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Solving hard problems in election systems

Lin, Andrew
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Dissertação
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37.22%
An interesting problem in the field of computational social choice theory is that of elections, in which a winner or set of winners is to be deduced from preferences among a collection of agents, in a way that attempts to maximize the collective well-being of the agents. Besides their obvious use in political science, elections are also used computationally, such as in multiagent systems, in which different agents may have different beliefs and preferences and must reach an agreeable decision. Because the purpose of voting is to gain an understanding of a collection of actual preferences, dishonesty in an election system is often harmful to the welfare of the voters as a whole. Different forms of dishonesty can be performed by the voters (manipulation), by an outside agent affecting the voters (bribery), or by the chair, or administrator, of an election (control). The Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem shows that in all reasonable election systems, manipulation, or strategic voting, is always inevitable in some cases. Bartholdi, Tovey, and Trick counter by arguing that if finding such a manipulation is NP-hard, then manipulation by computationally-limited agents should not pose a significant threat. However, more recent work has exploited the fact that NP-hardness is only a worst-case measure of complexity...

Political snapshots: the undecided voter’s perceptions of internet based imagery during the 2004 presidential election campaign

Kunz, Joseph
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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36.84%
In the 2004 election, public perceptions of President George W. Bush and Democratic nominee John Kerry were shaped through a new medium: the Internet. A survey of 124 registered voters in Monroe County of New York State found a contingent of undecided voters to be significantly smaller than previously thought and that 4.5% of the sample reported being influenced by still imagery viewed on the Internet. Negative images had a greater influence on the respondents than positive images, although the source of the image played a significant role in determining whether an image was deemed positive or negative.