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An Attempt to Measure the Trends in Shadow Employment in Poland : The Transition Probabilities out and into Shadow Employment Using the LFS Data Augmented by the Results of a Dedicated Survey Performed by CASE in 2007

Walewski, Mateusz
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.81%
This paper presents the results of an attempt to use the combined results of the dedicated survey performed by CASE in 2007 and Polish LFS data in order to: (a) analyze the development of the shadow employment in Poland in years 2003-2008 and, (b) analyze the transition probabilities in and out of shadow employment. The estimated share of shadow workers in total employment in Poland in years 2003-2008 was increasing until 2006 and then started to decrease in the years 2007 and 2008. Other results are in line with one of the main conclusions of the CASE study from 2007 suggesting that shadow employment is more a way of coping with lack of other employment opportunities than an equivalent or even superior alternative to any legal employment contracts. On the other hand those who enter shadow employment are more active part of the group having problems with finding full time/open term employment. They are much more inclined to cope with their situation by entering some form of self-employment than to stay passive and depend on social assistance.

Poverty Decline, Agricultural Wages, and Non-Farm Employment in Rural India 1983–2004

Lanjouw, Peter; Murgai, Rinku
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.83%
The authors analyze five rounds of National Sample Survey data covering 1983, 1987/8, 1993/4, 1999/0, and 2004/5 to explore the relationship between rural diversification and poverty. Poverty in rural India declined at a modest rate during this period. The authors provide region-level estimates that illustrate considerable geographic heterogeneity in this progress. Poverty estimates correlate well with region-level data on changes in agricultural wage rates. Agricultural labor remains the preserve of the uneducated and also to a large extent of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Although agricultural labor grew as a share of total economic activity over the first four rounds, it had fallen back to the levels observed at the beginning of the survey period by 2004. This all-India trajectory masks widely varying trends across states. During this period, the rural non-farm sector grew modestly, mainly between the last two survey rounds. Regular non-farm employment remains largely associated with education levels and social status that are rare among the poor. However...

Does Employment Generation Really Matter for Poverty Reduction?

Gutierrez, Catalina; Orecchia, Carlo; Paci, Pierella; Serneels, Pieter
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.82%
This paper analyzes how the employment/productivity profile of growth and its sectoral pattern are correlated with poverty reduction. The authors use a sample of 104 short-run growth spells in developing countries, between 1980 and 2001. They also identify some conditions of the labor market and the economic environment that are associated with employment-intensive growth or specific sectoral growth. The results show that, in the short run, although the aggregate employment-rate intensity of growth does not matter for poverty reduction any more than the aggregate productivity intensity of growth, the sectoral pattern of employment growth and productivity growth is important. Employment-intensive growth in the secondary sector is associated with decreases in poverty, while employment-intensive growth in agriculture is correlated with poverty increases. Similarly, productivity-intensive growth in agriculture is associated with decreases in poverty. Although the study does not address causality, coincidence of these phenomena in this large sample of heterogeneous countries and periods suggests that...

Soft Skills or Hard Cash? The Impact of Training and Wage Subsidy Programs on Female Youth Employment in Jordan

Groh, Matthew; Krishnan, Nandini; McKenzie, David; Vishwanath, Tara
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.81%
Throughout the Middle East, unemployment rates of educated youth have been persistently high and female labor force participation, low. This paper studies the impact of a randomized experiment in Jordan designed to assist female community college graduates find employment. One randomly chosen group of graduates was given a voucher that would pay an employer a subsidy equivalent to the minimum wage for up to 6 months if they hired the graduate; a second group was invited to attend 45 hours of employability skills training designed to provide them with the soft skills employers say graduates often lack; a third group was offered both interventions; and the fourth group forms the control group. The analysis finds that the job voucher led to a 40 percentage point increase in employment in the short-run, but that most of this employment is not formal, and that the average effect is much smaller and no longer statistically significant 4 months after the voucher period has ended. The voucher does appear to have persistent impacts outside the capital...

Entrepreneurship Training and Self-Employment among University Graduates : Evidence from a Randomized Trial In Tunisia

Premand, Patrick; Brodmann, Stefanie; Almeida, Rita; Grun, Rebekka; Barouni, Mahdi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.81%
In economies characterized by low labor demand and high rates of youth unemployment, entrepreneurship training has the potential to enable youth to gain skills and create their own jobs. This paper presents experimental evidence on a new entrepreneurship track that provides business training and personalized coaching to university students in Tunisia. Undergraduates in the final year of licence appliquee were given the opportunity to graduate with a business plan instead of following the standard curriculum. This paper relies on randomized assignment of the entrepreneurship track to identify impacts on labor market outcomes one year after graduation. The analysis finds that the entrepreneurship track was effective in increasing self-employment among applicants, but that the effects are small in absolute terms. In addition, the employment rate among participants remains unchanged, pointing to a partial substitution from wage employment to self-employment. The evidence shows that the program fostered business skills...

Public Employment Services and Publicly Provided ALMPs in Egypt

Semlali, Amina; Angel-Urdinola, Diego F.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.83%
This note presents a brief overview of Public Employment Services (PES) in Egypt and describes the institutional framework for public delivery of Active Labor Market Programs (ALMPs) in Egypt. Egypt has the fourth largest economy in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region and has implemented economic reforms since 2004 which have led to some economic growth (e.g. a fast growing technology sector and the country has been recognized as one of the top offshoring destinations for international companies).

Climate Change Policies and Employment in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Oral, Isil; Santos, Indhira; Zhang, Fan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.83%
This paper analyzes the differential impact of climate change policies on employment in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. In particular, the paper examines (i) how vulnerable labor markets are in Eastern European and Central Asian countries to future carbon regulation, and (ii) what countries can do to mitigate some of the potential negative effects of these regulatory changes on employment. In many aspects, the nature of the shock associated with climate regulation is similar to that associated with an increase in energy prices. Constraints on carbon emissions put a price on climate-damaging activities and make hydrocarbon-based energy production and consumption more expensive. As a result, firms in energy-intensive industries may react to higher energy prices by reducing production, which in turn would lead to lower employment. In the presence of frictions in labor markets, these sector shifts will cause resources to be unemployed, at least in the short term. Using principal component analysis, the paper finds that Eastern European and Central Asian countries vary greatly in their vulnerability and adaptability of employment to carbon regulation. Since the economy takes time to adjust...

Africa Development Indicators 2008-09 : Youth and Employment in Africa--The Potential, the Problem, the Promise

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.81%
The first part of the report presents stylized facts of youth and labor markets in Africa. The second part discusses past youth employment interventions in the region. It argues for the need of an integrated approach should governments want to tackle youth employment issues in a sustainable manner. Indeed, in African countries, with large informal sectors and dominance of rural population, solely reforming labor market institutions and implementing active labor market policies are likely to have limited impact. It argues that the most needed and well-rounded approaches are: expanding job and education alternatives in the rural areas, where most youth live; promoting and encouraging mobility; creating a conducive business environment; encouraging the private sector; improving the access and quality of skills formation; taking care of demographic issues that more directly affects the youth; and reducing child labor.

Building Effective Employment Programs for Unemployed Youth in the Middle East and North Africa

Angel-Urdinola, Diego F.; Kuddo, Arvo; Semlali, Amina
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.84%
This study surveys active labor market programs (ALMPs) in selected countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, identifies key challenges to their effective and efficient delivery, and proposes a policy framework for reforming public service provision. This study draws on data collected through surveys administered to public social, employment, and education agencies in selected MENA countries to identify key constraints and options for reforming publicly provided employment programs. Recent political transitions arising from the Arab Spring have contributed to the deterioration of labor market outcomes in the MENA region. In this context, ALMPs could become an important policy lever to address some of the challenges facing labor markets. These include: joblessness, skills mismatches, lack of labor market mobility, large and expanding informal sector, and lack of formal employment networks. The study also provides specific details on the beneficiaries, targeting, and expenditures of ALMPs during this same period.

Issues in Estimating the Employment Generated by Energy Sector Activities

Bacon, Robert; Kojima, Masami
Fonte: World Bank, Washingotn, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washingotn, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.82%
Many recent studies and reports on the performance of the energy sector have focused on the employment generated by investment. Governments, planning their energy futures, are also interested in the job creation benefits and possible identification of skill shortages that may emerge from a large energy program. Employment created or supported by the energy sector is frequently an issue whenever government support is being considered or provided. The purpose of this issues paper is to provide a guide to using such figures or constructing such estimates, and focuses in particular on illustrating different approaches and methodologies used in the last decade in estimating employment created. The study does not aim to provide definitive estimates of the employment generation potential of different technologies. The paper begins with a brief review of the various reasons why studies have focused on the employment generated by energy sector activities. It then reviews the different categories of employment that are commonly measured and discusses the bottom-up and top-down methodologies widely used for estimating these employment levels. The second half of the paper reviews in some detail certain studies that provide useful insights into methodology...

Youth Employment : A Human Development Agenda for the Next Decade

Robalino, David; Margolis, David; Rother, Friederike; Newhouse, David; Lundberg, Mattias
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.84%
This paper reviews the main challenges facing countries in attempting to improve labor market outcomes among youth, focusing on the issues that became starkly visible during the recent financial crisis. In order to better identify and set up human development interventions, the paper proposes an agenda that focuses on three areas: (1) improving the understanding of the causes and consequences of poor labor market outcomes for youth; (2) continuing to learn from the evaluation of pilots and programs that aim to promote productive employment among young people; and (3) addressing implementation issues which frequently overwhelm the best designs. The paper utilizes research on youth employment to take stock of youth labor market outcomes across regions, focusing on inactivity, unemployment, and employment indicators. A review of what is known about current interventions, including those that appear in the youth employment Inventory database of programs, provides the basis for determining the efficacy of five categories of intervention: (i) skills training (including vocational training...

Youth Employment Programs : An Evaluation of World Bank and International Finance Corporation Support

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.84%
Youth employment issues are a major concern for many countries because they have negative effects on the welfare of young people, and may also adversely affect economic performance and social stability. This is the first Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) evaluation of the World Bank Group's support to countries trying to address youth employment issues. The World Bank lending portfolio for youth employment is relatively small, although components of programs appear in 57 countries. Most projects include interventions in skills development and school-to-work transition. Half of the projects include interventions to foster job creation and work opportunities for youth. International Finance Corporation (IFC) has a broad approach to job creation. Between FY01 and FY11 youth employment has not been specifically targeted, except in the Middle East and North Africa region and in a small number of other interventions. IFC invested $500 million to 50 investment operations and 18 advisory services to education. Although youth employment is addressed in the education...

Infrastructure and Employment Creation in the Middle East and North Africa

Estache, Antonio; Ianchovichina, Elena; Bacon, Robert; Salamon, Ilhem
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.82%
The state of national labor markets has always been a concern for governments and development agencies such as the World Bank. Key labor market indicators, such as the rate of unemployment, send signals about the health of an economy and mirror citizens' attitudes. Being gainfully employed is an important aspect of an individual's well-being both financially and socially, as 'initial failures in finding a job can lead to persistent joblessness, a loss of interest in further schooling, delayed family formation, mental distress, and negative manifestations of citizenship' (World Bank 2007). Increased expenditure on infrastructure projects has a short-run effect on employment creation as more workers are hired to build infrastructure. These jobs last only during the investment phase of the project, and, without a continuous injection as in a stimulus-type program, such jobs will be temporary. However, the investment program will have created a larger stock of infrastructure capital and this permanent addition facilitates additional growth in the economy. The extra demand from this incremental growth creates more jobs...

Armenia : Promoting Productive Employment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.83%
This paper examines labor market outcomes in Armenia and their impact on poverty. The outcomes are of considerable concern: relatively few persons of working age are employed, and many of those who are employed have low-productivity jobs. The problem is not only high unemployment, but also low labor force participation. The main factor behind the low employment/population ratio is weak labor demand and the scarcity of productive job opportunities. This paper begins in section one by discussing the main labor market challenges in Armenia, before focusing on unemployment in section two. Section three analyzes the nature of employment and jobs, while section four examines wage determination and structure. Section five then evaluates the relationship between individuals' and households' labor market status and poverty. Finally, section six concludes with policy implications of the analysis. In order to reach the 60 percent employment rate Armenia would need to create an additional 166,000 jobs. This will lead to a 14 percent increase in employment...

Europe 2020 Romania : Evidence-based Policies for Productivity, Employment, and Skills Enhancement

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.82%
Employment and skills are at the core of Europe 2020, the European Union's (EU) competitiveness strategy, and are decisive for high productivity and sustained growth. Romania has overcome significant challenges on its path to EU membership and in the early years thereafter. However, the Romanian economy has recently come under pressure as a result of the economic crisis and because important reforms in employment and education have not yet been completed. The Europe 2020 Romania report discusses the key challenges currently faced by Romania in the area of productive employment, and proposes a set of steps the Romanian government could consider in order to reach the Europe 2020 targets. Skills remain a major challenge. In particular, there is insufficient provision of the higher level generic and technical skills needed for a modern and competitive economy, including skills for technological innovation and absorption of new technologies. While Romania performs comparatively well in terms of higher education participation rates...

Czech Republic : Improving Employment Chances of the Roma

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.84%
Roma in marginalized localities in the Czech Republic have not benefited from the recent improving employment opportunities in the Czech labor market. Employment among Roma is low and labor market participation limited, often driven by lacking labor market opportunities. The labor market status among the Roma is strongly driven by educational attainment and skills, and the vast majority of Roma in marginalized communities suffer from low attainment and lacking functional literacy and numeracy skills. As a result a majority rely on traditionally generous social welfare benefits to make ends meet. In an effort to reduce this welfare trap the Czech Government has introduced measures to reduce benefits and tighten conditions for long-term unemployed who are inactive. However, with very low demand for low or unskilled labor and widespread indebtedness of Roma which acts as a binding barrier to choosing formal employment, this tightening of beneficiaries' incentives alone will not suffice in enhancing their employment chances. It requires effective interventions by the employment services; yet in its current set-up the Czech labor office appears not well placed to provide effective support to long-term unemployed and disadvantaged job-seekers such as Roma. A new approach to improving job chances for socially excluded youth and adults is necessary...

Public Employment Services, and Activation Policies

Kuddo, Arvo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.84%
One of the responses to new challenges in the labor market has been the development and expansion of employment services and active labor market policies based on activation principles. The objective of this study is to document and review international experiences, predominantly from selected emerging market economies and developing countries, with the design and implementation of activation programs, provided by Public Employment Services, through the prism of incentives and sanctions. Employment promotion legislation from the reviewed countries is a major source of information. Participation of beneficiaries in relevant services and programs is also analyzed. The study finds that the countries use a variety of instruments, be it specific employment services, active labor market programs, or benefit and other sanctions, to 'activate' jobseekers with an aim to encourage them to become more active in their efforts to find work and/or improve their employability. In practice, the activation policies vary considerably across countries.

The Private Sector and Youth Skills and Employment Programs in Low and Middle-Income Countries

Glick, Peter J.; Huang, Crystal; Mejia, Nelly
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.83%
Getting youth into productive employment is an urgent policy issue for countries around the world. Many governments in low and middle-income countries are actively engaged in policies to help youth attain the skills they need to do well in work and in life, as well as to find suitable employment. The involvement of the private sector in youth skills development and employment is a complex issue because the nature of the firms and their motivations vary significantly. Multinational corporations operating in low and middle-income countries may be motivated by direct productivity or profit objectives - to secure a skilled workforce, or reliable suppliers - but also, or even primarily, by corporate social responsibility (CSR) factors. Firms that supply training or employment services will be driven by profit considerations when entering these markets and deciding what services to offer and to whom. The purpose of this paper is threefold: (1) to provide a comprehensive look at the way the private sector is involved in youth skills and employment in low- and middle-income countries...

Toward Solutions for Youth Employment; A 2015 Baseline Report--Overview

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.82%
Solutions for Youth Employment (S4YE) were launched in October 2014 as a multi-stakeholder coalition to positively disrupt the youth employment landscape. S4YE is a partnership initiated by the World Bank, Plan International, the International Youth Foundation (IYF), and Youth Business International (YBI), RAND, Accenture, and the International Labor Organization (ILO) with a view to contributing to a world where all youth have access to work opportunities. The mission of S4YE is to provide leadership and catalytic action and mobilize efforts to significantly increase the number of young people engaged in productive work by 2030. It seeks to develop innovative solutions through practical research and active engagement with public, private and civil stakeholders, to enable solutions for all youth at scale. This inaugural report explores how S4YE can find and advance solutions to the challenges of getting all youth into productive work.

Balancing Regulations to Promote Jobs; From Employment Contracts to Unemployment Benefits

Kuddo, Arvo; Robalino, David; Weber, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.84%
This report reviews international experiences and presents options for the design of four types of labor regulations: employment contracts, minimum wages, dismissal procedures, as well as severance pay and unemployment benefits. In each case, it discusses the market failures that these regulations aim to address and suggests options to better protect workers while preserving incentives to create good jobs.