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The Wage Effects of Immigration and Emigration

Docquier, Frederic; Ozden, Caglar; Peri, Giovanni
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.45%
Immigrants in Rome or Paris are more visible to the public eye than the Italian or French engineers in Silicon Valley, especially when it comes to the debate on the effects of immigration on the employment and wages of natives in high-income countries. This paper argues that such public fears, especially in European countries are misplaced; instead, more concern should be directed towards emigration. Using a new dataset on migration flows by education levels for the period 1990-2000, the results show the following: First, immigration had zero to small positive long-run effect on the average wages of natives, ranging from zero in Italy to +1.7 percent in Australia. Second, emigration had a mild to significant negative long-run effect ranging from zero for the US to -0.8 percent in the UK. Third, over the period 1990-2000, immigration generally improved the income distribution of European countries while emigration worsened it by increasing the wage gap between the high and low skilled natives. These patterns hold true using a range of parameters for the simulations...

Immigration regulations for the island of Cuba

Cuba; United States -- Division of Customs and Insular Affairs
Fonte: G.P.O.; G.P.O. ( Washington ) Publicador: G.P.O.; G.P.O. ( Washington )
Tipo: mixed material Formato: 1 online resource (9 p.) : ;
Publicado em //1899 ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
Some copies bear incorrect date June 1. Cf. Catalogue of public documents. 1901.; Published also in Spanish.; (Statement of Responsibility) War Department, Division of Customs and Insular Affairs.

Reconstructing national boundaries : debates on national identities and immigration in France and in Denmark

ZOLNER, Mette
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Paper
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
Why are national identities imagined in one way rather than in another? The book analyses national imaginations as an on-going reconstruction process in a political and social context in which several imaginations of the nation struggle to impose their conception. Focusing on a fundamental element of any collective identity, namely the «Other», the book looks at the reconstruction of national identities by actors in political debates on immigration in the late 1980s and 1990s, particularly associations and political clubs which were in favour of and against the presence of immigrant minorities in their respective countries. Thus, the book investigates different ways of imagining the same nation in two old European nation-states, namely France and Denmark, which differ with regard to their nation-building processes, their Second World War history, their memory of colonialism and their experience of immigration. It is thus possible to illustrate that existing ideas of the nation and memories of historical events shape the way in which the nation could be re-imagined in the 1980s and 1990s.; Defence date: 11 June 1998; Supervisor: Prof. Bernhard Giesen, Universität Giessen ; Co-Supervisor: Prof. Laurence Fontaine, European University Institute

Enhancing national security by strengthening the legal immigration system

Lee, Danielle.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xvi, 93 p. ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
CHDS State/Local; One of the biggest challenges the U.S. contends with is how foreign nationals are using the legal immigration system to embed themselves in the country. While not every person who commits immigration fraud is a terrorist, those who intend to do this country harm will likely engage in some form of immigration fraud or seek to evade immigration laws in order to gain admission into or remain in this country in an immigration status. Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, the reality that foreign terrorists seek to exploit loopholes in the international travel system to facilitate the planning and implementation of attacks has become clearer. This thesis explores the interconnected relationship between immigration and terrorism. It will illustrate how border security can be strengthened if terrorists' access to immigration benefits is denied. In order to ascertain how terrorist have been able to successfully manipulate the immigration system and avoid detection, this study analyzes the immigration histories of terrorists involved in four case studies. This analysis shows that rather than focus on one benefit category or manner of entry, terrorists will utilize all means available in order to gain admission into or remain in the country. The recommendations provided based on this analysis focus on all facets of the immigration system and apply a holistic approach to immigration reform.; US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS)...

Diffusion of DNA testing in the immigration process

Sahli, Evelyn
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xvi, 115 p. ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
CHDS State/Local; DHS's Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is responsible for screening potential immigrants to the United States. Loopholes in the process allow fraudulent applicants, criminals and terrorists to enter and remain here undetected. Innovative DNA screening technology would help to protect against fraud, detect criminals and terrorists, facilitate inter-agency information sharing, improve customer service, and save resources. However, USCIS currently has no authority to require DNA testing. Seeking ways to utilize this technology, I conducted research employing various qualitative data collection methodologies, such as interviews, observations, and participation in a nationwide DHS-sponsored survey. The goal was to develop a policy recommendation regarding whether and how to move forward toward expanded DNA testing in the immigration process. I found that maintaining the status quo would leave us vulnerable. USCIS should highlight the benefits of DNA testing to its stakeholders and dispel any myths and fears. It should work with its national and international partners to establish standards and achieve interoperability. To protect privacy, USCIS must take great care to safeguard all personal information stored in the DNA database. A pilot testing program may offer the opportunity to implement DNA testing in phases...

Corridor report on the United Kingdom : the immigration, emigration and diaspora policies' effects on integration : Chinese and Indian migrants in the UK

UNTERREINER, Anne
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
INTERACT - Researching Third Country Nationals’ Integration as a Three-way Process - Immigrants, Countries of Emigration and Countries of Immigration as Actors of Integration; This paper presents the first results of the INTERACT project on Chinese and Indian migrants in the United Kingdom (UK). It is based on the data gathered by the project using a mixed method of data collection and analysis. We identify the policies of the states of origin (India and China) and destination (the UK), their implementation and their impact on migrants’ integration paths in the UK. In this paper, we first present an overview of the evolution of Chinese and Indian migration flows to the UK, and then present the current policy frameworks at both destination and origin, before analysing how they affect the integration trends of Chinese and Indian migrants in the UK. Even though contemporary Indian migrants – and to an even greater extent, Chinese migrants – living in the UK are highly skilled migrants, they do not automatically integrate into British society. Although Chinese migrants are better educated than Indian migrants, fewer hold a British passport, and more are unemployed. The position of Chinese and Indian migrants in British society seems to be the consequence of the combination of the origin and destination countries’ policies. These policies indeed influence current and past migration flows...

Redefining Nations: Nationhood and immigration in Italy and Spain

FREITAS CORREIA, Any
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.21%
Defense date: 08/07/2010; Examining Board: Maurizio Ambrosini (Univ. Milan), Margarita Gomez-Reino Cachafeiro, UNED, Madrid), Virginie Guiraudon (CERAPS-CNRS, Lille Centre for Politics) (External Co-Sipervisor), Peter Mair (EUI) (Supervisor); In the early 1990s, Italy and Spain, traditional labor exporters, started to acknowledge their new position as ‘immigration countries’. This dissertation examines how both states have coped with the consequences of this rapid and unexpected shift. Combining discourse and policy analysis, we look mainly at political elites’ (parties and their members) discourses and practices, during the first decade of the immigration turn (from early 1990s until the early 2000s). The literature has often treated Italy and Spain as examples of the same ‘Mediterranean’ group, also usually assuming that they have followed a very similar route towards immigrants’ criminalization and a populist mobilization of the immigration theme. Adopting an innovative analytical perspective, this thesis arrives at an original understanding of both immigrants’ representation and immigration politics in Italy and Spain. The predominant categories mobilized by Spanish and Italian political elites in the construction of the immigration ‘problem'...

The impact of immigration on occupational wages: evidence from Britain

Nickell, Stephen; Saleheen, Jumana
Fonte: Spatial Economics Research Centre (SERC), London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Spatial Economics Research Centre (SERC), London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2009 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.96%
This paper asks whether immigration to Britain has had any impact on average wages. There seems to be a broad consensus among academics that the share of immigrants in the workforce has little or no effect on the pay rates of the indigenous population. But the studies in the literature have typically not refined their analysis by breaking it down into different occupational groups. In this paper we find that once the occupational breakdown is incorporated into a regional analysis of immigration in Britain, the immigrant-native ratio has a significant, small, negative impact on average wages. Closer examination reveals that the biggest impact is in the semi/unskilled services sector. This finding accords well with intuition and anecdote, but does not seem to have been recorded previously in the empirical literature.

Immigration, trade and productivity in services: evidence from UK firms

Ottaviano, Gianmarco I. P.; Peri, Giovanni; Wright, Greg C.
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2015 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.96%
This paper explores the impact of immigrants on the imports, exports and productivity of serviceproducing firms in the U.K. Immigrants may substitute for imported intermediate inputs (offshore production) and they may impact the productivity of the firm as well as its export behavior. The first effect can be understood as the re-assignment of offshore productive tasks to immigrant workers. The second can be seen as a productivity or cost cutting effect due to immigration, and the third as the effect of immigrants on specific bilateral trade costs. We test the predictions of our model using differences in immigrant inflows across U.K. labor markets, instrumented with an enclave-based instrument that distinguishes between aggregate and bilateral immigration, as well as immigrant diversity. We find that immigrants increase overall productivity in service-producing firms, revealing a cost cutting impact on these firms. Immigrants also reduce the extent of country-specific offshoring, consistent with a reallocation of tasks and, finally, they increase country-specific exports, implying an important role in reducing communication and trade costs for services.

Increased immigration enforcement has a detrimental effect on the school performance of the children of unauthorized immigrants

Amuedo-Dorantes , Catalina; Lopez, Mary J.
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/07/2015 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.96%
The past 13 years have seen a massive increase in immigration enforcement at the state and local level aimed at reducing undocumented immigration. In new research, Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes and Mary J. Lopez find that this increased enforcement has adversely impacted the children of unauthorized migrants. They find that increased enforcement has the largest impact on children aged 6 to 13, raising their likelihood of repeating a grade or dropping out of school.

How immigration makes income inequality worse in the US

Xu, Ping; Garand, James C.; Zhu, Ling
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/10/2015 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.99%
The past thirty years have seen a dramatic rise in income inequality in the US. While many economists have pointed to the rise of low-skilled immigration as a contributor to income inequality in developed countries, there has been little evidence from the US. In new research, Ping Xu, James C. Garand, Ling Zhu, find that the low-skilled immigration in the US does increase income inequality due to the downward pressure it puts on wages, and immigrants’ lack of access to federal welfare benefits. They write that to reduce inequality, US immigration policy should shift towards admitting more high-skilled immigrants or incorporating existing immigrants into the social welfare system.

Book review: Immigration judges and U.S. asylum policy by Banks Miller, Linda Camp Keith and Jennifer S. Holmes

Matczak, Anna
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/10/2015 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.96%
What influences asylum decision making and why is there such variation in the US context? In Immigration Judges and U.S. Asylum Policy, Banks Miller, Linda Camp Keith and Jennifer S. Holmes enhance understanding of how US immigration judges make decisions on asylum applications and the factors that can lead to such disparate outcomes. Anna Matczak welcomes the scholarship as evidencing how asylum decisions are less shaped by human rights commitments than by overarching policy concerns.

Book review: Immigration detention: the migration of a policy and its human impact edited by Amy Nethery and Stephanie J. Silverman

Munro, Gayle
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/10/2015 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.96%
The collection Immigration Detention: The Migration of a Policy and its Human Impact, edited by Amy Nethery and Stephanie J. Silverman, gives an overview of the practice and human impact of detention as an integral part of immigration management and control through a series of country case studies. While Gayle Munro would have welcomed more direct engagement with individual detainee experiences and voices, this book gives comprehensive and relevant insight into detention policies and practices at a time when Europe is grappling with how to respond to pressure on its borders.

Empathy and expertise: case workers and immigration/asylum applicants in London

James, Deborah; Killick, Evan
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the American Bar Foundation Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the American Bar Foundation
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.96%
Under recent reforms, the UK government has eroded state funding for civil legal aid. Funding cuts affect asylum and immigration law as produced, practiced, and mediated in the course of interactions between case workers and their clients in legal-aid-funded Law Centers in South London. The article explores the contradictory character of one-on-one relationships between case workers and clients. Despite pressure to quantify their work in "value for money" terms, the empathy that often motivates case workers drives them to provide exceptional levels of aid to their clients in facing an arbitrary bureaucracy. Such personalized commitment may persuade applicants to accept the decisions of that bureaucracy, thus reinforcing a hegemonic understanding of the power of the law. The article, however, challenges the assumption that, in attempting to shape immigrant/refugees as model-albeit second-class-citizens, case worker/client interactions necessarily subscribe to the categories and assumptions that underpin UK immigration and asylum law.

Accounting for big city growth in low paid occupations: immigration and/or service class consumption

Gordon, Ian; Kaplanis, Ioannis
Fonte: Spatial Economics Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Spatial Economics Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/2012 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.96%
Growth of 'global cities' in the 1980s was supposed to have involved an occupational polarisation, including growth of low paid service jobs. Though held to be untrue for European cities, at the time, some such growth did emerge in London a decade later than first reported for New York. The question is whether there was simply a delay before London conformed to the global city model, or whether another distinct cause was at work in both cases. This paper proposes that the critical factor in both cases was actually an upsurge of immigration from poor countries providing an elastic supply of cheap labour. This hypothesis and its counterpart based on growth in elite jobs are tested econometrically for the British case with regional data spanning 1975-2008, finding some support for both effects, but with immigration from poor countries as the crucial influence in late 1990s London.

Crime and immigration: evidence from large immigrant waves

Bell, Brian; Fasani, Francesco; Machin, Stephen
Fonte: MIT Press Publicador: MIT Press
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2013 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.96%
This paper focuses on empirical connections between crime and immigration, studying two large waves of recent U.K. immigration (the late 1990s/early 2000s asylum seekers and the post-2004 inflow from EU accession countries). The first wave led to a modest but significant rise in property crime, while the second wave had a small negative impact. There was no effect on violent crime; arrest rates were not different, and changes in crime cannot be ascribed to crimes against immigrants. The findings are consistent with the notion that differences in labor market opportunities of different migrant groups shape their potential impact on crime.

Crime and immigration: new evidence from England and Wales

Jaitman, Laura; Machin, Stephen
Fonte: Springer Open Journals Publicador: Springer Open Journals
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2013 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.05%
We study a high profile public policy question on immigration, namely the link between crime and immigration, presenting new evidence from England and Wales in the 2000s. For studying immigration impacts, this period is of considerable interest as the composition of migration to the UK altered dramatically with the accession of Eastern European countries (the A8) to the European Union in 2004. As we show, this has important implications for ensuring a causal impact of immigration can be identified. When we are able to implement a credible research design with statistical power, we find no evidence of an average causal impact of immigration on crime, nor do we when we consider A8 and Non-A8 immigration separately. We also study London by itself as the immigration changes over time in the capital city were large. Again, we find no causal impact of immigration on crime from our spatial econometric analysis and also present evidence from unique data on arrests of natives and immigrants in London which shows no immigrant differences in the likelihood of being arrested.

In immigration reform, undocumented immigrants value work visas and family visits more than access to healthcare and social security.

Melo, Grace; Colson, Gregory; Ramirez, Octavio
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/11/2014 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
With a wide-range of competing immigration reform bills being debated in a gridlocked U.S. congress, the question remains: can a compromise bill ever emerge and what is the optimal form it should take? Surprisingly, there is little evidence on the immigration reform attributes most valued by the group who will be most affected: illegal immigrants themselves. Grace Melo, Gregory Colson, and Octavio Ramirez examine the tradeoff and dollar value Hispanic immigrants place on different attributes of competing U.S. Senate and House immigration reform bills. They find that illegal immigrants place a substantial value on long-term work visas, a path to citizenship, and the ability for family members to be eligible for visitation rights. Notably, a green card is valued approximately the same as a ten year work visa. Access to government safety nets including medical care and social security are valued to a lesser extent.

Immigration, diversity and the labour market outcomes of native workers: some recent developments

Ottaviano, Gianmarco I. P.
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/2014 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.99%
This brief essay provides a selective discussion of how in recent years economists in the neoclassical tradition have addressed the questions whether and how immigration affects native workers’ labour market outcomes. In particular, it discusses: the distinction between the displacement, productivity and amenity effects of immigration; the issues that arise in using wage changes to identify those effects; and the problem of assessing a causal link from immigration to natives’ labour market outcomes.

There is little evidence that Mexican immigration leads to more crime in US cities

Chalfin, Aaron
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/11/2013 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.99%
Although crime rates in the U.S. have decreased at the same time that the foreign-born population has doubled, many believe increased immigration is linked with more crime. Using migration triggered by extreme weather to simulate random immigration, Aaron Chalfin tests this hypothesis and finds little connection between Mexican immigration and crime in U.S. cities.