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Brazilian version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy: psychometric properties and factor analysis

Paro, Helena B; Daud-Gallotti, Renata M; Tibério, Iolanda C; Pinto, Rogério M; Martins, Milton de A
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.31%
Abstract Background Empathy is a central characteristic of medical professionalism and has recently gained attention in medical education research. The Jefferson Scale of Empathy is the most commonly used measure of empathy worldwide, and to date it has been translated in 39 languages. This study aimed to adapt the Jefferson Scale of Empathy to the Brazilian culture and to test its reliability and validity among Brazilian medical students. Methods The Portuguese version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy was adapted to Brazil using back-translation techniques. This version was pretested among 39 fifth-year medical students in September 2010. During the final fifth- and sixth-year Objective Structured Clinical Examination (October 2011), 319 students were invited to respond to the scale anonymously. Cronbach’s alpha, exploratory factor analysis, item-total correlation, and gender comparisons were performed to check the reliability and validity of the scale. Results The student response rate was 93.7% (299 students). Cronbach’s coefficient for the scale was 0.84. A principal component analysis confirmed the construct validity of the scale for three main factors: Compassionate Care (first factor)...

Análise do desenvolvimento da empatia aos dois anos de idade - contexto de criação e presença de depressão pós-parto; Analysis of the development of empathy at two years of age: Context creation and presence of Postpartum Depression

Rios, Gabriela Sintra
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/04/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.5%
Introdução: A empatia consiste em compartilhar uma emoção percebida de outra pessoa, e, em certa medida, sentir a mesma emoção que a outra pessoa está sentindo (Eisenberg e Strayer; 1992). Aos dois anos, as crianças têm a capacidade de atribuir significado emocional às expressões dos outros, além de responder a estas expressões de modo adequado; verifica-se neste contexto de compartilhamentos emocionais precoces o aparecimento de comportamentos de consolo e de ajuda, ainda que de maneira incipiente (Harris, 1996; Strayer, 1993). O presente estudo faz parte do Projeto Temático (FAPESP) Depressão Pós-Parto (DPP) como fator de risco no desenvolvimento: Estudo interdisciplinar dos fatores envolvidos na gênese do quadro e em suas consequências, que acompanha díades mãe-bebê da gestação ao terceiro ano da criança. Dentro deste projeto, este estudo objetivou avaliar relações entre variáveis do contexto socioafetivo da criança sobre o desenvolvimento da empatia na criança, aos dois anos de idade. Recebeu atenção especial a presença ou não de indicadores de DPP, bem como de outros fatores contextuais associados ao sexo da criança, apoio social, ao fato de a criança ter outros cuidadores, frequentar a creche...

Avaliação da empatia de estudantes de medicina em uma universidade na cidade de São Paulo utilizando dois instrumentos; Evaluating empathy in undergraduate medical students from a University in São Paulo using two questionnaires

Moreto, Graziela
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/04/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.4%
Objetivo: avaliar o grau de empatia dos estudantes de medicina e suas mudanças durante o curso médico de uma Faculdade na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Método: Estudo descritivo, comparativo e transversal. Amostra não aleatória de 296 alunos. O estudo foi conduzido de Setembro até Dezembro de 2013. A avaliação da empatia foi realizada usando a escala de empatia médica de Jefferson (JSPE) na versão para estudantes de medicina, e a escala multidimensional de reatividade interpessoal de Davis (EMRI) na versão validade e adaptada no Brasil. Ambas escalas foram aplicadas simultaneamente a cada aluno. A JSPE contém 20 itens que são respondidos de acordo com a variante de escala de Likert de sete pontos (Concordo = 7 / Discordo = 1) .Esta escala avalia atributos cognitivos da empatia. A EMRI contém 21 itens que são respondidos de acordo com a escala de Likert de cinco pontos ( Descreve-me muito bem = 5 / Não me descreve muito bem = 1). Esta escala avalia tanto componentes cognitivos quanto afetivos da empatia. Os alunos foram divididos em três grupos de acordo com o ano da graduação: o grupo básico (1º e 2º ano), grupo clínico (3º e 4º ano ) e o grupo do internato (5 º e 6 º ano), e foram comparados os escores de empatia entre os três grupos. Resultados: Ao aplicar JSPE não houve uma diferença significativa quando comparado o escore entre os 3 grupos. Por outro lado ao aplicar a EMRI foi identificado um escore de empatia significativamente menor no grupo do internato quando avaliado o componente afetivo (p < 0...

Empatia no ensaio coral : aspectos dessa interação não-verbal dos cantores com o regente durante a execução musical; Empathy at the choral rehearsal : aspects of singer empathy for conductor during musical performance

Heloiza de Castello Branco
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/01/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.38%
Este estudo objetivou apontar a presença de empatia dos cantores com o regente durante a execução musical, através da identificação de episódios de empatia em filmagens de ensaios corais. A empatia, nesta pesquisa, denomina o fenômeno em que o cantor, ao olhar com atenção o regente fazendo movimentos durante a execução musical, realiza de forma inconsciente os mesmos movimentos. Dividiu-se a revisão de literatura em duas partes. Na primeira, buscou-se compreender o processo de empatia entre duas pessoas: como acontece, porque acontece e que fatores o afetam. Na segunda, transferiu-se o foco da pesquisa para as condições características das atividades de regentes e cantores durante a execução musical, de forma a identificar fatores que propiciam a empatia dos cantores com o regente. A seção intermediária tratou da metodologia e dos procedimentos utilizados para o preparo da filmagem dos dois corais participantes. Os resultados da análise dos movimentos corporais e faciais dos cantores em relação aos movimentos do regente deram origem à seção seguinte. Como corolário desses resultados, o trabalho se encerra com as considerações possíveis a respeito da empatia observada dos cantores com o regente, fazendo uma síntese das informações colhidas sobre empatia e aplicando-as ao contexto da execução musical no ensaio coral.; The objective of this study is to point out the existence of singer empathy for the conductor during musical performance...

O ensino de empatia no curso de graduação em medicina; Empathy teaching in the undergraduate medical course

Marcelo Schweller
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/07/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.4%
A relação médico-paciente é o fundamento da prática da medicina. Entre os fatores que permitem o sucesso dessa parceria, a empatia se destaca como um dos mais importantes, e existem evidências que associam a atitude empática do médico com a satisfação do paciente, a adesão ao tratamento e melhores desfechos clínicos. Apesar de sua importância, a maioria dos estudos revela uma tendência de perda de empatia durante o curso de graduação em medicina, sendo o currículo oculto a causa mais comumente relacionada a este fenômeno. Várias estratégias têm sido propostas para preservar ou aumentar a empatia desses estudantes. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar o impacto de metodologias ativas de ensino nos níveis de empatia de estudantes de medicina em diferentes estágios de formação. No primeiro estudo, duas turmas consecutivas de estudantes do primeiro ano (n = 166) participaram de uma disciplina curricular concebida com o intuito de oferecer um contato inicial positivo com a prática médica, através de uma série de atividades com apelo realístico e espaço para debate e reflexão. Os níveis de empatia foram avaliados através da Escala Jefferson de Empatia Médica (JSPE) antes e após o curso. A média inicial foi de 117...

Empathy of medical students and personality : evidences from the five factor model

Magalhães, Eunice; Costa, Manuel João; Costa, Patrício Soares
Fonte: Informa Healthcare Publicador: Informa Healthcare
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.31%
The main aim of this study was to test hypothetical associations between personality dimensions and empathy scores in medical students. The Portuguese version of NEO-FFI was administered in order to characterize participants in terms of five personality traits: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness. Self-reported empathy measures were obtained with the Portuguese version of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE-spv), a Likert-type questionnaire specifically developed for administration in health sciences settings that measures domains such as compassionate care and perspective taking. Correlation analysis, multivariate analysis of covariance and logistic regression analysis were conducted. The results confirmed positive associations between agreeableness, openness to experience and empathy and did not support our hypothesis of negative associations between neuroticism and empathy. It is suggested that that the personality of students should be taken into account in programs to enhance empathy in undergraduate medical education.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) - PTDC/ESC/ 65116/2006.

O cuidado humanístico como foco institucional: um estudo sobre empatia dos profissionais de saúde na área obstétrica; The Humanistic care as an institutional focus: a study on empathy of the health professionals in the obstetrical area

Lima, Simone Pedrosa
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem; Assistência à Saúde Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem; Assistência à Saúde
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.4%
Empathy is a basic facilitating element of the therapeutic helping relationship and the humanization process in health care. The objectives of this study were to identify the empathy level of health professionals working in the obstetrical sector of a university hospital recognized for its humanistic care and the perceptions of the women under their care regarding the empathic behavior shown by these professionals during hospitalization. We conducted a quanti/qualitative study with 47 health professionals that worked in the obstetrical sector (13 obstetricians, 12 nurses, 22 nurse technicians) and an intentional sample of 101 women that received cared from these professionals during the study period. We collected data by means of the Jefferson Empathy Scale for Health Professioals (JEPS-HR) and the Patient´s Perception of Health Professional Empathy (PPHPE), and two additional open questions designed to obtain the subjective opinion about the empathic behavior during the care. We utilized thematic analysis for the data obtained through the open questions and descriptive and inferential statistics for the quantitative data. We identified five thematic categories that represent the aspects valued by the professionals in their relationship with the women under their care: emotional involvement...

Psychopathy and Aggression: Examining the Role of Empathy

Hosker-Field, Ashley M.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.5%
Empirical research has consistently demonstrated a positive association between psychopathic traits and physical aggression (Campbell, Porter, & Santor, 2004; Gretton, Hare, & Catchpole, 2004; Raine et aI., 2006; Spain, Douglas, Poythress, & Epstein, 2004). Moreover, research has also found that the emotional/interpersonal (Factor 1) psychopathy traits tend to be more closely associated with goal oriented, proactive aggression, whereas the social deviance (Factor 2) psychopathy characteristics have been more closely linked to reactive aggression, which is perpetrated in response to threat or provocation (Flight & Forth, 2007). Blair (2004; 2005; 2006) has recently proposed the Integrated Emotions Systems Model (lES), which posits that the association between Factor 1 psychopathy traits and proactive aggression is due to amygdala dysfunction leading to failed moral socialization. Consequently, individuals who exhibit Factor 1 psychopathy traits do not experience affective empathy in response to distress cues exhibited by others, thus, preventing the inhibition of proactive aggression. The current investigation sought to test this model by examining the associations among the emotional/interpersonal (Factor 1) psychopathy traits...

Subliminal Exposure to Empathy Primes: A New Method to Reduce Intergroup Bias?

Khan, Beenish
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.54%
An abundant literature has demonstrated the benefits of empathy for intergroup relations (e.g., Batson, Chang, Orr, & Rowland, 2002). In addition, empathy has been identified as the mechanism by which various successful prejudice-reduction procedures impact attitudes and behaviour (e.g., Costello & Hodson, 2010). However, standard explicit techniques used in empathy-prejudice research have a number of potential limitations (e.g., resistance; McGregor, 1993). The present project explored an alternative technique, subliminally priming (i.e., outside of awareness) empathy-relevant terms (Study 1), or empathy itself (Study 2). Study 1 compared the effects of exposure to subliminal empathy-relevant primes (e.g., compassion) versus no priming and priming the opposite of empathy (e.g., indifference) on prejudice (i.e., negative attitudes), discrimination (i.e., resource allocation), and helping behaviour (i.e., willingness to empower, directly assist, or expect group change) towards immigrants. Relative to priming the opposite of empathy, participants exposed to primes of empathy-relevant constructs expressed less prejudice and were more willingness to empower immigrants. In addition, the effects were not moderated by individual differences in prejudice-relevant variables (i.e....

Evaluating the outcome of communication skill teaching for entry-level students: does knowledge of empathy increase?

Winefield, H.; Chur-Hansen, A.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.38%
BACKGROUND: While the literature shows the clinical value for medical practitioners of skill in communicating with patients in an empathetic manner, objective evaluations of methods to teach empathy are few. PURPOSES: This paper describes a method of teaching entry-level medical students the elements of effective communication with patients, in preparation for their first practical exercises. The paper focuses on how the outcomes of the teaching were evaluated with special attention to empathy. METHODS: Student evaluative ratings were collected after training, and students also completed a pencil-and-paper test of empathy, both before and after the training. While all data were anonymous, student pre- and post-training empathy scores could be compared to assess individual changes in knowledge of empathy after training. RESULTS: Most students (81%) felt better prepared to interview after the training. The pencil-and-paper measure of empathy has good reliability, both internal (alpha 0.83 and 0.91) and inter-rater (kappa 0.96). Overall, students made significant gains in their ability to make empathetic responses, although some (30%) showed no gains. CONCLUSIONS: Further research is required to identify students who fail to acquire skill in expressing empathy after undergoing training...

Neurophysiologische Grundlagen visuo-taktil induzierter Empathie; Neurophysiological bases of visual-induced tactile empathy

Kilzer, Karla
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.38%
Das Phänomen, dass somatosensorische Hirnareale durch die bloße visuelle Wahrnehmung der Berührung einer anderen Person aktiviert werden, wird taktile Empathie genannt. Neue Studien (Keysers et al. 2004, Avenanti et al. 2005) zeigen, dass die Beobachtung einer Berührung, eine bedeutende Aktivierung von contralateralen primären somatosensorischen und bilateralen sekundären somatosensorischen Kortices erzeugt. Andere Studien (Singer et al. 2004), die die Gehirntätigkeit während der Beobachtung schmerzhafter Stimuli untersuchen, weisen darauf hin, dass Schmerzempathie nicht nur sensorische sondern auch affektive Komponenten der cerebralen Schmerzmatrix, beispielsweise vorderer Gyrus cinguli (ACC) und bilateraler vorderer Insula (AI), in deren Aktivität beeinflusst. Die vorliegende Studie hatte zum Ziel, die neurophysiologischen Grundlagen der schmerzhaften und nichtschmerzhaften, taktilen Empathie mittels Magnetoencephalographie (MEG) zu untersuchen. Wir untersuchten Schmerzempathie bei 32 gesunden Paaren (Alter 19-58 Jahre) unter der Annahme, dass kortikale Antworten auf somatosensorische Stimuli durch die Empathie für einander moduliert werden. Die jeweils weiblichen Partner wurden mittels MEG gemessen. Wir betrachteten die abgeleitete Hirnaktivität...

Empathy, Situations, and an Enlarged Mentality: Iterations between Jaspers and Arendt

GATTA, Giunia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.27%
This paper has the broad goal of inquiring into the role of empathy in contemporary interpretations of judgment as enlarged mentality. Specifically, it puts Hannah Arendt in dialogue with Karl Jaspers, her mentor and friend, on this question. While a disagreement (or even a conversation) on this issue never seemed to emerge between the two, I argue that they offer differing interpretations of enlarged mentality and specifically of the role of empathy within it. Arendt is skeptical of empathy and unfavorably contrasts it with imagination when it comes to their role in enlarged mentality. Jaspers, on the other hand, offers an understanding of empathy as fundamental for communication and understanding of the other. It is, for him, a dialectic process of bracketing and drawing from one’s own experience. While Hannah Arendt did consider Jaspers' thought as a bright example of enlarged mentality, I argue that she underplayed the role of empathy, and of idiosyncratic, non-necessarily cognitive elements in Jaspers' own formulation of it.

Prophecy of a New Architecture Empathy

ÖSTRELL, PER-OSCAR; ÖSTRELL, GÖSTA PER_OSCAR
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.5%
Per-Oscar Östrell DIAP PhD: Architettura e Costruzione-Spazio e Società Ciclo XXVI. Main advisors: Professor Benedetto Todaro and Professor Stefano Catucci. PROPHECY OF A NEW ARCHITECTURE Empathy Università Degli Studi Di Roma La Sapienza Dipartimento Di Architettura e Progetto. My unique idea, is to open the minds of the people who read the book make them open for the beauty in the world and for fellowman. Yes this is a topic that is popular at the moment but my approach is not for self- promotion or jump the bandwagon. The book is written for scholars and ordinary man. If you want a PDF of the thesis please contact, perostrell@gmail.com Synopsis. Life architecture is a screenplay for all of us who has an open heart imagination and see the world as a newborn every day with open eyes and open minds and not get stopped by how to behave norms that is standard norms decided by people afraid of living. I have made this journey into understanding architecture, it is a personal and a bumpy road my individual road. not hidden under pretense of something else. To make architecture with empathy, beauty, compassion not defined by the archi-stars of today a phenomenon just as superficial as all other mass media frenetic. I ground my proposal on my beliefs in architecture...

Prophecy of a New Architecture Empathy I

OSTRELL, PER_OSCAR, OESTRELL
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.5%
Per-Oscar Östrell DIAP PhD: Architettura e Costruzione-Spazio e Società Ciclo XXVI. Main advisors: Professor Benedetto Todaro and Professor Stefano Catucci. PROPHECY OF A NEW ARCHITECTURE Empathy Università Degli Studi Di Roma La Sapienza Dipartimento Di Architettura e Progetto. My unique idea, is to open the minds of the people who read the book make them open for the beauty in the world and for fellowman. Yes this is a topic that is popular at the moment but my approach is not for self- promotion or jump the bandwagon. The book is written for scholars and ordinary man. If you want a PDF of the thesis please contact, perostrell@gmail.com Synopsis. Life architecture is a screenplay for all of us who has an open heart imagination and see the world as a newborn every day with open eyes and open minds and not get stopped by how to behave norms that is standard norms decided by people afraid of living. I have made this journey into understanding architecture, it is a personal and a bumpy road my individual road. not hidden under pretense of something else. To make architecture with empathy, beauty, compassion not defined by the archi-stars of today a phenomenon just as superficial as all other mass media frenetic. I ground my proposal on my beliefs in architecture...

The role of empathy and responsibility in charitable giving: a mixed methods investigation

Kinsella, Caitríona
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.31%
peer-reviewed; The literature on empathic concern and perceptions of similarity as traditional explanations for helping behaviours has included studies at the individual (Batson et al., 1991), the intragroup (Houston, 1990) and the intergroup (Sturmer, Snyder & Omoto, 2005) level. The concept of self-ascribed responsibility (as responsibility attributed to the self), however, has been largely overlooked in terms of how it can in uence helping behaviours. While some paradigms emphasise the importance of the di usion of responsibility in explaining when and why people do not intervene to help (Latan e e & Darley, 1970), little attention has been paid to the processes involved in the reversal of this speci c aspect of the bystander e ect phenomenon (the e ect of an increased sense of responsibility on helping). The aim of this mixed methods thesis is to develop our understanding of the role of empathy and self-ascribed responsibility as they relate to intergroup helping and charitable giving. The rst exploratory study of this project adopted a discursive psychological approach (Edwards & Potter, 1992). In looking at how charity and non-charity workers produced accounts of their own and others charitable giving, the anal- ysis demonstrated the strategic use of interpretative repertoires (Pot- ter & Wetherell...

The Roles of Theory of Mind and Empathy in the Relationship between Dysphoria and Poor Social Functioning

Chan, Emilie
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2914415 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.46%
The current research, across three studies, examined two social practices that involve processing and responding to others’ emotions, theory of mind (ToM) and empathy, and how they relate to dysphoria and the social impairments associated with dysphoria over time. Mildly depressed, or dysphoric, individuals, have been found to have heightened ToM when identifying others’ emotions, despite reporting widespread social impairments (Harkness et al., 2005). The first study (Chapter 2) examined if and how ToM is a mediator in the relationship between dysphoria and social functioning. Attribution style, specifically the internalizing attribution bias, was hypothesized to play a role. The interaction between ToM and internalizing attribution bias was independently associated with social functioning. For internalizing attributors, higher ToM was related to better social functioning, but no relationship was observed between ToM and social functioning among non-internalizing attributors. The second study (Chapter 3) examined the relationship between ToM and empathy, addressing the debate surrounding cognitive and affective aspects of ToM and empathy. Affective ToM and cognitive empathy both have been described as processes involving cognitive inferences about others’ emotions. Current results supported this link...

Neural Activity During Social Signal Perception Correlates With Self-reported Empathy

Hooker, Christine; Verosky, Sara C.; Germine, Laura Thi; Knight, Robert T.; D'Esposito, Mark
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.42%
Empathy is an important component of human relationships, yet the neural mechanisms that facilitate empathy are unclear. The broad construct of empathy incorporates both cognitive and affective components. Cognitive empathy includes mentalizing skills such as perspective-taking. Affective empathy consists of the affect produced in response to someone else's emotional state, a process which is facilitated by simulation or “mirroring.” Prior evidence shows that mentalizing tasks engage a neural network which includes the temporoparietal junction, superior temporal sulcus, and medial prefrontal cortex. On the other hand, simulation tasks engage the fronto-parietal mirror neuron system (MNS) which includes the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the somotosensory related cortex (SRC). Here, we tested whether neural activity in these two neural networks was related to self-reports of cognitive and affective empathy in daily life. Participants viewed social scenes in which the shift of direction of attention of a character did or did not change the character's mental and emotional state. As expected, the task robustly activated both mentalizing and MNS networks. We found that when detecting the character's change in mental and emotional state...

The roles of empathy, shame, and guilt in violence decision-making

Trivedi-Bateman, Neema
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Institute of Criminology Publicador: University of Cambridge; Institute of Criminology
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.31%
The roles of shame and guilt, and their relationships to empathy, have not been modelled adequately as key factors in moral decision-making in the study of violence. This research will test the different roles of empathy, shame, and guilt in violence decision-making using a Situational Action Theory perspective. Qualitative in-depth interviews were carried out with a violent offender subsample taken from the longitudinal Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+) in order to explore the role of moral emotion in specific real-life violent events. In addition, quantitative questionnaire indices enable comparison of the violent offender subsample with the remaining PADS+ study sample. Persistent offenders report significantly lower levels of empathy, shame and guilt on the quantitative indices, and weak empathy, shame, and guilt in their detailed recollections of specific acts of violence, e.g., ?there?s not much guilt involved in the whole situation to be honest? (Sam, interview 39). The primary conclusion is that individuals with weak empathy, shame, and guilt are more likely to commit acts of violence. These study findings give insight into the real world, situational application of empathy, shame, and guilt...

I know how they must feel: Empathy and judging defendants

Wood,Jane L; James,Mark; Ciardha,Caoilte Ó
Fonte: The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context Publicador: The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.38%
The current study investigated the effects of state and trait empathy in legal judgments and tested the relationship between trait and state emotion in one hundred and fifty eight students aged 18-59. Assessments were taken of participants' trait empathy and then state empathy was induced in half the sample. Following this all participants read a trial transcript and made judgments regarding: the verdict decision; the defendant's responsibility for the offense; what would be an appropriate punishment; the likelihood that the offender would offend in the future; and whether the defendant felt remorse for committing the offense. Findings showed that both trait and state empathy predicted attributions of offender remorse. State empathy also predicted judgments of offender responsibility and agreement with verdict decisions in a lenient direction. Findings also showed that state and trait empathy did not interact. The results indicate that trait and state empathy work independently to influence legal judgments and that inducing empathy in decision-makers can impact on trial outcomes above and beyond the facts of the case.

Empathy in Family Medicine

Macedo,António; Cavadas,Luís Filipe; Sousa,Marlene; Pires,Paulo; Santos,José Agostinho; Machado,Alexandra
Fonte: Associação Portuguesa dos Médicos de Clínica Geral Publicador: Associação Portuguesa dos Médicos de Clínica Geral
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.4%
AIM: Empathy is crucial in therapeutic relationships. An empathic relationship has several positive outcomes: improvement of doctor-patient relationship, increased satisfaction and diagnostic ability, and patients’ empowerment. This study aims to assess empathy levels in a Portuguese Primary Health Care Practice (PPHCP) and to verify the relation between doctor-patient empathy and socio-demographic characteristics. DESIGN: cross-sectional study LOCATION: a Portuguese Primary Health Care Practice located in Senhora da Hora, Matosinhos. PARTICIPANTS: patients registered in the PPHCC who went to an appointment with their Family Physician (FP) during the month of June 2009. METHODS: Empathy value measured through the Consultation and Relational Empathy (CARE) questionnaire. Associations between variables were tested with nonparametric tests (Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis) and Pearson correlation. The adopted significance level was 0.05. RESULTS: A sample of 353 questionnaires was obtained. FP mean empathy value was 41.1 points on a scale of 10-50 (CI 95%, 40.1-42.2). The only significant statistical association was related to educational level (p = 0.02). Patients with lower levels of formal education provided lower scores for FP empathy. CONCLUSION: The patients of this PPHCP scored high for empathy. Lower levels of formal education were correlated with lower scores for empathy...