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Primary and secondary use of electric mobility batteries from a life cycle perspective

Faria, Ricardo; Marques, Pedro; Garcia, Rita; Moura, Pedro; Freire, Fausto; Delgado, Joaquim; Almeida, Aníbal T. de
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.61%
With age and cycling, batteries used in Electric Vehicles (EVs) will reach a point in which they will no longer be suitable for electric mobility; however, they still can be used in stationary energy storage. This article aims at assessing the Life-Cycle (LC) environmental impacts associated with the use of a battery in an EV and secondly, at assessing the LC environmental impacts/benefits of using a battery, no longer suitable for electric mobility, for energy storage in a household. Three electricity mixes with different shares of renewable, nuclear and fossil energy sources are considered. For the primary battery use, three in-vehicle use scenarios are assessed, addressing three different driving profiles. For the secondary use, two scenarios of energy storage strategies are analyzed: peak shaving and load shifting. Results show that a light use of the battery in the EV has 42–50% less impacts per km than an intensive use. After its use in the vehicle, the battery life can be extended by 1.8–3.3 years; however, this is not always beneficial from an environmental point of view, since the impacts are strongly dependent on the electricity generation mix and on the additional efficiency losses in the battery.

Contaminação de solos por metais tóxicos provenientes do descarte inadequado de pilhas Zinco-Carbono de uso doméstico; Soil contamination of toxic metals from zinc carbon batteries inadequate disposal

Gazano, Vanessa Santos Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/03/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
O presente trabalho determinou a concentração dos metais zinco, manganês, cádmio, chumbo, níquel, cobre e cromo no efluente e solo de quatro colunas de latossolo indeformadas. Duas colunas foram contaminadas por pilhas do tipo zinco-carbono e duas colunas foram utilizadas como referência, além de pilhas isoladas, foram todas lixiviadas por uma solução "água de chuva" (HNO3 + H2SO4, pH 4,0). Os metais no efluente e no solo foram determinados pela técnica de ICP-OES. A avaliação do efluente e do solo das colunas contaminadas pelas pilhas mostrou um incremento das concentrações dos metais, principalmente de zinco, manganês e chumbo. A sequência das massas acumuladas dos metais no efluente e no solo da coluna contaminada apresentaram uma sequência semelhante a da lixiviação isolada da pilha (Zn > Mn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Ni > Cd), confirmando a influência da pilha nas concentrações dos metais no efluente e solo das colunas. Observou-se também que a contaminação de Zn e Mn tende a migrar da camada superior da coluna de solo para as camadas inferiores. O estudo mostrou que as pilhas podem causar uma contaminação significativa do solo para os metais Zn, Mn e Pb e possivelmente também para Cd. Esta contaminação do solo poderia vir a causar uma contaminação da água subterrânea para os metais Zn...

A methodology to select the electric propulsion system for Platform Supply Vessels (PSV).; Uma metodologia para selecionar o sistema de propulsão elétrico para navios de apoio a plataformas (PSV).

Morales Vásquez, Cristian Andrés
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/04/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.61%
The present work proposes a methodology to define the electric propulsion system for PSVs. This methodology was applied to a case study: the conceptual design of a PSV for operation at the pre-salt fields at Santos basin. First, four different alternatives of electric propulsion systems for the PSV are presented and sized. The first one has induction motors as main propulsion motors, the second one has synchronous motors as main propulsion motors; the third and fourth alternatives are the same as the first and second, respectively, with a batteries bank connected to the main switchboard. Each of the four arrangements was contemplated with two options for Diesel generators: high speed and medium speed generator sets. The mass, volume, fuel consumption, exhaust gases emissions and reference capital costs for each arrangement are estimated and analyzed. Moreover, an economic analysis through the Net Present Value (NPV) is performed. The methodology ends with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to support the decision making procedure. Some of the parameters obtained for each arrangement (mass, volume, fuel consumption, exhaust gases and NPV) are used as criteria and sub-criteria for selection. Two scenarios are evaluated, the first scenario gives more importance to the financial component of the design; the second scenario sets the exhaust gases emissions as the more significant parameter. The results were different...

Metodologias de dimensionamento e de gestão de fontes de energia para veículos elétricos; Optimal sizing and power management methodologies of energy sources for electric vehicle

Juliana Lopes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/10/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
O sistema de armazenamento de energia (ESS - Energy-Storage System), em veículos elétricos, constituído por baterias e/ou supercapacitores pode agregar elevado custo ou elevada massa ao veículo caso o número de módulos dessas fontes seja inadequado. Nesta Tese são propostas duas metodologias aplicadas ao dimensionamento da ESS a fim de encontrar configurações de menor massa possível. Essas configurações devem ser capazes de suprir energia para o veículo elétrico em um dado perfil de alto valor de potência requerida. São investigadas ESSs com diferentes tipos de baterias e supercapacitores a fim de se obter um amplo range de escolhas de configurações em relação a peso e custo. Além de uma unidade ESS o veículo possui uma fonte de autonomia que pode ser uma célula a combustível ou uma unidade gerador/motor à combustão interna. A primeira metodologia de dimensionamento investiga configurações de ESS híbridas ou constituídas apenas por baterias ou supercapacitores para um veículo do tipo Sport Utility Vehicle. Esta metodologia utiliza os coeficientes de potência e energia específicas a partir das curvas de Ragone das fontes da ESS. Os resultados mostraram, que, dentre as configurações de ESSs investigadas...

Otimização dos armazenadores de energia elétrica de um veículo híbrido em função do ciclo de condução = : Optimization of the electric energy storage systems of a hybrid electric vehicle in function of the driving cycle; Optimization of the electric energy storage systems of a hybrid electric vehicle in function of the driving cycle

Fabio Mazzariol Santiciolli
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/02/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.56%
Este trabalho tem a intenção de contribuir com o projeto de veículos elétricos híbridos com foco no compromisso entre economia de combustível e custo de rodagem. Com esta finalidade, faz-se uma revisão sobre a modelagem de alguns dos principais subsistemas dos veículos elétricos híbridos, como ultracapacitores, baterias, motores elétricos e motores de combustão interna, bem como sobre as formas de associação destes subsistemas em torno do veículo completo. Também se revisam os fatores que compõe a dinâmica veicular longitudinal como o Arrasto Aerodinâmico, a Resistência à Rolagem e a Resistência ao Aclive. Após o domínio dos subsistemas mais importantes e da dinâmica veicular, montam-se modelos matemáticos de veículos completos e em torno de simulações computacionais. Neste estudo fazem-se quatro tipos de simulações principais, uma relativa a um veículo convencional e outras três versões alternativas hibridizadas, variando-se o modo de associação entre baterias, ultracapacitores, choppers e motores elétricos. Em sequência, para cada versão otimizam-se os armazenadores em função da capacidade de tração elétrica e do ciclo brasileiro normatizado de condução urbana. Por fim faz-se uma análise crítica dos resultados.; This research intends to contribute to the design of hybrid electric vehicles focusing on compromise between fuel economy and running costs. For this purpose...

Smart battery charger for electric mobility in smart grids

Monteiro, Vítor; Ferreira, João C.; Afonso, João L.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /04/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
In this paper is presented the development of a smart batteries charger for Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs), aiming their integration in Smart Grids. The batteries charging process is controlled by an appropriate control algorithm, aiming to preserve the batteries lifespan. The main features of the equipment are the mitigation of the power quality degradation and the bidirectional operation, as Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) and as Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G). During the charging process (G2V), the consumed current is sinusoidal and the power factor is unitary. Along the discharging process (V2G), when the equipment allows delivering back to the electrical power grid a small amount of the energy stored in the batteries, the current is also sinusoidal. The V2G mode of operation will be one of the main features of the Smart Grids, both to collaborate with the electrical power grid to increase stability, and to function as a distributed Energy Storage System (ESS). The functioning of the smart batteries charger is shown through simulation and experimental results, both during the charging (G2V) and the discharging (V2G) modes of operation. Also in this paper are shown and briefly described the roles of the key concepts related with the Smart Grids in terms of Systems and Functional Areas...

Bidirectional multilevel converter for electric vehicles

Monteiro, Vítor; Pinto, J. G.; Ferreira, João C.; Gonçalves, Henrique; Afonso, João L.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 11/07/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
In this paper is presented an H-Bridge Multilevel Converter topology for Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs). The topology of the presented multilevel converter allows the interface between the batteries, the electric motor of the vehicle, and the electrical power grid. Thereby, taking into account that the proposed multilevel converter requires the use of isolated voltage sources, the interface between the batteries and the multilevel converter is evaluated regarding the converter operation as a Battery Management System (BMS), controlling the charging and discharging processes. The interface between the multilevel converter and the electrical power grid is described considering a bidirectional operation. These modes of operation occur during the batteries charging process, denominated as Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V), and during the operation as Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G), that consists in delivering back to the electrical power grid a small amount of the energy stored in the batteries, in accordance with the electrical grid requirements and with the vehicle driver accordance. In both modes of operation, the waveform of the AC current of the electrical power grid is kept sinusoidal with unitary power factor...

Comparison of charging systems for electric vehicles and their impact on electrical grid

Monteiro, Vítor; Ferreira, João C.; Pinto, J. G.; Exposto, Bruno; Pedrosa, Delfim; Afonso, João L.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 11/07/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.73%
This paper presents a comparison of four types of on-board batteries charging systems for Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs), and their impact on the power quality of the electrical power grid. In the comparison are analyzed the features, the characteristics and the operation of each charging system, aiming their controllability and their impact on the electrical grid, mainly considering the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of the consumed current and the power factor. Besides the normal mode of operation to charge the batteries, denominated Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V), in this paper is also discussed the possibility of operation as Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G), in which the batteries of the Electric Vehicle return part of the stored energy back to the electrical grid. The operation of the batteries charging systems for EVs is shown through simulations and experimental results.; FEDER Funds - Operational Programme for Competitiveness Factors (COMPETE); Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) - PTDC/EEA-EEL/104569/2008, MITPT/ EDAM-SMS/0030/2008

Smart charging system of the electric vehicle CEPIUM

Monteiro, Vítor; Pedrosa, Delfim; Exposto, Bruno; Ferreira, João C.; Afonso, João L.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 11/07/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
In this paper is presented the development of a smart batteries charging system for the Electric Vehicle (EV) CEPIUM, aiming the integration of EVs in the future Smart Grids. The main features of the developed charging system are the mitigation of the power quality degradation and the bidirectional operation, as Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) and as Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G). The batteries charging process is controlled by an appropriate control algorithm, aiming to preserve the batteries lifespan. During the charging process (G2V), the consumed current is sinusoidal and the power factor is unitary. Along the discharging process (V2G), when the equipment allows delivering back to the electrical power grid part of the energy stored in the batteries, the current is also sinusoidal.; FEDER Funds - Operational Programme for Competitiveness Factors (COMPETE); Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) - PTDC/EEA-EEL/104569/2008, MITPT/ EDAM-SMS/0030/2008.

Real-time information extraction of an electric vehicle

Ferreira, João C.; Monteiro, Vítor; Afonso, João L.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 11/07/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.73%
In this paper is presented the development of a project to extract, in real-time, information’s related with an Electric Vehicle (EV). This project was elaborated to extract data from an EV battery charging device developed at the University of Minho, and from an EV prototype, the VEECO (Veículo Eléctrico ECOlógico – Ecologic Electric Vehicle), developed in a cooperation project of ISEL (Lisbon Superior Institute of Engineering) and the Portuguese company VE. The main goal of this project consists in collecting and transmitting the extracted data to inform the EV driver about the performance and the real behavior of the EV. Thereby, it is created an open interface to manage, in real-time, the main data related with the EV, as the batteries SoC (State-of-Charge), the EV speed, and internal temperatures (like the temperatures of the batteries, motor and power electronics inverter), as well as to control the start and stop of the batteries charging process, and to optimize the charging program (to define the best algorithm to preserve the batteries lifespan). This interface also controls the discharging process of the batteries, in order to make possible to deliver back to the electrical power grid part of the stored energy in the batteries...

Assessment of a battery charger for electric vehicles with reactive power control

Monteiro, Vítor; Pinto, J. G.; Exposto, Bruno; Gonçalves, Henrique; Ferreira, João C.; Couto, Carlos; Afonso, João L.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 25/10/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
Batteries of Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) have a large potential not only to provide energy for the locomotion of these vehicles, but also to interact, in dynamic way, with the power grid. Thereby, through the energy stored in the batteries, these vehicles can be used to regulate the active and the reactive power, as local Energy Storage Systems. This way, EVs can contribute to help the power grid to regulate the active and reactive power flow in order to stabilize the production and consumption of energy. For this propose should be defined usage profiles, controlled by a collaborative broker, taking into account the requirements of the power grid and the conveniences of the vehicle user. Besides, the interface between the power grid and the EVs, instead of using typical power converters that only work on unidirectional mode, need to use bidirectional power converters to charge the batteries (G2V - Grid-to-Vehicle mode) and to deliver part of the stored energy in the batteries back to the power grid (V2G - Vehicle-to-Grid mode). With the bidirectional power converter topology presented in this paper, the consumed current is sinusoidal and it is possible to regulate the power factor to control the reactive power...

Batteries charging systems for electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

Monteiro, Vítor; Gonçalves, Henrique; Ferreira, João C.; Afonso, João L.
Fonte: InTech Publicador: InTech
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em 01/08/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
Many countries have a large dependence on imported fossil fuels whose prices increase almost every day. Knowing that much of this consumption is for transportation systems, it becomes essential to seek for alternatives. The natural bet is the electric mobility, namely through Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs). However, the wide spread utilization of these vehicles has consequences on the electrical power grid, mainly in terms of load management and electric power quality, which are associated to the batteries charging systems. In this scenario, this chapter assesses the electric mobility integration in Smart Grid context, focusing different approaches to the operation of EVs and PHEVs charging processes and the specifications of the chargers, as well as different topologies of charging systems and their features, modes of operation, typical waveforms, and impact in the electrical power grid in terms of power quality. It is also presented a laboratory prototype of a bidirectional EV charger and shown some experimental results. This prototype was developed to charge the batteries aiming to preserve their lifespan, and to contribute to mitigate the degradation of the power quality. The experimental results show the operation of this prototype during the batteries charging process (G2V – Grid-to-Vehicle operation)...

Development of new organic electroactive materials for rechargeable batteries

Furtado, Olívia; Rangel, C. M.
Fonte: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia Publicador: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 10/11/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.65%
The need for a clean and sustainable energy supply in the transportation sector have prompted electric vehicles as one of the options to reduce fossil fuel dependency and greenhouse gases emissions. Furthermore, electric vehicles are seen as enablers of the storage capacity of electric grids. In this context, the reasobnable energy density and cyclability reached by lithium-ion batteries based on inorganic cathodes have placed them in considerable advantage regarding energy conversation and storage [1, 2]. For higher energy density, lower cost and more environmentally acceptable batteries research efforts are presently focus on organic-based electrodes as a new approach to conventional inorganic cathodes. [3]. In his work, we carried out the development of a derivative of polymide (PI) for use as electrochemically active cathode material in rechargeable lithium batteries. Even though the application of polyimide as electrode material is scarcely found due to its insulating character, its aromatic imide group can be electrochemically oxidized and reduced in a reversible manner [4, 5]. This paper will present the studies on the synthesis and chemical characterization of a polyimide derivate and its evaluation as cathode organic polymer after electrochemical characterization. Test half-cell testing and battery constitution are being planned. The use of polyimide derivates is considered promising because of the potentiial increase in specific discharge capacity...

A pulsed power system design using lithium-ion batteries and one charger per battery

Filler, Frank E.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xviii, 82 p. : ill. ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; The work documented in this thesis realizes a small-scale implementation of a Battery Management System (BMS) that has the charging, storage, and discharge capabilities to meet scaled down requirements of a pulsed power system. Further, this work establishes a flexible battery research and testing capability resident at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS). The designed architecture will provide this flexibility by providing the capability to change charging methodologies and types of batteries with only a change of the FPGA software. The BMS design uses lithium-ion batteries as the energy storage medium and uses one charger per battery for maximum charging flexibility. In order to meet a pulsed power system's requirements, the BMS performs three functions: charging lithium-ion batteries, storing energy for the pulsed power application in lithium-ion batteries, and discharging the energy in pulses to simulate the requirements of a pulse power system. To perform these three functions the BMS has several elements to include the power source, the charger, the batteries, the FPGA controller, and the discharge mechanism. The design and construction of the BMS and these individual elements will be explored in detail in this thesis.; US Marine Corps (USMC) author.

Improving Safety and Performance Testing for EV Batteries

WESTGEEST Alfons; BRETT Lois
Fonte: World Electric Vehicle Association Publicador: World Electric Vehicle Association
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: Online
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
Alfons Westgeest and Lois Brett will present on the mutual activities of EUROBAT – the Association of European Automotive and Industrial Battery Manufacturers – and the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) to improve the standardization framework for safety and performance testing for Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) and Electric Vehicle (EV) batteries. EUROBAT and the JRC began formal cooperation in 2012 to support the JRC Institute for Energy and Transport’s (IET) battery energy storage testing for safe electric transport (BESTEST) activity. The BESTEST programme was initiated after the JRC-IET signed a letter of intent for closer cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DoE) on EVs and SmartGrids during a meeting of the EU-US Transatlantic Economic Community (TEC) in 2011. It contributes to the TEC’s overarching objective to remove regulatory and standardization barriers between both countries, which could otherwise impede the broad commercialization of (H)EVs. JRC-IET’s BESTEST activity will provide impartial and balanced scientific evidence to ensure that European standardisation supports legislation and policies on clean transport. BESTEST's role in the transatlantic letter of intent is to accelerate the electrification of transport by contributing to the development of harmonised testing methodologies and global standards specifically related to EV batteries. Through these activities BESTEST will ultimately facilitate technology development and innovation thereby enhancing the global competitiveness of European industry.; JRC.F.2-Cleaner energy

OPTIMIZATION OF BATTERIES FOR PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

English, JEFFREY
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
This thesis presents a method to quickly determine the optimal battery for an electric vehicle given a set of vehicle characteristics and desired performance metrics. The model is based on four independent design variables: cell count, cell capacity, state-of-charge window, and battery chemistry. Performance is measured in seven categories: cost, all-electric range, maximum speed, acceleration, battery lifetime, lifetime greenhouse gas emissions, and charging time. The performance of each battery is weighted according to a user-defined objective function to determine its overall fitness. The model is informed by a series of battery tests performed on scaled-down battery samples. Seven battery chemistries were tested for capacity at different discharge rates, maximum output power at different charge levels, and performance in a real-world automotive duty cycle. The results of these tests enable a prediction of the performance of the battery in an automobile. Testing was performed at both room temperature and low temperature to investigate the effects of battery temperature on operation. The testing highlighted differences in behavior between lithium, nickel, and lead based batteries. Battery performance decreased with temperature across all samples with the largest effect on nickel-based chemistries. Output power also decreased with lead acid batteries being the least affected by temperature. Lithium-ion batteries were found to be highly efficient (>95%) under a vehicular duty cycle; nickel and lead batteries have greater losses. Low temperatures hindered battery performance and resulted in accelerated failure in several samples. Lead acid...

Smart platform towards batteries analysis based on internet-of-things

Monteiro, Vítor Duarte Fernandes; Ferreira, João C.; Afonso, João L.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /11/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
This paper presents a new approach of pre-defined profiles, based in different voltage and current values, to control the charging and discharging processes of batteries in order to assess their performance. This new approach was implemented in a prototype that was specially developed for such purpose. This prototype is a smart power electronics platform that allows to perform batteries analysis and to control the charging and discharging processes through a web application using pre-defined profiles. This platform was developed aiming to test different batteries technologies. Considering the relevance of the energy storage area based in batteries, especially for the batteries applied to electric mobility systems, this platform allows to perform controlled tests to the batteries, in order to analyze the batteries performance under different scenarios of operation. Besides the results obtained with the batteries, this work also intends to produce results that can contribute to an involvement in the strengthening of the Internet-of-Things.; FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia within the Project Scope: Pest-OE/EEI/UI0319/2014.

A microprocessor based control system for an electric vehicle

Moffatt, Ronald C.
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.61%
The control system described in this thesis is a low cost system designed to control the speed of an electric vehicle by adjusting the speed of a compound wound DC motor. The speed control method developed in this system is a combination of battery tapping, for control of the armature voltage, and pulse width modulation for field control; both generated by a microprocessor. Using a microprocessor, the control system is readily adaptable to a variety of motor voltages and motor control techniques by modifying the internal firmware of the processor. Overcurrent protection is included to prolong battery and motor life. Regenerative braking is automatic upon release of the accelerator and has two levels for maximum energy recovery. A display of the remaining charge in the vehicle's batteries has a continually powered memory to retain the information when the vehicle is parked. This display is also temperature compensated to reflect the characteristics of lead acid batteries over varying temperatures. The control system was installed in a test vehicle where it was debugged and evaluated.

Sustainability impact of nanomaterial enhanced lithium ion batteries

Ganter, Matthew
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Dissertação
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
Energy storage devices are becoming an integral part of sustainable energy technology adoption, particularly, in alternative transportation (electric vehicles) and renewable energy technologies (solar and wind which are intermittent). The most prevalent technology exhibiting near-term impact are lithium ion batteries, especially in portable consumer electronics and initial electric vehicle models like the Chevy Volt and Nissan Leaf. However, new technologies need to consider the full life-cycle impacts from material production and use phase performance to the end-of-life management (EOL). This dissertation investigates the impacts of nanomaterials in lithium ion batteries throughout the life cycle and develops strategies to improve each step in the process. The embodied energy of laser vaporization synthesis and purification of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was calculated to determine the environmental impact of the novel nanomaterial at beginning of life. CNTs were integrated into lithium ion battery electrodes as conductive additives, current collectors, and active material supports to increase power, energy, and thermal stability in the use phase. A method was developed to uniformly distribute CNT conductive additives in composites. Cathode composites with CNT additives had significant rate improvements (3x the capacity at a 10C rate) and higher thermal stability (40% reduction in exothermic energy released upon overcharge). Similar trends were also measured with CNTs in anode composites. Advanced free-standing anodes incorporating CNTs with high capacity silicon and germanium were measured to have high capacities where surface area reduction improved coulombic efficiencies and thermal stability. A thermal stability plot was developed that compares the safety of traditional composites with free-standing electrodes...

The storage of renewable energy: a comparative examination of deep-cycle batteries and hydrogen fuel cell systems

Waegel, Alexander Francis
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
Byrne, John; This thesis examines two energy storage technologies, hydrogen fuel cell systems and electrochemical batteries, on the basis of their technological capabilities and their economic costs. The technological capabilities examined are efficiency, size, and performance abilities. These factors are used to determine which of the two technologies would be better suited in the implementation of a renewable energy system as the dominant energy carrier.; University of Delaware, Department of Urban Affairs & Public Policy; M.A.