the long-term is as yet unclear, however it seems a combination of therapies is optimal. Mindful of a mismatch between energy intake and expenditure, recent work has begun to examine the acute relationship between physical activity and food intake in children. Initial findings suggest a short-term delay in compensation through energy intake for exercise- induced energy expenditure. The overarching study of energy regulation in children and adolescents is clearly multifaceted in nature and variables to be assessed or manipulated require careful consideration. The collection of paediatric physical activity, energy expenditure and food intake data is a time-consuming process, fraught with potential sources of error. Investigators should consider the validity and reliability of these and other issues...

Institutional analysis of energy provision in housing : a preliminary exploration

Reamer, Andrew; Nutt-Powell, Thomas Evan; Heim, Steven
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 2848835 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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This paper, one of a series resulting from institutional analysis of photovoltaic (PV) acceptance, provides preliminary exploration of the energy industry in relation to energy provision in the residential sector. It is based on theoretical formulations and utilizes methods of institutional analysis developed in an earlier paper in this series. Seven institutional functions -- production, financing, regulation, political, research, service and socialization -- are reviewed as to the manner in which they are performed in the energy industry. The structure of the energy industry is described, as is the regulatory web within which its financial decisions are made and its operations conducted. The persistent and increasing activity of all levels of government in determining the practices of the energy industry is dis- cussed. The research section identifies recent efforts to develop alternative energy sources. The services section especially emphasizes the delivery of energy to residences, while the discussion of the social- ization function highlights the ways in which attitudes on energy availability and use are developed.; Prepared under Dept. of Energy Contract no. EX-76-A-01-2295, Task order no.37.

The role of content regulation on pricing and market power in regional retail and wholesale gasoline markets

Muehlegger, Erich J.
Fonte: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Publicador: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 28, [2] p
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Since 1999, regional retail and wholesale gasoline markets in the United States have experienced significant price volatility, both intertemporally and across geographic markets. This paper focuses on one potential explanation for regional variations in price levels and volatility, gasoline content regulation. Implemented regionally to address local mobile-source emissions, gasoline content regulations increase cost to refiners, transporters and distributors of gasoline, in addition to reducing the fungibility of gasoline across different regions. This paper first provides a summary of the regional gasoline content regulations and a primer on the refining industry. In addition, this paper specifies the costs regional content regulation imposes on refiners, transporters and distributors of gasoline and the role increasing heterogeneity of gasoline may play in regional price volatility. Finally, this paper surveys the previous literature looking at the effect of gasoline content regulation on prices and price volatility and suggests directions for future research.; Supported by the MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research.

Are cap-and-trade programs more environmentally effective than conventional regulation?

Ellerman, A. Denny
Fonte: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Publicador: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: [18] p
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This paper considers the evidence and possible reasons that cap-and-trade programs are more effective in meeting environmental objectives than conventional prescriptive regulation. The evidence is based mostly, but not entirely, on the SO2 provisions of the Acid Rain Program and it consists of quicker implementation, accelerated emission reductions, absence of exemptions, and the lack of "hot spots." The paper also notes the trend, evident in the Northeastern NOx Budget Program and the RECLAIM programs, for cap-and-trade regulation to supplant conventional prescriptive regulation even when regulators have ample legal authority to impose the latter. This trend and the better environmental performance of these programs are attributed to the advantages that cap-and-trade programs offer to both pragmatic regulators and regulated entities.

Regulation of natural monopolies

Joskow, Paul L.
Fonte: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Publicador: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: iii, 186, [15], xv p
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This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the theoretical and empirical literature on the regulation of natural monopolies. It covers alternative definitions of natural monopoly, regulatory goals, alternative regulatory institutions, price regulation with full information, regulation with imperfect and asymmetric information, and topics on the measurement of the effects of price and entry regulation in practice. The chapter also discusses the literature on network access and pricing to support the introduction of competition into previously regulated monopoly industries.

The costs of environmental regulation in a concentrated industry

Ryan, Stephen
Fonte: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Publicador: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 58 p
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The typical cost analysis of an environmental regulation consists of an engineering estimate of the compliance costs. In industries where fixed costs are an important determinant of market structure this static analysis ignores the dynamic effects of the regulation on entry, investment, and market power. I evaluate the welfare costs of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act on the US Portland cement industry, accounting for these effects through a dynamic model of oligopoly in the tradition of Ericson and Pakes (1995). Using a recently developed two-step estimator, I recover the entire cost structure of the industry, including the distribution of sunk entry costs and adjustment costs of investment. I find that the Amendments have significantly increased the sunk cost of entry. I solve for the Markov perfect Nash equilibrium (MPNE) of the model and simulate the welfare effects of the Amendments. A static analysis misses the welfare penalty on consumers, and obtains the wrong sign on the welfare effects on incumbent firms.

Incentive regulation in theory and practice : electricity distribution and transmission networks

Joskow, Paul L.
Fonte: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Publicador: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 94 p
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Modern theoretical principles to govern the design of incentive regulation mechanisms are reviewed and discussed. General issues associated with applying these principles in practice are identified. Examples of the actual application of incentive regulation mechanisms to the regulation of prices and service quality for "unbundled" transmission and distribution networks are presented and discussed. Evidence regarding the performance of incentive regulation in practice for electric distribution and transmission networks is reviewed. Issues for future research are identified.

Evaluation of appetite regulation in lean and obese individuals.

Brennan, Ixchel Maya
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2009
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The research presented within this thesis has focussed on the complex and interrelated postprandial gastrointestinal mechanisms involved in the regulation of appetite and energy intake. The three broad areas that have been investigated include: (i) the effect of gastrointestinal hormones on gastric motility, gastrointestinal hormone release/suppression, appetite and energy intake in healthy lean subjects, (ii) the effect of oral macronutrients on appetite and energy intake in both lean and obese subjects and (iii) the effects of acute energy restriction on gastrointestinal motility, gastrointestinal hormone release, appetite and energy intake in obese subjects. Following meal ingestion, the presence of nutrients in the small intestine stimulate small intestinal receptors that trigger a number of gastrointestinal mechanisms within ~ 15 minutes; these include the modulation of gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility and the release, or suppression, of gastrointestinal hormones i.e. cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide-YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin. Hence, it is conceivable that interactions occur between one or more of these stimuli. The study in Chapter 5 assessed possible interactions between intravenous CCK (1.8 pmol/kg/min) and GLP-1 (0.9 pmol/kg/min) that may modulate ghrelin and PYY release. At the doses evaluated...

Oral and small intestinal sensitivity to fats in lean and obese humans : implications for energy intake regulation in obesity.

Seimon, Radhika
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012
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The research presented in this thesis focuses on the complex and interrelated oral and gastrointestinal mechanisms involved in the regulation of appetite and energy intake in lean and obese individuals. The three broad areas of research that have been investigated in the thesis include: i) the gastrointestinal motor and hormonal functions involved in the regulation of energy intake in healthy individuals; ii) the effects of oral and intraduodenal nutrients on gastrointestinal motility and hormone release, appetite and energy intake in obese compared with lean individuals; and iii) the effects of acute and prolonged energy restriction on gastrointestinal function, appetite and energy intake. Following ingestion of a meal, the interaction of nutrients with receptors in the small intestinal lumen modulates gastro-pyloroduodenal motility, stimulates the release of gastrointestinal hormones, and suppresses appetite and energy intake. It appears that modulation of gastrointestinal functions, that is, gastrointestinal motility and hormone release/suppression, mediate the regulation of appetite and acute energy intake in humans, at least in part. Changes in motility and hormone secretion occur concurrently with changes in appetite; however...

The AMP activated protein kinase in the regulation of sodium coupled transporters (SGLT1, EAAT3 & EAAT4) and eryptosis; Die AMP aktiviert protein Kinase in der Regulation von natriumgekoppelten trensportern (SGLT1, EAAT3 & 4) und eryptosis

Sopjani, Mentor
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
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AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy-sensing enzyme, counteracts energy depletion by stimulation of energy production and limitation of energy utilization. On energy depletion, erythrocytes undergo suicidal death or eryptosis, triggered by an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i) and characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure at the erythrocyte surface. The present study explored whether AMPK participates in the regulation of eryptosis. Western blotting and confocal microscopy disclosed AMPK expression in erythrocytes. [Ca2+]i (Fluo3 fluorescence), cell volume (forward scatter), and PS exposure (annexin V binding) were determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. Glucose removal increased [Ca2+]i, decreased cell volume, and increased PS exposure. The AMPK-inhibitor compound C (20 myM) did not significantly modify eryptosis under glucose-replete conditions but significantly augmented the eryptotic effect of glucose withdrawal. An increase in [Ca2+]i by Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin triggered eryptosis, an effect blunted by the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR; 1 mM). As compared with erythrocytes from wild-type littermates (ampk+/+)...

European energy policy : could it be better ?

Florence School of Regulation
Fonte: EUI Publicador: EUI
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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This e-booklet gathers some research carried out by FSR Energy since 2010, looking at various topics: from smart grids to Schengen-like energy agreements, and from incentive regulation to European Gas Target Model. Thanks to its interactive format you can easily access our working papers, research reports, journal articles, interviews and webinars on different topics. With an introduction by Lord Mogg (President of the Council of European Energy Regulators), Fulvio Conti (CEO of ENEL) and Daniel Dobbeni (President of ENTSO-E & Chairman of the Board of Eurogrid International).; -- Foreword by Jean-Michel Glachant; -- Introduction by Lord Mogg What does energy research bring to regulators?; -- Introduction by Fulvio Conti Energy research from an independent research institute: What does the industry gain?; -- Introduction by Daniel Dobbeni What is a smart regulation research for regulated companies?; -- Chapter I: Regulation of Infrastructure; -- Smart Regulation for Smart Grids; -- EU Electricity Interconnector Policy: Shedding Some Light on the European Com­mission’s Approach to Exemptions; -- Implementing Incentive Regulation through an Alignment with Resource Bounded Regulators; -- Financing Investment in the European Electricity Transmission Network: Conse­quences on Long-Term Sustainability of the TSOs Financial Structure; -- Chapter II: Market Design A Gas Target Model for the EU: Florence School Proposes MECOS; -- A Gas Target Model for the European Union: Contrasting MECOS and EURAM Proposal; -- LdP Academic Roundtable Redesigning Gas and Electricity Markets to Work Together; -- Chapter III: EU Energy Policy Toward a Smart EU Energy Policy: Rationale and 22 Recommendations; -- Legal Feasibility of Schengen-like Agreements in European Energy Policy: The Cases of Nuclear Cooperation and Gas Security of Supply; -- A New EU Gas Security of Supply Architecture?; -- FSR Energy Encyclopedia

The Competition Law-ization of Enforcement: The Way Forward for Making the Energy Market Work?

SALERNO, Francesco Maria
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
EN
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45.86%
The paper develops the concept of competition law-ization of EU regulation and applies it to current and forthcoming rules of EU energy regulation. "Competition law-ization" concerns the institutional structure of EU regulation. It consists of three aspects, namely (i) direct access to regulatees, i.e. the ability to speak directly to undertakings without the intermediation of Member States' structures, or with as little intermediation as possible; (ii) networked enforcement, i.e., the creation of an orderly European apparatus that enforces EU law under the direction of the Commission; and (iii) private enforcement, i.e. the ability of private undertakings and individuals to enforce their rights, thus effectively patrolling the market. These aspects have been imported from competition law into EU telecommunication regulation and the result has been successful. The paper argues that competition law-ization could remedy some of the shortcomings of liberalization in the European energy sector. The recent proposals to reform EU energy regulation are assessed in the light of competition law-ization. Overall, the proposals can be seen as going in the direction of competition law-ization, but unbundling is criticized as a one-off structural measure that is incapable of giving rise to a permanent structure of rights that can be conducive to more effective regulation.

The effects of regulation on the performance of nuclear power in the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany

Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Energy Policy Research, Energy Laboratory Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Energy Policy Research, Energy Laboratory
Formato: ix, 101 p.; 4796048 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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by Seth David Hulkower.; Thesis (M.S.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Technology and Policy Program, 1986.; Series from publisher's list.; Includes bibliographical references.; Supported by the US Department of Energy, the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Kraftwerk Union AG, and the Center for Energy Policy Research at MIT.

Dark Energy Regulation with Approximate Emergent Conformal Symmetry

Yoon, Yongsung
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A cosmic potential which can relax the vacuum energy is proposed in a framework of scalar-tensor gravity. In the phase of the gravity scalar field around the evolution with an approximate emergent conformal symmetry, we have obtained a set of cosmological equations with the dark energy regulated to the order of a conformal anomaly parameter. Through a role of the cosmic potential, the vacuum energy which could be generated in matter Lagrangian does not contribute to the dark energy in the phase.; Comment: revised version

Electric Utility Decoupling in North Carolina: Removing Disincentives for Energy Efficiency

Watson, Elizabeth
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 09/12/2010 EN
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35.88%
North Carolina’s demand for electricity will grow at approximately 1.1% annually through 2035. That could mean an additional yearly demand of 39 million megawatt hours (MWh) by 2035, enough to power 2.9 million North Carolina households. If residents paid the current rate for that additional electricity, it would increase yearly electric utility bills by $3.9 billion. This cost will almost certainly increase due to the need to build new generation plants in order to meet increased demand. However, North Carolina has the potential to meet or exceed its future increase in demand through energy efficiency. Moreover, energy efficiency is less expensive per kilowatt-hour (kWh) than any other form of new generation. However, current regulation of electric utilities in the state makes it unlikely that any utility would choose to implement energy efficiency over increased generation. Under traditional regulation, electric utilities earn revenue based on the amount of electricity they sell, in kWh. Increased sales lead to more profits and decreased sales lead to reduced profits and more risk for the utility. Since energy efficiency would decrease the amount of electricity sold, compared to projections, it financially penalizes the utility by damaging its core business- selling electricity. Traditional regulation creates a link between sales volume and revenue...

The inter-relationships between regulation and competition enforcement in the South African liquid fuels industry

Nair,Reena Das; Mondliwa,Pamela; Roberts,Simon
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2015 EN
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The competition authorities have devoted considerable time and energy to investigating anticompetitive conduct in the broad area of liquid fuel, gas and related products, where regulation sets rules for firm conduct. Competition cases have included the Sasol-Engen merger, collusive arrangements in gas distribution and the pricing of bitumen for road construction projects, and alleged coordination through information exchange in diesel. Drawing on a review of these matters we assess the inter-relationships between regulation and competition enforcement. We argue that regulation can be designed to enable greater competitive rivalry, while anti-competitive conduct can also be better remedied through recognition of the role of regulation.