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The effects of consumer characteristics and type of employment model on individual outcomes in supported employment.

Kregel, J; Wehman, P; Banks, P D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1989 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
Although recent federal legislation has led to a proliferation of supported employment programs throughout the country, little information is available that documents the success of these programs. In the present study, we examined the effect of different consumer characteristics and alternative supported employment service delivery models on key employment outcomes including hourly wage, hours worked per week, increase in earnings after supported employment participation, and level of integration on the job. The employment outcomes of a sample of 1,550 individuals receiving supported employment services through 96 local programs in eight states were analyzed to determine the effects of the key independent variables of primary disability and type of employment model. Results indicate that all groups of individuals, regardless of their primary disability, benefited significantly from supported employment participation. Further, data indicate that the individual placement model generated employment outcomes superior to those resulting from group employment options, particularly work crews. Implications of the results for future program development activities are discussed.

Lessons for the aggregate labor market from employment and turnover patterns across workers

Mustre-del-Río, José (1983 - ); Bils, Mark
Fonte: University of Rochester Publicador: University of Rochester
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Number of Pages:xii, 107 leaves; Illustrations:ill. (some col.)
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Rochester. Dept. of Economics, 2011.; Economists often analyze economies populated by identical agents due to their tractability. However, this practice leads to discrepancies between individual and aggregate level observations. Most prominently, these models overlook large differences in behavior and outcomes across workers. This dissertation fills this gap by examining the implications of individual employment and turnover patterns for the aggregate labor market. The first chapter of this dissertation analyzes turnover differences across workers over the business cycle and their implications for overall job duration. Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of The Youth (NLSY) 1979-2006 suggests that average (overall) job duration is pro-cyclical, once controlling for worker composition. At the exit margin, jobs ending in recessions are of systematically shorter duration than jobs ending in booms. This result however is driven by high turnover workers who disproportionately account for exits in a recession. At the entry margin, jobs starting in recessions are expected to be of shorter duration. This result is not compositional. Recessions tend to increase the likelihood of any new job ending even when accounting for worker heterogeneity. The second chapter of this dissertation explores the implications of individual labor supply heterogeneity for the aggregate labor supply elasticity. It presents a heterogeneous agent economy with indivisible labor where agents differ in their disutility of labor and market skills. The model is estimated via indirect inference using observations on average employment and wage rates across individuals in the NLSY. The elasticity of aggregate employment in the model is 0.71...

The Social Enterprise as an Alternative Work Option for Persons with Developmental Disabilities: A Case Study of Staff Perspectives at Common Ground Co-operative

Bishop, Courtney
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
Traditional employment options for persons with developmental disabilities are lacking. Employment options available for persons with developmental disabilities are reflective of the medical and social model perspectives of disability; with segregated and supported employment reinforcing the idea that persons with developmental disabilities are incapable and competitive employment missing the necessary accommodations for persons to be successful. This study examined social enterprises as an alternative employment option that can balance both medical and social model perspectives by accommodating for weaknesses or limitations and recognizing the strengths and capabilities of persons with developmental disabilities in the workplace. Moreover, this study is part of a broader case study which is examining the nature and impacts of a social enterprise, known as Common Ground Co-operative (CGC), which supports five social purpose businesses that are owned and operated by persons with developmental disabilities. This study is part of the Social Business and Marginalized Social Groups Community-University Research Alliance. To date, a case study has been written describing the nature and impacts of CGC and its related businesses from the perspectives of the Partners...

Informal Self-Employment and Macroeconomic Fluctuations

Fiess, Norbert M.; Fugazza, Marco; Maloney, William F.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
Informal self-employment is a major source of employment in developing countries. Its cyclical behavior is important to our understanding of the functioning of LDC labor markets, but turns out to be surprisingly complex. We develop a flexible model with two sectors: a formal salaried (tradable) sector that may be affected by wage rigidities, and an informal (non tradable) self-employment sector faced with liquidity constraints to entry. This labor market is then embedded in a standard small economy macro model. We show that different types of shocks interact with different institutional contexts to produce distinct patterns of comovement between key variables of the model: relative salaried/self-employed incomes, relative salaried/self-employed sector sizes and the real exchange rate. Model predictions are then tested empirically for Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico. We confirm episodes where the expansion of informal self-employment is consistent with the traditional segmentation views of informality. However, we also identify episodes where informal self-employment behaves "pro-cyclically"; here, informality is driven by relative demand or productivity shocks to the non tradable sector.

Employment and Shared Growth : Rethinking the Role of Labor Mobility for Development

Paci, Pierella; Serneels, Pieter
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
This edited volume brings together the papers presented at the conference, "Rethinking the Role of Jobs for Shared Growth," held in Washington, DC, in June 2006. The common theme is that of mobility in the labor market. As growth is related to sectoral shifts in economic activity, the mobility of labor plays a crucial role in ensuring sustainable growth whose benefits are shared amongst all individuals. The papers in this volume focus on selected priority issues at the frontier of research in the microeconomics of labor markets in developing countries, multi-segmented labor markets, the role of informal employment and self-employment, the effect of worker mobility on income, and the impact of firm dynamics on growth and employment. These are important parts of the puzzle and contribute to a better understanding of the role of employment in the economic development of low-income countries.

Does Employment Generation Really Matter for Poverty Reduction?

Gutierrez, Catalina; Orecchia, Carlo; Paci, Pierella; Serneels, Pieter
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
This paper analyzes how the employment/productivity profile of growth and its sectoral pattern are correlated with poverty reduction. The authors use a sample of 104 short-run growth spells in developing countries, between 1980 and 2001. They also identify some conditions of the labor market and the economic environment that are associated with employment-intensive growth or specific sectoral growth. The results show that, in the short run, although the aggregate employment-rate intensity of growth does not matter for poverty reduction any more than the aggregate productivity intensity of growth, the sectoral pattern of employment growth and productivity growth is important. Employment-intensive growth in the secondary sector is associated with decreases in poverty, while employment-intensive growth in agriculture is correlated with poverty increases. Similarly, productivity-intensive growth in agriculture is associated with decreases in poverty. Although the study does not address causality, coincidence of these phenomena in this large sample of heterogeneous countries and periods suggests that...

Modeling Pay and Employment

Nunberg, Barbara; Green, Amanda; Reid, Gary
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
Bank support for civil service reform (CSR) in developing countries used to focus mainly on improving government pay, and employment practices. In recent years, CSR programs have sought a broader set of management improvements. But getting public pay and employment right is still fundamental: establishing appropriate civil service employment dimensions, and providing rewarding-but affordable-remuneration for public servants remains a formidable challenge for many countries. Pay policies need to be fiscally responsible, but also attractive enough to draw the best talent into the public sector. In addition, such policies must be politically feasible; governments need to support difficult reforms that can survive implementation without being undermined or derailed. The Civil Service Pay and Employment Model (CSPEM) was created to help governments develop realistic civil service pay and employment strategies, and to enhance policy discussions within government, and between government and donors on these important reforms. This note describes early lessons of experience with civil service pay and employment modeling tools.

Gabonese Republic Report on Growth and Employment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
In 2009 the Gabonese authorities defined a new vision whose strategic guidelines are detailed in an operational plan, the strategic plan for an emerging Gabon (PSGE) whose goal is to turn Gabon into an emerging country within one generation. PSGE includes an ambitious public investment program to develop basic infrastructure and to create the necessary economic environment for the emergence of a diversified economy. The major challenge for PSGE, and how it can be different from previous development plans, will be to become a growth model that is both sustainable and inclusive, leading to a significant improvement in the revenue and living conditions of all Gabonese people. This report is a contribution to the debate on how to achieve this goal. It was developed as part of the implementation of a new World Bank intervention strategy in Gabon wherein competitiveness and employment is the first pillar. It identifies the main obstacles to the low impact of economic growth on employment in Gabon and makes recommendations that will foster dialogue between the World Bank and the Gabonese authorities on the subject. The report is divided into three parts: (i) an analysis of Gabons economic performance since the independence and its effect on employment...

The applicability of the seci model to multi-organisational endeavours: An integrative review

Rice, J.; Rice, B.
Fonte: Dept of Human Resouce Management and Employment Relations & Uni of Sthn Queensland Publicador: Dept of Human Resouce Management and Employment Relations & Uni of Sthn Queensland
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.75%
This paper outlines an investigation of the literature on organisational learning within inter-organisational project-based alliances, with a focus on the systemic processes of knowledge sharing, externalisation and internalisation inherent in the SECI model as proposed by Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995). The SECI model proposes a process by which organisations spiral their knowledge within and outside their organisations, with the aim of refining and adding value to the stock of knowledge that exists in the organisation. The novel contribution of this paper is the application of the SECI model to multiorganisational projects. It has often been noted that while there is a rich literature on project management and, to a lesser extent, project-based firms, literature on how project-based knowledge is collected and re-utilised by participant firms is less common (Gann & Salter 1998, Prencipe & Tell 2001). This paper looks to address this paucity of research by applying the intuitively attractive SECI model to knowledge accumulation and learning processes in multi-organisational projects.; John L. Rice & Bridget S. Rice

Good Governance via the OMC? The cases of Employment and Social Inclusion; Quale Governance attraverso il MAC? I casi dell’occupazione e dell’inclusione sociale

DE LA PORTE, Caroline
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 10752 bytes; application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
This article focuses on how the EU, via the Open Method of Coordination (OMC), governs the employment and social inclusion policies of the EU Member States. It derives three operational governance principles – Participation, Coherence and Effectiveness - from the EU White Paper on Governance and the definition of the OMC itself. Participation is conceptualised as two broad categories of actors involved in the OMCs: first, a core policy community that is a closed group of insiders which prepares work in a delegated policy area, and second, a broader policy network, that is more open and that has a stake in the policy area concerned, without having any central decision-making power. Empirically, the analysis reveals that an institutionally similar policy community has been developed in employment and social inclusion within the main national-level ministries, respectively the Labour and Social Ministries. These are responsible for upstream reporting to the European level, horizontal integration across relevant ministries, and downstream integration of other levels of government, which is increasingly important in the context of devolution of employment and inclusion policies. However, the broader policy network of organised interest organisations is dissimilar in the two areas: the social partners are more superficially involved in the EES than the civil society actors in the OMCincl....

Self-employment and labour market transitions: a multiple state model

Martínez-Granado, Maite
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/1998 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In this paper we estimate a multiple state transition model for the UK describing transitions in and out three possible labour market states: self-employment, paid employment and unemployment. This enables us to assess the effect of demographic characteristics as well as time changing economics conditions on the probabilities of exiting and entering each different state. A reduced form model is estimated allowing for unobservable individual heterogeneity. The results are consistent with the hypothesis of a deterioration of the labour market conditions generating an increase in the self-employment rates in adverse economic conditions. However unemployment duration generates a loss on human capital that reduce the probabilities of switching to self-employment. It appears also that -family background and education play and important role in determining the transition probabilities. Medium level educated individuals are the most likely to become self-employed.

The Challenge of Youth Employment in Sri Lanka

Gunatilaka, Ramani; Mayer, Markus; Vodopivec, Milan
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Sri Lanka has been regarded as a model of a country with successful social policies, yet for decades it has faced major challenges in providing employment and satisfying other aspirations of youth. Although the labor force has become more educated, and this trend is particularly marked for youth, the main source of employment for both youth and adults remains the informal sector. Moreover, the importance of the informal sector as a source of employment has increased since the mid-1990s. On the positive side, unemployment declined in last decades, particularly for youth. The Sri Lankan government has continually acted on various fronts to address the youth unemployment problem. It has tried to improve and modernize Sri Lanka's general education system, which has long been criticized as too academic, and to increase the accessibility of training so as to promote the employability youth leaving school. Other actions included strengthening entrepreneurship programs and introducing career guidance and counseling and improving labor market information to help young people in their job searches and to guide human resource planning. In 2007...

Simulating Poverty in Europe : The Potential Contributions of Employment and Education to Reducing Poverty and Social Exclusion by 2020

Ajwad, Mohamed Ihsan; Simler, Kenneth; Azam, Mehtabul; Dasgupta, Basab; Bonch-Osmolovskiy, Misha; Topinska, Irena
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
This paper sheds light on the impact of improving employment and education conditions on poverty and social exclusion indicators. More specifically, it answers the following question: Will achieving the Europe 2020 national targets on employment and education lead countries to achieve the Europe 2020 poverty and social exclusion target with no other policy interventions? The paper presents a simple partial equilibrium model that is flexible enough to be implemented in a number of different settings and uses widely available household survey data. The simulation model analyzes poverty and social exclusion outcomes in response to changes in education completion rates and employment rates. The model is applied to ten of the European Union's new Member States -- Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia -- and the model's performance is evaluated through a validation exercise. The Europe 2020 national employment targets are ambitious in many of the new Member States...

Social Economy and Developmental Disabilities: An Employment Option that Promotes a Form of Authentic Work and Fosters Social Inclusion

Readhead, Anne E.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
Typical employment options for people with developmental disabilities are insufficient. Most employment opportunities that are community-based provide typical workplace and geographical inclusion but tend not to support social inclusion and "belonging". This study explored the innovative employment alternative of social businesses and considered this form of employment for persons with a developmental disability as a viable avenue for meaningful work and social inclusion. A total of six business partners with a developmental disability were interviewed; two partners from three separate worker owned businesses. The partners' descriptions of their job and their workplace composed the interpretative findings. The social businesses provided an avenue for this group of people who tend to be segregated in isolated workshops or marginalized in mainstream work environments and who feel a sense of being "outsiders" to participate in meaningful work in community settings. This group of partners described their job as authentic "work" and discussed the many skills and the work ethic learned from their employment opportunity. In addition to the instrumental aspects of the job, the partners also discussed the group autonomy and self-determination of being their own "bosses". The partners confidently expressed feeling valued...

Sistemas de emprego público no século XXI: que significado? Uma sistematização; Public Employment systems in XXI century: what means? An systematization

Nunes, Pedro; Castro, Conceição
Fonte: Universidad de Chile. Instituto de Asuntos Públicos Publicador: Universidad de Chile. Instituto de Asuntos Públicos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
O presente artigo intenta sistematizar as formas ou regimes do emprego público em países da União Europeia e da OCDE. A metodologia compreende a análise dos tradicionais sistemas de carreira (career-based system) e sistema de emprego (position-based system) no emprego público. Desenvolvem-se, ainda, breves reflexões nas mudanças operadas naqueles dois regimes que migraram para um terceiro modelo, vulgarmente designado por modelo híbrido de emprego público, mais flexível e mais correlativo às circunstâncias do século XXI.; This article intends to systematize the forms or systems of public employment in EU countries and the OECD. The methodology includes the analysis of traditional career systems (career-based system) and the employment system (position-based system) on public employment. We Develop, yet, concise reflections on the changes occurred in those two schemes that have migrated to a third model, commonly called a hybrid model of public employment. This model reveals more flexible and correlative to the circumstances of the twenty-first century.

Incidencia del PIB agrícola en el nivel de empleo agrario. Un análisis comparativo para países seleccionados de Latinoamérica; Incidence of agricultural GDP in the level of agricultural employment. A comparative analysis for selected Latin American countries

Buitrago Torres, Catalina; Marrugo Lazada, Manuel; Ramírez Vigoya, Alejandro; Yanes Guerra, Carlos
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Economía Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Economía
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
SPA
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46.03%
Este documento presenta un análisis sobre la incidencia del PIB agrícola en el nivel de empleo agrario para una muestra de 10 países de Latinoamérica en el periodo de 1990-2010, para ello, en este articulo se elaboró un modelo de empleo-producto propuesto por Harvey (1986) con la metodología de datos panel; adicionalmente se hizo una recopilación literaria para cada país sobre las políticas económicas agrarias, la coyuntura económica del sector y el comportamiento de la principales variables del mismo, con el fin de contextualizar los resultados del modelo econométrico en donde se determinó una incidencia negativa del PIB agrícola en el nivel de empleo agrario y un mismo comportamiento para todos los países.; This paper presents an analysis on the impact of agricultural GDP in agricultural employment level for a sample of 10 Latin American countries in the period 1990-2010, for this, in this article an employment model proposed by Harvey-product was developed (1986) with the methodology of panel data; further a literary collection for each country on agricultural economic policies, the economic situation of the sector and the behavior of the main variables of the same was made, in order to contextualize the results of the econometric model where a negative impact of agricultural GDP in the level of agricultural employment and the same behavior for all countries was determined.

Mercato del lavoro e immigrazione in Spagna : disuguaglianze di genere e di etnia

Torns, Teresa; Moreno, Sara,; Borràs Català, Vicent; Carrasquer, Pilar,
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 ITA
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.95%
This article presents an analysis of the career paths of immigrant men and women in order to study the Spanish employment model. It takes into account the influence of changes in the sexual division of labour along the career paths. The main objective is to show the features of work and personal life of the immigrant population in the construction and care sectors. The results describe the impact that structural factors such as gender and ethnicity have on the career paths. The crossroads between gender and ethnicity creates a so-called “status inconsistency” defining in large part the career paths of immigrants. Work trajectories are characterized by a continuum transition between formal and informal sectors, becoming the social model of immigrant employment

Transformaciones del empleo, flexibilidad y relaciones laborales en Europa

Miguélez, Fausto; Prieto, Carlos
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
Entre 1950 y 1980, el modelo predominante en los países europeos centrales era el de pleno empleo estable, asalariado, a tiempo completo y con garantías sociales. Entre 1980 y 1995 se produce en la Unión Europea el fin de la hegemonía de ese modelo de empleo para dar paso a otro de características y rasgos netamente distintos. Es un fenómeno que tiene que ver, ante todo, con un cambio paulatino, pero profundo, en la configuración de las relaciones sociales y políticas en los países de la propia Unión Europea. Se empiezan a dibujar otros modelos que mantienen tasas altas de paro, grados importantes de inseguridad y un deterioro progresivo de las garantías sociales mínimas. Esta tendencia se presenta con grandes diferencias entre los países de la Unión. Esas diferencias tienen que ver con un doble orden de factores: en primer lugar con la fortaleza o debilidad del sistema de relaciones laborales de cada país; y en segundo lugar con la incorporación al empleo de nuevos sujetos laborales distintos del varón adulto nacional, en particular jóvenes, mujeres e inmigrantes, grupos en general muy alejados de la influencia sindical y que, por sus peculiares características, han podido contribuir a que formas flexibilizadas de empleo se acaben consolidando como habituales.; Between 1950 and 1980...

Career paths in Spain : gendered division of labour and informal employment

Torns, Teresa; Carrasquer, Pilar,; Moreno, Sara,; Borràs Català, Vicent
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 FRA
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.03%
L’article présente une analyse comparative des trajectoires professionnelles masculines et féminines visant à étudier le rôle que joue la division sexuelle du travail dans le modèle de l’emploi espagnol. Les résultats montrent la persistance de la division sexuelle du travail et sa contribution à l’élaboration des trajectoires professionnelles, où le secteur informel apparaît comme l’un de ses traits distinctifs. Une réalité qui, bien que présente partout en Europe, diffère selon le contexte socioculturel et productif de chaque pays. Dans le cas espagnol, celle-ci devient réalité en temps de crise et met en évidence l’existence d’un continuum entre l’emploi formel et le travail informel, que nous avons observé à travers les trajectoires analysées. Nos résultats illustrent les différences entre les hommes et les femmes et confirment que la division sexuelle du travail persiste. This article presents a comparative analysis of the career paths of men and women in order to study the gendered division of labour in the Spanish employment model. A qualitative approach was used to study these paths, taking into account the impact of structural factors and socio-cultural traditions. The results show that the gendered division of labour persists and helps to consolidate informal employment as a distinctive feature of career paths. Though this situation is found throughout Europe...

The challenge of low employment economic growth in South Africa: 1994 - 2008

Mahadea,Darma; Simson,Richard
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Publicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
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Although the economy has registered positive economic growth over the past 15 years since the demise of apartheid, the formal sector in South Africa has been unable to provide adequate employment for labour. Against a background of the recent almost global recessionary climate, this lack of employment is a serious problem. While government has responded with many initiatives to deal with employment creation, unemployment rates in South Africa remain high. In this paper the problem of low employment economic growth performance is initially examined for the period 1994 -2008 by drawing on the Harrod-Domar model and then over a longer time period by using regression analysis. The paper uses a parsimonious regression model to highlight the probable links between changes in economic growth and changes in employment. The growth elasticity of employment over the 1994-2008 period is low and over a longer time horizon the marginal growth employment effect is weak.