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Essays in development macroeconomics; Ensaios em macroeconomia de desenvolvimento

Salles, João Moreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/01/2012 EN
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Developing macroeconomics is less about looking for ways to say that economic rules stemming from research in developed countries don't apply to emerging-markets, than it is about trying to understand the many stages these economies go through in the natural course of their development. There are, of course, exceptions, but economic phenomena tend to have common sources. These are, after all, generated by the incentives, designed or natural, that people face when dealing with their day to day decisions as they go about their everyday lives. In the two essays that follow, we try to stay true to that fundamental belief. Instead of searching for the proverbial "jabuticaba", we strive to understand how countries in different stages of development deal with a fundamental feature of "growing pains": crises, be they imported or locally generated. In the first essay, we look at an entirely novel feature of (some) developing economies: the potential to implement certain countercyclical policies when faced with an external shock. During the financial crisis of 2007-2009, to respond to a sudden stop in capital flows, many central banks in emerging market economies relied on credit policies. We build a quantitative small open economy model to study these credit policies. The main innovation of our setup is the presence of two imperfect credit markets...

Atividade de inovação em firmas de economias emergentes : proposta de um conjunto de novos indicadores

Marins, Luciana Manhães
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
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Os indicadores tradicionais de atividades inovativas, dentre os quais se destacam as estatísticas de pesquisa e desenvolvimento e patentes, se apoiam no argumento linear de que a pesquisa leva à comercialização de novas tecnologias. Baseados nos indicadores tradicionais, estudos recentes focados no processo de inovação industrial em economias emergentes afirmam que hoje em dia as firmas latino-americanas desempenham um papel passivo nas atividades inovadoras mundiais, caracterizado pela ausência de capacidades inovadoras. Esses indicadores, entretanto, não parecem ser os mais adequados para se medir a inovação, em especial em firmas dessa natureza. Isso porque eles se mostram limitados para captar como o processo de inovação ocorre no interior das firmas. O fato de que o comprometimento empresarial deliberado com a atividade de inovação seja relativamente menor em firmas localizadas em economias emergentes não necessariamente implica a ausência de atividades inovadoras nas mesmas. Possivelmente, atividades inovadoras se desdobram de maneira diferente. Sua avaliação, portanto, requer o uso de outras medidas. Este estudo tem como objetivo desenvolver um conjunto de novos indicadores de atividades inovativas que ampliem o escopo de análise dos indicadores tradicionais no interior das firmas e testá-los em um grupo de firmas da economia brasileira. Para se garantir a acurácia dos novos indicadores de atividades inovativas...

Converting and Transferring Currency : Benchmarking Foreign Exchange Restrictions to Foreign Direct Investment Across Economies

Anderson, John
Fonte: World Bank, Washington DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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The ease of converting and transferring currency is a crucial consideration for firms investing in a foreign economy. The Converting and Transferring Currency data and indicators measure foreign exchange restrictions most relevant for foreign direct investment across economies to identify common policies and benchmark the restrictiveness of economies' foreign exchange regimes. Of 98 economies included in the analysis, 53 economies maintain generally unrestricted foreign exchange regimes for foreign direct investment. But 24 economies impose moderate to heavy restrictions across most transactions covered by the Converting and Transferring Currency indicators, with another 21 economies imposing administrative or procedural requirements. All high-income economies measured by the Converting and Transferring Currency data maintain unrestricted foreign exchange regimes for foreign direct investment, and the two poorest regions of South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa are the most restrictive regions on average. Still, there is significant variation in restrictiveness across economies at similar income levels: 38 percent of low-income and lower-middle-income economies impose moderate to heavy restrictions on transactions covered by the Converting and Transferring Currency data...

Economic Survey of Latin America and the Caribbean 2010-2011: Internacional integration and macroeconomic policy challenges amid global economic turmoil

Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
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Includes bibliography; After contracting in 2009, GDP expanded by 5.9% in Latin America and the Caribbean in 2010, albeit with the region's hallmark differences in performance from one country to another. The expansion in output was driven by strong domestic demand in the forms of both consumption and investment, and by buoyant external demand. On the domestic demand side, private consumption (up 5.9%) was sustained by an upturn in employment and wages, brightening economic expectations, an expansion in lending to the private sector and, in some countries, an upswing in remittances from emigrant workers. Public consumption rose at a more modest rate of 3.9% and investment jumped by 14.5%, with strong growth in the machinery and equipment segments in particular. On the external demand side, exports of goods and services were especially buoyant —rising by over 10%— in the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) countries, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Mexico and Nicaragua. Meanwhile, imports of goods and services increased by more than 10% at constant prices on the back of robust domestic demand within the region, which rose 7.5%.For 2011, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) projects regional GDP growth of 4.7%...

Competitiveness factors: a portuguese perspective

Bongardt, A.; Varum, C. A.
Fonte: INA - Instituto Nacional de Administração, I.P. Publicador: INA - Instituto Nacional de Administração, I.P.
Tipo: Livro
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This book aims at contributing to the on-going discussion about economies’ performance and firm competitiveness by looking at what the contemporary and emerging factors of firm competitiveness are within the present setting characterized by globalization, the knowledge-based economy and technological and climate change. It looks at what factors are critical for competitiveness, focussing on a Portuguese perspective within the EU context. While an adequate economic and institutional framework in the EU and its member states (an issue addressed within the Lisbon Agenda) importantly conditions firms’ competitiveness, this book primarily deals with the firm level and considers how firms may transform the challenges and constraints brought about by a rapidly changing business environment into economic opportunity. To find out what provides a decisive edge for companies on the global market one needs to analyze the leading competitiveness factors today, but also try to understand what those competitiveness factors will or could look like within the medium and longer term. The book brings together a range of contributions combining illustrative data and theory on the subject of competitiveness from contributors with different backgrounds...