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Crimes eleitorais e controle material da propaganda eleitoral: necessidade e utilidade da criminalização da mentira na política; Electoral crimes and material control of electoral propaganda: the need and usefulness of the criminalization of lies in politics

Neisser, Fernando Gaspar
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/08/2014 PT
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46.59%
A dissertação propõe um questionamento quanto à legitimidade da criminalização da propaganda eleitoral falsa. Para tanto, analisa o papel das eleições na Democracia e o papel da Justiça Eleitoral, no Brasil, como instituição incumbida de sua organização, realização e regulação. Em seguida, identifica a propaganda política como meio de que se valem as campanhas eleitorais para o convencimento dos eleitores, estudando sua evolução histórica até o desenvolvimento do marketing eleitoral, suas características e os limites, formais e materiais, que lhe são impostos normativamente no Brasil. A partir destes elementos, a pesquisa foca-se no crime de divulgação de fatos inverídicos na propaganda eleitoral, previsto no artigo 323 do Código Eleitoral. São averiguadas a legitimidade e necessidade da criminalização, perquirindo quanto ao bem jurídico tutelado e ao risco no qual este é colocado pela conduta proibida, especialmente quanto ao efeito que a propaganda eleitoral falsa tem na formação do voto do eleitor. Por fim, sob o enfoque da política criminal, são questionadas a viabilidade do controle de conteúdo da propaganda eleitoral, conduzido pela Justiça Eleitoral, e sua oportunidade, à luz das consequências que traz à sociedade.; The dissertation proposes a questioning of the legitimacy of criminalizing false electoral propaganda. It analyzes the role of elections in democracy and of the Electoral Justice in Brazil...

City Development Strategy : Peshawar, Volume 1. Main Report

Peshawar City District
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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16.08%
The newly delineated Peshawar City District (PCD) has undergone significant transformations in the past ten years. Originally encompassing the adjoining districts of Charsadda and Nowshera, the district gradually shrunk in size after both sub-divisions acquired a district status of their own in the mid-nineties. However, as the provincial capital, Peshawar continues to enjoy a special status within North West Frontier Province (NWFP). It houses the provincial parliament, headquarters of all provincial public sector agencies, major Banks, Development Finance Institutions (DFls), academic institutions, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), industry, various trading houses, and major private sector institutions. Over two million people co-exist in Peshawar in an environment that is marked by a high incidence of poverty, unemployment, poor access to quality social services, alarming levels of air and water pollution, and a worsening law and order situation. Their aggregate effect is that Peshawar has not only become a less desirable city from the perspective of the common citizenry...

The Publicity “Defect” of Customary Law

Gauri, Varun
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.08%
This paper examines the extent to which dispute resolvers in customary law systems provide widely understandable justifications for their decisions. The paper first examines the liberal-democratic reasons for the importance of publicity, understood to be wide accessibility of legal justification, by reviewing the uses of publicity in Habermas and Rawls accounts of the rule of law. Taking examples from Sierra Leone, the paper then argues that customary law systems would benefit from making the reasons for local dispute resolution practices, such as "begging" from elders, witchcraft, and openness of hearings, more widely accessible. The paper concludes that although legal pluralism is usually taken to be an analytical concept, it may have a normative thrust as well, and that publicity standards would also apply to formal courts in developing countries, which are also typically "defective" along this dimension.

Developing Capacity Through Networks : Lessons from Anticorruption Parliamentary Coalitions

Campbell, Meaghan; Stapenhurst, Frederick C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.08%
National, regional, or global networks of parliamentarians are proving important vehicles for enhancing their capacity and the effectiveness of parliaments and parliamentarians in developing countries. The networks have been particularly active in fighting corruption and mitigating its negative impacts on economic and human development. This Capacity Development (CD) Brief reviews the activities of several such networks worldwide at the individual, regional, and global levels that are making a difference in the ability of parliamentarians to address corruption in their countries.

Liberia Public Expenditure Review Note : Meeting the Challenges of the UNMIL Security Transition

World Bank; United Nations Mission in Liberia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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26.08%
A history of poor governance culminated in nearly fifteen years (1989-2003) of brutal conflict that destroyed lives, key institutions and infrastructure, and brought the Liberian economy to a halt. The origins of the conflict were rooted in the marginalization and/or exclusion over many years of a large part of the Liberian population from political power and the economic wealth flowing from the country s substantial natural resources. The new government articulated a broad vision of a peaceful, secure, and prosperous Liberia as described in lift Liberia-the country s first poverty reduction strategy. During this period, Liberia made good progress as the economy recovered and growth was sustained, especially in the urban areas. This was supported by macroeconomic stability characterized by low inflation, essentially balanced budgets, and a significant reduction in external debt as well as significant inflows of foreign direct investment to the agriculture and mining sectors. A second democratic election took place in October 2011 with a run-off in November that led to victory for the incumbent party...

Kingdom of Lesotho Local Governance, Decentralization, and Demand-Driven Service Delivery, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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26.39%
After more than 35 years, the elected local government system in Lesotho was reestablished in 2005 through the election of the Local Authorities, i.e. the Community and District Councils (CCs and DCs). Across the political spectrum, the political will to move forward was at its peak. An exemplary campaign to educate the entire population as to the purposes and functioning of the new Local Authorities, and the electoral process preceded the election. The purposes of the new system are the improvement in services and access to government, broad participation of the local population in their own development combined with enhanced accountability to them, and promotion of equitable development in all parts of the country. The establishment of the Local Authorities and their election was received by even the remotest populations with great enthusiasm, and the elected Councilors have taken up their job with energy and commitment. The objectives of this report derive from the general priorities of the Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) of Lesotho which emphasizes pro-poor growth...

City Development Strategy : Peshawar, Volume 2. Assessment

Peshawar City District
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.08%
The newly delineated Peshawar City District (PCD) has undergone significant transformations in the past ten years. Originally encompassing the adjoining districts of Charsadda and Nowshera, the district gradually shrunk in size after both sub-divisions acquired a district status of their own in the mid-nineties. However, as the provincial capital, Peshawar continues to enjoy a special status within North West Frontier Province (NWFP). It houses the provincial parliament, headquarters of all provincial public sector agencies, major Banks, Development Finance Institutions (DFls), academic institutions, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), industry, various trading houses, and major private sector institutions. Over two million people co-exist in Peshawar in an environment that is marked by a high incidence of poverty, unemployment, poor access to quality social services, alarming levels of air and water pollution, and a worsening law and order situation. Their aggregate effect is that Peshawar has not only become a less desirable city from the perspective of the common citizenry...

The responsibility to prevent : overcoming the challenges of atrocity prevention

Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Livro
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.6%
Among the constitutive elements of the responsibility to protect (R2P), prevention has been deemed by many as the most important. Drawing on contributions from an international group of academics and practitioners, this book seeks to improve our knowledge of how to operationalize the responsibility to prevent genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and ethnic cleansing. The central argument is that the responsibility to prevent should be conceptualized as crimes prevention. The first part of the volume develops a strategic framework, which includes identifying the appropriate scope and substance of R2Ps preventive dimension and distinguishing between systemic and targeted approaches. The second section examines some of the tools that can be used, and have been used, to prevent the escalation of dynamics towards the commission of atrocity crimes (tools such as sanctions, mediation, international criminal justice, and the use of military means), as well as the operational challenges that tend to obstruct global efforts to prevent such crimes. The third and final section draws lessons from actual cases of preventive action, both historical and recent, about the relative success of particular tools and approaches. As the first edited collection of its kind...

Access to electoral rights : Ireland

O'DOWD, John; COUTTS, Stephen
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Electoral rights for Irish citizens abroad and for foreign residents have been a topic of political debate (less so of legislative reform) for at least fifty years. There is a long-standing demand that Irish emigrants be given some parliamentary representation, in either the upper house (Seanad Éireann) or the lower house (Dáil Éireann). The only electoral rights granted to Irish citizens not ordinarily resident in the State are the right to be elected to either house of parliament and, for graduates of certain universities within the State, a vote in the election of the Senators representing those universities. Elections to the European Parliament apart, in relation to the electoral rights of non-citizens ordinarily resident in Ireland, a sharp distinction exists between local elections (where all ordinarily resident in the State, irrespective of citizenship, have both active and passive electoral rights) and elections to Dáil Éireann, in which only Irish citizens have the right to be elected and only Irish citizens, British citizens (and, potentially, citizens of other European Union member states) have the right to vote. Wide extension of electoral rights in local elections has been uncontroversial and there was little opposition to the constitutional amendment in 1984 providing for the possibility of noncitizens voting in Dáil elections. Issues concerning the extension of electoral rights generally appear to provoke relatively little public interest; extending a form of postal voting to all prisoners in the State...

Randomized Impact Evaluation of Afghanistan's National Solidarity Programme; Final Report

Beath, Andrew; Christia, Fotini; Enikolopov, Ruben
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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26.08%
The National Solidarity Programme (NSP) is the largest development program in Afghanistan. Since its inauguration in 2003, NSP has established 32,000 Community Development Councils (CDCs) across 361 districts in all of Afghanistan's 34 provinces and has financed nearly 65,000 development projects. NSP seeks to improve the access of rural villagers to basic services and to create a foundation of village governance based on democratic processes and female participation. The program is structured around two major village-level interventions: 1) the creation of a gender-balanced CDC through a secret-ballot, universal suffrage election; and 2) the disbursement of block grants, valued at $200 per household up to a community maximum of $60,000, to fund village-level projects selected, designed, and managed by the CDC in consultation with villagers. The NSP Impact Evaluation (NSP-IE) is a multi-year randomized control trial designed to measure the effects of implementation of the second phase of NSP on a broad range of economic...

Does Female Reservation Affect Long-Term Political Outcomes? Evidence from Rural India

Deininger, Klaus; Jin, Songqing; Nagarajan, Hari K.; Fang, Xia
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Although many studies have explored the impacts of political quotas for females, often with ambiguous results, the underlying mechanisms and long-term effects have received little attention. This paper uses nation-wide data from India spanning a 15-year period to explore how reservations affect leader qualifications, service delivery, political participation, local accountability, and individuals willingness to contribute to public goods. Although leader quality declines and impacts on service quality are often negative, gender quotas are shown to increase the level and quality of women's political participation, the ability to hold leaders to account, and the willingness to contribute to public goods. Key effects persist beyond the reserved period and impacts on females often materialize only with a lag.

The Political Economy of Social Accountability in Nepal

Tamang, Seira; Malena, Carmen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.08%
The World Bank has introduced a new Program for Accountability in Nepal (PRAN) to enhance the capacities of civil society and government actors to utilize social accountability approaches and tools. This political economy study seeks to inform the PRAN by identifying the strengths and opportunities as well as risks and obstacles for social accountability initiatives in Nepal. It includes recommendations for managing and addressing these issues. The study is based on primary and secondary research conducted from September 2010 to February 2011. The research methodology utilized for this study was three-fold. First, a literature review was undertaken including in-country laws, policies and regulations, as well as a range of studies and articles on issues of relevance to social accountability in Nepal. A bibliography of these materials is attached as annex one. Second, semi-structured interviews were conducted with key civil society leaders, non-governmental organization (NGO) staff, journalists, academics, government officials...

O Ministério Público eleitoral frente à ineficácia das leis eleitorais

Sousa, Thaís Soares
Fonte: Universidade Católica de Brasília Publicador: Universidade Católica de Brasília
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: Texto
PT_BR
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26.81%
O presente estudo traz em seu desenvolvimento como se deu o surgimento do direito eleitoral, bem como alguns dos princípios que norteiam este ramo do direito, suas peculiaridades, e a atuação do Ministério Público frente os crimes praticados por candidatos, que abusam do poder econômico e político a fim de desequilibrarem o processo eleitoral. Verifica-se, contudo que o processo eleitoral deixa lacunas, ocasião em que a punição destes crimes, ainda que exista de fato sanção prevista em lei, não ocorre da maneira necessária, de modo que os políticos não se intimidam ao praticarem condutas criminosas em período eleitoral, haja vista que o Código Eleitoral é um Diploma legal antigo, e suas tipificações legais não condizem mais às condutas que são frequentemente praticadas, de modo que as sanções aplicadas são pouco rigorosas frente aos atos praticados e não os inibem.; This study brings in its development as it gave the appearance of the electoral law, as well as some of the principles that guide this area of law, its peculiarities, and the role of prosecutors before the crimes committed by candidates, abuse de economic and political power in order to unbalance the electoral process. There is, however, that the electoral process leaves gaps...

Tough immigration enforcement likely hinders public cooperation with the police, and may undermine crime reporting

Gutierrez, Carmen; Kirk, David
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/10/2015 EN; EN
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The 2016 presidential election campaign has brought the role of immigrants in US society into sharp focus, with some Republican candidates claiming that they fuel crime. Carmen Gutierrez and David Kirk write that this anti-immigration rhetoric may actually be undermining public safety by eroding trust in the law. Examining the relationship between a city’s immigrant population and victimizations reported to police, they find that increased immigration is associated with lower reporting of violent crimes. They argue that these results may be due to concerns about detection and deportation experienced by undocumented immigrants who wish to avoid contact with the police.

Transitional justice in Kenya and the UN Special Rapporteur on Truth and Justice: Where to from here?

Asaala,Evelyne; Dicker,Nicole
Fonte: African Human Rights Law Journal Publicador: African Human Rights Law Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/20/2013 EN
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Transitional justice in Kenya responds predominantly to the two-month period of violence that devastated Kenya in the aftermath of disputed presidential elections in December 2007. Post-election violence left over 1300 dead and hundreds ofthousands displaced; many suffered abductions, illegal detentions, torture and ill-treatment, sexual violence and property rights violations. In this context, transitional justice endeavours to, among other objectives, bring accountability for human rights violations, promote victims' rights, and achieve national healing and reconciliation. The outcome of Kenya's 4 March 2013 general elections, with the election of Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta and William Samoei Ruto as Kenya's President and Deputy-President respectively, raised the stakes for transitional justice in Kenya. Both Kenyatta and Ruto have been indicted by the International Criminal Court, accused of crimes against humanity. While Ruto's trial began on 10 September 2013, as this article goes to print there is some consternation as to whether Kenyatta will cooperate with the ICC. His trial is scheduled to begin on 12 November 2013. Significantly, on 29 September 2011 the United Nations Human Rights Council, pursuant to Resolution 18/7, resolved to establish the mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the Promotion of Truth...