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Desenvolvimento de materiais nanoestruturados à base de óxido de nióbio para aplicação em fotônica; Nanostructured niobium based materials for photonic applications

Aquino, Felipe Thomaz
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/09/2013 PT
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25.91%
No presente trabalho foram realizadas a síntese e caracterizações estruturais, ópticas e espectroscópicas de materiais nanocompósitos na forma de guias de onda planares e pós de (100-x)SiO2-xNb2O5 dopados com íons lantanídeos pelo método sol-gel, para aplicação em Fotônica. Foi observada separação de fase controlada e cristalização, com distribuição e tamanho de partículas, bem como a fase cristalina de Nb2O5 formada, dependentes da composição (%Nb) e temperatura de tratamento térmico. Caracterizações estruturais revelaram a formação de duas fases cristalinas de Nb2O5, ortorrômbica (fase T) e monoclínica (fase M), com distribuição de tamanhos de nanopartículas da ordem de 7 a 30 nm. Essas duas fases cristalinas apresentaram-se na forma de nanocristais dispersos em uma matriz amorfa, formando sistemas nanocompósitos transparentes. A formação dessas diferentes fases cristalinas influenciou diretamente nas propriedades luminescentes dos materiais que apresentaram uma intensa emissão na região do Infravermelho próximo (com máximo de emissão em 1530 nm) sob excitação em 980 nm, com valores de largura de banda variando de 48 a 84 nm. A dependência dos espectros de emissão (largura inomogênea e componentes Stark)...

Full-color phosphors from amine-functionalized crosslinked hybrids lacking metal activator ions

Carlos, Luís D.; Sá Ferreira, Rute A.; De Zea Bermudez, Verónica; Ribeiro, Sidney J. L.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 111-115
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Sol-gel derived hybrids that contain OCH2CH2 (polyethylene glycol, PEG) repeat units grafted onto a siliceous backbone by urea, -NHC(=O)NH-, or urethane, -NHC(=O)O-, bridges have been prepared. It is demonstrated that the white light PL of these materials results from an unusual convolution of a longer lived emission that originates in the NH groups of the urea/urethane bridges with shorter lived electron-hole recombinations occurring in the nanometer-sized siliceous domains. The PL efficiencies reported here (maximum quantum yields at room temperature of ≈ 0.20 ± 0.02 at a 400 nm excitation wavelength) are in the same range as those for tetramethoxysilane-formic acid, and APTES-acetic acid, sol-gel derived phosphors. The high quantum yields combined with the possibility of tuning the emission to colors across the chromaticity diagram present a wide range of potential applications for these hybrid materials.

White Light and Multicolor Emission Tuning in Triply Doped Yb3+/Tm3+/Er3+ Novel Fluoro-phosphate Transparent Glass-ceramics

Ledemi, Yannick; Trudel, AndrÉe-anne; Rivera, Victor; Chenu, SÉbastien; VÉron, Emmanuel; Nunes, Luiz Antonio Oliveira; Allix, Mathieu; Messaddeq, Younes
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 5046--5056
ENG
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New Yb3+, Er3+ and Tm3+ doped fluoro-phosphate glasses belonging to the system NaPO3–YF3–BaF2–CaF2 and containing up to 10 wt% of rare-earth ion fluorides were prepared and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, absorption spectroscopy and up-conversion emission spectroscopy under excitation with a 975 nm laser diode. Transparent and homogeneous glass-ceramics have been reproducibly obtained with a view to manage the red, green and blue emission bands and generate white light. X-ray diffraction as well as electron microscopy techniques have confirmed the formation of fluorite-type cubic nanocrystals at the beginning of the crystallization process while complex nanocrystalline phases are formed after a longer heat-treatment. The prepared glass-ceramics exhibit high optical transparency even after 170 h of thermal treatment. An improvement of up-conversion emission intensity – from 10 to 160 times larger – was measured in the glass-ceramics when compared to the parent glass, suggesting an important incorporation of the rare-earth ions into the crystalline phase(s). The involved mechanisms and lifetime were described in detail as a function of heat-treatment time. Finally, a large range of designable color rendering (from orange to turquoise through white) can be observed in these materials by controlling the laser excitation power and the crystallization rate.

250 GHz CW Gyrotron Oscillator for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in Biological Solid State NMR

Bajaj, Vikram S.; Hornstein, Melissa K.; Kreischer, Kenneth E.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; Woskov, Paul P.; Mak-Jurkauskas, Melody L.; Herzfeld, Judith; Temkin, Richard J.; Griffin, Robert G.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.74%
In this paper, we describe a 250 GHz gyrotron oscillator, a critical component of an integrated system for magic angle spinning (MAS) dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments at 9T, corresponding to 380 MHz 1H frequency. The 250 GHz gyrotron is the first gyro-device designed with the goal of seamless integration with an NMR spectrometer for routine DNP-enhanced NMR spectroscopy and has operated under computer control for periods of up to 21 days with a 100% duty cycle. Following a brief historical review of the field, we present studies of the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) using DNP-enhanced multidimensional NMR. These results include assignment of active site resonances in [U-13C,15N]-bR and demonstrate the utility of DNP for studies of membrane proteins. Next, we review the theory of gyro-devices from quantum mechanical and classical viewpoints and discuss the unique considerations that apply to gyrotron oscillators designed for DNP experiments. We then characterize the operation of the 250 GHz gyrotron in detail, including its long-term stability and controllability. We have measured the spectral purity of the gyrotron emission using both homodyne and heterodyne techniques. Radiation intensity patterns from the corrugated waveguide that delivers power to the NMR probe were measured using two new techniques to confirm pure mode content: a thermometric approach based on the temperature-dependent color of liquid crystalline media applied to a substrate and imaging with a pyroelectric camera. We next present a detailed study of the mode excitation characteristics of the gyrotron. Exploration of the operating characteristics of several fundamental modes reveals broadband continuous frequency tuning of up to 1.8 GHz as a function of the magnetic field alone...

High Quality Manganese-Doped Zinc Sulfide Quantum Rods with Tunable Dual-Color and Multi-Photon Emissions

Deng, Zhengtao; Tong, Ling; Flores, Marco; Lin, Su; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.9%
We report a simple, fast and green phosphine-free colloidal chemistry to synthesize high quality wurtzite-type Mn-doped ZnS quantum rods (QRs) with tunable diameters (1.6 nm to 5.6 nm), high aspect ratios (up to 50), variable Mn doping levels (0.18% to 1.60%), and high quantum yields (up to 45%). The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra with modeling reveal the successful doping of paramagnetic Mn2+ ions in the host ZnS QRs. The Mn-doped ZnS QRs demonstrate tunable dual color (orange and blue) emissions by tuning the doping levels and UV excitation wavelengths. The orange emission with long decay lifetime (3.3 millisecond) originates from the doped Mn2+ states, while the blue emission with fast decay lifetime (0.31 nanosecond) is attributed to the QR surface states. The bright two- and three-photon excitation upconversion luminescence (2PL and 3PL) from the Mn-doped ZnS QRs have been observed using tunable near-infrared (NIR) femtosecond (fs) laser. Our strategy provides a versatile route to programmably control the optical properties of anisotropic semiconductor nanomaterials, which may create new opportunities for photonic devices and bioimaging applications.

Tuning photoluminescence of organic rubrene nanoparticles through a hydrothermal process

Kim, Mi Suk; Cho, Eun Hei; Park, Dong Hyuk; Jung, Hyunjung; Bang, Joona; Joo, Jinsoo
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/06/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.74%
Light-emitting 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene) nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by a reprecipitation method were treated hydrothermally. The diameters of hydrothermally treated rubrene NPs were changed from 100 nm to 2 μm, depending on hydrothermal temperature. Photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of rubrene NPs varied with hydrothermal temperatures. Luminescence of pristine rubrene NPs was yellow-orange, and it changed to blue as the hydrothermal temperature increased to 180°C. The light-emitting color distribution of the NPs was confirmed using confocal laser spectrum microscope. As the hydrothermal temperature increased from 110°C to 160°C, the blue light emission at 464 to approximately 516 nm from filtered-down NPs was enhanced by H-type aggregation. Filtered-up rubrene NPs treated at 170°C and 180°C exhibited blue luminescence due to the decrease of intermolecular excimer densities with the rapid increase in size. Variations in PL of hydrothermally treated rubrene NPs resulted from different size distributions of the NPs.

Straightforward fabrication of stable white LEDs by embedding of inorganic UV-LEDs into bulk polymerized polymethyl-methacrylate doped with organic dyes

Di Martino, Daniela; Beverina, Luca; Sassi, Mauro; Brovelli, Sergio; Tubino, Riccardo; Meinardi, Francesco
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/03/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.82%
Stable white-emitting down-converted LEDs are straightforwardly prepared by bulk polymerization of an organic dye doped polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) shell directly on top of a highly efficient commercial blue-emitting InGaN LED. Our optimized polymerization procedure allows for extending the form factor of achievable luminescence converter (LUCO) material beyond the conventional thin film form and to directly produce devices with light bulb design. The selected organic dyes, the blue-emitting Coumarin 30 and a red-emitting diketopyrrolopyrrole derivative, exhibit high compatibility with the free radical polymerization reaction of the PMMA matrix and ensure high stability of the final hybrid device. The control of both the thickness of the PMMA shell and the concentration of the dopant dyes allow for fine tuning of the emission color of the LUCO LED and to obtain white light with CIE chromatic coordinates x = 0.32 and y = 0.33, with rendering index as high as 80. This simple and versatile procedure is not dye-exclusive and is therefore extendable to other molecular systems for color-tunable efficient solid-state lighting sources.

Organic materials with acenoid and iptycene structures

Chen, Zhihua, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (252 leaves)
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.86%
Chapter 1. The synthesis of a group of alkoxy-substituted para-acenequinones and their photophysical properties in solution and liquid crystal are reported. Polarized absorption and fluorescence measurements demonstrate that these acenequinones have excellent alignment with nematic LC hosts, indicating their potential as dichroic dyes for guest-host liquid crystal displays. In addition, the sensitivity of emission to the substitution allows the tuning of emission by functionalization of the acenequinone chromophore. Chapter 2. The synthesis of a series of fluorine- and alkyl/alkoxy-functionalized tetracenes using N-methyl-1,2,4,5-tetrafluoroisoindole as a synthetic building block is reported. The incorporation of fluorine functionalities was found to induce significant face-to-face molecular n-stacking in their crystal structures. Electrochemical behaviors and UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy results of these materials are also discussed. It was demonstrated that the substitution of alkyl/alkoxy groups on the main chain not only provided better solubility in common organic solvents, but also subtly tuned the crystal structures and electrochemical behaviors. Chapter 3. A self-polymerizable AB-type monomer for Diels-Alder (D-A) polymerization was prepared...

Estrutura e luminescência de materiais hídridos orgânicos-inorgânicos modificados por iões lantanídeos

André, Maria Rute de Amorim e Sá Ferreira
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.97%
O presente trabalho propõe-se caracterizar a estrutura e as propriedades de luminescência de um conjunto de redes híbridas orgânicas-inorgânicas. Estes materiais, denominados por di-ureiasils (ou di-uretanosils) são compostos por uma rede siliciosa ligada covalentemente por pontes de ureia (ou uretano) a cadeias orgânicas de diferente peso molecular. A morfologia destes materiais é baseada numa estrutura bifásica, induzida pela separação local entre as regiões orgânicas e os domínios inorgânicos siliciosos de dimensões nanométricas. Os híbridos são emissores eficientes de luz branca, à temperatura ambiente, resultante da singular convolução da emissão azul originada nos grupos NH das pontes de ureia (ou uretano) com a luminescência azul-violeta proveniente dos domínios siliciosos. O mecanismo subjacente a ambas as emissões é do tipo par dador-aceitador. O valor relativamente elevado do rendimento quântico absoluto da luminescência (≈ 20 %), quando comparado com outros fósforos emissores de luz branca, e a fácil sintonização da cor da emissão ao longo do diagrama de cor definido pela Comission Internacionale d'Eclairage, CIE, através da variação de parâmetros físicos - comprimento de onda de excitação e temperatura - ou químicos - peso molecular e tipo de ligação entre os componentes orgânico e inorgânico - evidencia o potencial tecnológico destes materiais. Na rede di-ureiasil...

Tuning exciton and biexciton transition energies and fine structure splitting through hydrostatic pressure in single InGaAs quantum dots

Wu, Xuefei; Wei, Hai; Dou, Xiuming; Ding, Kun; Yu, Ying; Ni, Haiqiao; Niu, Zhichuan; Ji, Yang; Li, Shushen; Jiang, Desheng; Guo, Guangcan; He, Lixin; Sun, Baoquan
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/08/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.82%
We demonstrate that the exciton and biexciton emission energies as well as exciton fine structure splitting (FSS) in single (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) can be efficiently tuned using hydrostatic pressure in situ in an optical cryostat at up to 4.4 GPa. The maximum exciton emission energy shift was up to 380 meV, and the FSS was up to 180 $\mu$eV. We successfully produced a biexciton antibinding-binding transition in QDs, which is the key experimental condition that generates color- and polarization-indistinguishable photon pairs from the cascade of biexciton emissions and that generates entangled photons via a time-reordering scheme. We perform atomistic pseudopotential calculations on realistic (In,Ga)As/GaAs QDs to understand the physical mechanism underlying the hydrostatic pressure-induced effects.

The Structure of the Homunculus. II. Modeling the physical conditions in Eta Car's molecular shell

Smith, Nathan; Ferland, Gary J.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/10/2006
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.9%
We present models that reproduce the observed double-shell structure of the Homunculus Nebula around eta Carinae, including the stratification of infrared H2 and [FeII] emission seen in data obtained with the Phoenix spectrograph on Gemini South, as well as the corresponding stratified grain temperature seen in thermal-infrared data. Tuning the model to match the observed shell thickness allows us to determine the threshold density which permits survival of H2. An average hydrogen density of n_H=(0.5-1)x10^7 cm-3 in the outer zone is required to allow H2 to exist at all latitudes in the nebula, and for Fe+ to recombine. This gives independent confirmation of the very large mass of the Homunculus, indicating a total of roughly 15--35 Msun (although we note reasons why the lower end of this range is favored). At the interface between the atomic and molecular zones, we predict a sharp drop in the dust temperature, in agreement with the bimodal dust color temperatures observed in the two zones. In the outer molecular shell, the dust temperature drops to nearly the blackbody temperature, and becomes independent of grain size because of self-shielding at shorter UV wavelengths and increased heating at longer wavelengths. This relaxes constraints on large grain sizes suggested by near-blackbody color temperatures. Finally...

White organic light-emitting diodes with an ultra-thin premixed emitting layer

Jeon, T.; Geffroy, Bernard; Tondelier, Denis; Bonnassieux, Yvan; Forget, Sebastien; Chenais, Sebastien; Ishow, Elena
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/05/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.91%
We described an approach to achieve fine color control of fluorescent White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLED), based on an Ultra-thin Premixed emitting Layer (UPL). The UPL consists of a mixture of two dyes (red-emitting 4-di(4'-tert-butylbiphenyl-4-yl)amino-4'-dicyanovinylbenzene or fvin and green-emitting 4-di(4'-tert-butylbiphenyl-4-yl)aminobenzaldehyde or fcho) premixed in a single evaporation cell: since these two molecules have comparable structures and similar melting temperatures, a blend can be evaporated, giving rise to thin films of identical and reproducible composition compared to those of the pre-mixture. The principle of fine color tuning is demonstrated by evaporating a 1-nm-thick layer of this blend within the hole-transport layer (4,4'-bis[N-(1-naphtyl)-N-phenylamino]biphenyl (\alpha-NPB)) of a standard fluorescent OLED structure. Upon playing on the position of the UPL inside the hole-transport layer, as well as on the premix composition, two independent parameters are available to finely control the emitted color. Combined with blue emission from the heterojunction, white light with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage 1931 color coordinates (0.34, 0.34) was obtained, with excellent color stability with the injected current. The spectrum reveals that the fcho material does not emit light due to efficient energy transfer to the red-emitting fvin compound but plays the role of a host matrix for fvin...

Rapid cooling of the compact star in Cassiopea A as a phase transition in dense QCD

Sedrakian, Armen
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.82%
We present a model of the compact star in Cassiopea A that accounts for its unusually fast cooling behavior. This feature is interpreted as an enhancement in the neutrino emission triggered by a transition from a fully gapped, two-flavor, color-superconducting phase to a crystalline phase or an alternative gapless, color-superconducting phase. By fine-tuning a single parameter -- the temperature of this transition -- a specific cooling scenario can be selected that fits the Cas A data. Such a scenario requires a massive $M\sim 2M_{\odot}$ star and is, therefore, distinctive from models invoking canonical 1.4 $M_{\odot}$ mass star with nucleonic pairing alone.; Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, v2 and v3: minor changes, matches the version publised in A & A Letters

Tunable cavity coupling of the zero phonon line of a nitrogen-vacancy defect in diamond

Johnson, S.; Dolan, P. R.; Grange, T.; Trichet, A. A. P.; Hornecker, G.; Chen, Y. C.; Weng, L.; Hughes, G. M.; Auffèves, A.; Smith, J. M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.74%
We demonstrate the tunable enhancement of the zero phonon line of a single nitrogen-vacancy color center in diamond at cryogenic temperature. An open cavity fabricated using focused ion beam milling provides mode volumes as small as 1.24 $\mu$m$^3$. In-situ tuning of the cavity resonance is achieved with piezoelectric actuators. At optimal coupling of the full open cavity the signal from individual zero phonon line transitions is enhanced by about a factor of 10 and the overall emission rate of the NV$^-$ center is increased by 40% compared with that measured from the same center in the absence of cavity field confinement. This result is important for the realization of efficient spin-photon interfaces and scalable quantum computing using optically addressable solid state spin qubits.; Comment: 11 pages Main Article + 4 pages Supplementary Info Typos fixed from v1

Spectral Variations of the Sky: Constraints on Alternate Universes

Chary, R.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.91%
The fine tuning of parameters required to reproduce our present day Universe suggests that our Universe may simply be a region within an eternally inflating super-region. Many other regions beyond our observable Universe would exist with each such region governed by a different set of physical parameters. Collision between these regions, if they occur, should leave signatures of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) but have not been seen. We analyze the spectral properties of masked, foreground-cleaned maps between 100 and 545 GHz constructed from the Planck dataset. Four distinct $\sim2-4\arcdeg$ regions associated with CMB cold spots show anomalously strong 143 GHz emission but no correspondingly strong emission at either 100 or 217 GHz. The signal to noise of this 143 GHz residual emission is at the $\gtrsim$6$\sigma$ level which reduces to $3.2-5.4\sigma$ after subtraction of remaining synchrotron/free-free foregrounds. We assess different mechanisms for this residual emission and conclude that although there is a 30\% probability that noise fluctuations may cause foregrounds to fall within 3$\sigma$ of the excess, there is less than a 0.5\% probability that foregrounds can explain all the excess. A plausible explanation is that the collision of our Universe with an alternate Universe whose baryon to photon ratio is a factor of $\sim$4500 larger than ours...

Panchromatic spectral energy distributions of Herschel sources

Berta, S.; Viero, M.
Fonte: EDP Sciences Publicador: EDP Sciences
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.82%
Combining far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time programs with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S, and COSMOS fields, it is possible to sample the 8–500 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies with at least 7–10 bands. Extending to the UV, optical, and near-infrared, the number of bands increases up to 43. We reproduce the distribution of galaxies in a carefully selected restframe ten colors space, based on this rich data-set, using a superposition of multivariate Gaussian modes. We use this model to classify galaxies and build median SEDs of each class, which are then fitted with a modified version of the magphys code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The color distribution of galaxies in each of the considered fields can be well described with the combination of 6–9 classes, spanning a large range of far- to near-infrared luminosity ratios, as well as different strength of the AGN contribution to bolometric luminosities. The defined Gaussian grouping is used to identify rare or odd sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals...

Control of a white organic light emitting diode’s emission parameters using a single doped RGB active layer

Pereira, Daniel Alfredo de Sá
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /09/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
White Color tuning is an attractive feature that Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) offer. Up until now, there hasn’t been any report that mix both color tuning abilities with device stability. In this work, White OLEDs (W-OLEDs) based on a single RGB blend composed of a blue emitting N,N′-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N′-diphenyl-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (NPB) doped with a green emitting Coumarin-153 and a red emitting 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM1) dyes were produced. The final device structure was ITO/Blend/Bathocuproine (BCP)/ Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminium (Alq3)/Al with an emission area of 0.25 cm2. The effects of the changing in DCM1’s concentration (from 0.5% to 1% wt.) allowed a tuning in the final white color resulting in devices capable of emitting a wide range of tunes – from cool to warm – while also keeping a low device complexity and a high stabilitty. Moreover, an explanation on the optoelectrical behavior of the device is presented. The best electroluminescense (EL) points toward 160 cd/m2 of brightness and 1.1 cd/A of efficiency, both prompted to being enhanced. An Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) analysis allowed to study both the effects of BCP as a Hole Blocking Layer and as an aging probe of the device. Finally...