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Demand elasticities for food products in Brazil: a two-stage budgeting system

MENEZES, Tatiane A.; AZZONI, Carlos R.; SILVEIRA, Fernando G.
Fonte: ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD Publicador: ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
The object of this article is to estimate demand elasticities for a basket of staple food important for providing the caloric needs of Brazilian households. These elasticities are useful in the measurement of the impact of structural reforms on poverty. A two-stage demand system was constructed, based on data from Household Expenditure Surveys (POF) produced by IBGE (The Brazilian Bureau of Statistics) in 1987/88 and 1995/96. We have used panel data to estimate the model, and have calculated income, own-price, and cross-price elasticities for eight groups of goods and services and, in the second stage, for 11 sub groups of staple food products. We estimated those elasticities for the whole sample of consumers and for two income groups.

Uma análise das elasticidades de bens e serviços não fatores, sua estabilidade e o ajuste externo brasileiro pós-99 ; An analysis of the Brazilian external accounts elasticities of goods and services, its stability and the Brazilian external adjustment after 1999.

Barbosa, Fernando Honorato
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/09/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
Os recentes superávits comerciais da economia brasileira transformaram a percepção de elevada fragilidade das contas externas do país que se verificou nas duas últimas décadas e meia. Diante desta nova realidade, parece pertinente avaliarmos quais foram os determinantes deste saldo comercial a partir dos elementos tradicionais da literatura, como a taxa de câmbio, os preços externos e a renda doméstica e mundial. Com este propósito, foram estimadas equações de longo prazo para as exportações e importações brasileiras para que se pudesse avaliar as elasticidades do comércio de bens e serviços não fatores do país. A metodologia utilizada foi a de cointegração proposta por Johansen (1988) e Johansen e Juselius (1990). A estimação das elasticidades se dividiu em dois períodos: 1980-1998 e 1980-2005. Com tal divisão pretendemos capturar os efeitos da mudança do regime cambial de 1999 sobre as contas externas. Além disso, foram realizados uma série de testes recursivos para se checar a estabilidade, quebras e a robustez da cointegração destas variáveis. Os resultados obtidos foram satisfatórios para as elasticidades, condizentes com trabalhos anteriores, mas agregaram a informação da elasticidade para o conjunto de bens e serviços não fatores e não apenas de bens. Além disso...

A demanda por energia elétrica residencial no Brasil: 1999 - 2006: uma estimativa das elasticidades-preço e renda por meio de painel; The residential electric power demand in Brazil from 1999 to 2006: an estimation of price and income elasticities using panel data

Gomes, Ludmila de Sá Fonseca e
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/03/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
O objetivo deste trabalho é estimar as elasticidades-preço e renda da demanda residencial por energia elétrica no Brasil utilizando dados em painel. A heterogeneidade da economia brasileira faz com que existam diversos padrões de consumo residencial de energia elétrica e diferentes estruturas tarifárias entre as distribuidoras. Nesse sentido, este trabalho utiliza um banco de dados em painel formado por 63 distribuidoras de energia elétrica no Brasil, para o período 1999-2006. Isso permite controlar possíveis efeitos individuais não observáveis existentes entre as distribuidoras. Três métodos de estimação em painel foram aplicados: o Pooled OLS, o de Efeitos Fixos e o de Efeitos Aleatórios. Além disso, também foi testado se no período de racionamento de energia elétrica ocorrido no Brasil em 2001/2002, ocorreu alguma alteração na sensibilidade dos consumidores com relação a variações nas tarifas de energia elétrica e na renda dos consumidores no período. Os resultados mostraram que a utilização de dados em painel produz estimativas de elasticidades preço e renda de acordo com a teoria econômica. Além disso, os resultados ficaram próximos aos da literatura nacional. Os resultados também mostraram que no período do racionamento aumentou a sensibilidade dos consumidores com relação a alterações nas tarifas de energia elétrica.; The objective of this thesis is to estimate the price and income elasticities of residential electric power demand in Brazil using panel data. The heterogeneity of the Brazilian economy leads to the existence of different patterns of residential electric power consumption and different tariffs structures among the electric power utilities companies. In this regard...

Alimentos normais, light/diet e orgânicos: o consumo segundo as classes econômicas e suas elasticidades-renda; Regular food, light/diet and organic: consumption according to the different economic classes and their income elasticities

Oliveira, Fabíola Cristina Ribeiro de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/09/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
Esse trabalho apresenta as informações referentes ao comportamento de várias categorias de gastos, com destaque para o padrão de despesa e de aquisição física familiar com alimentos consumidos no domicílio, caracterizados como alimentos normais, orgânicos e light/diet, segundo as diferentes classes econômicas (alta, média e baixa). Também foram obtidas as elasticidades-renda da despesa e do consumo físico (kg) de vários itens de alimentos orgânicos e light/diet, comparando-as com os valores obtidos das elasticidades dos mesmos alimentos e/ou grupos de alimentos normais. Usando os dados da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares - POF 2008-2009, a população é dividida em três classes econômicas, a partir de uma metodologia que maximiza a desigualdade entre estratos, ou minimiza a desigualdade dentro dos estratos. Já o método econométrico usado na estimativa das elasticidades consiste em calcular a despesa média em dez classes de renda familiar per capita e ajustar uma função poligonal com três segmentos mostrando como o logaritmo da despesa per capita média por classe varia em função do logaritmo da renda per capita. Constata-se que para os domicílios de classe baixa a alimentação tem um peso maior no orçamento familiar e o padrão dietético é mais restrito...

Estimation of own and cross price elasticities of alcohol demand in the UK—A pseudo-panel approach using the Living Costs and Food Survey 2001–2009☆

Meng, Yang; Brennan, Alan; Purshouse, Robin; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Angus, Colin; Holmes, John; Meier, Petra Sylvia
Fonte: Elsevier North Holland Publicador: Elsevier North Holland
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.15%
•A pseudo-panel approach is used to estimate own- and cross-price elasticities of off- and on-trade alcoholic beverages.•Estimated own-price elasticities are all negative, with off-trade cider and beer being most elastic and off-trade spirits and on-trade ready-to-drinks least elastic.•Estimated cross-price elasticities are smaller in magnitude with a mix of positive and negative signs.•The results could be used for appraising the estimated impact of price-based interventions such as minimum unit pricing and taxation in the UK.

Bounds on Elasticities With Optimization Frictions: A Synthesis of Micro and Macro Evidence on Labor Supply

Chetty, Nadarajan
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Limited Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Limited
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.44%
How can price elasticities be identified when agents face optimization frictions such as adjustment costs or inattention? I derive bounds on structural price elasticities that are a function of the observed effect of a price change on demand, the size of the price change, and the degree of frictions. The degree of frictions is measured by the utility losses agents tolerate to deviate from the frictionless optimum. The bounds imply that frictions affect intensive margin elasticities much more than extensive margin elasticities. I apply these bounds to the literature on labor supply. The utility costs of ignoring the tax changes used to identify intensive margin labor supply elasticities are typically less than 1% of earnings. As a result, small frictions can explain the differences between micro and macro elasticities, extensive and intensive margin elasticities, and other disparate findings. Pooling estimates from existing studies, I estimate a Hicksian labor supply elasticity of 0.33 on the intensive margin and 0.25 on the extensive margin after accounting for frictions.; Economics

The Impact of Policies to Control Motor Vehicle Emissions in Mumbai, India

Takeuchi, Akie; Cropper, Maureen; Bento, Antonio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.15%
This paper examines the impact of measures to reduce emissions from passenger transport, specifically buses, cars, and two-wheelers in Mumbai. These include converting diesel buses to compressed natural gas (CNG), as the Indian Supreme Court required in Delhi, which would necessitate an increase in bus fares to cover the cost of pollution controls. The authors model an increase in the price of gasoline, which should affect the ownership and use of cars and two-wheelers, as well as imposing a license fee on cars to retard growth in car ownership. The impact of each policy on emissions depends not only on how the policy affects the mode that is regulated, but on shifts to other modes. The results suggest that the most effective policy to reduce emissions from passenger vehicles-in terms of the total number of tons of PM10 (particulate matter that measure less than or equal to 10 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter) reduced-is to convert diesel buses to CNG. The conversion of 3,391 diesel buses to CNG would result in an emissions reduction of 663 tons of PM10 a year, 14 percent of total emissions from transport. The bus conversion program passes the cost-benefit test. In contrast, the results suggest the elasticities of emissions from transport with respect to a gasoline tax and a tax on vehicle ownership are -0.04 and -0.10 respectively. As a consequence...

Efficiency and Equity of a Marginal Tax Reform - Income, Quality, and Price Elasticities for Mexico

Nicita, Alessandro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
The author investigates the effects of a marginal tax reform on household welfare in Mexico. He estimates the extent to which Mexican households react to changes in prices, and uses the estimates to simulate changes in social welfare resulting from marginal tax reform. Results indicate that poorer households tend to have significantly larger income and price elasticities. Hence, to correctly evaluate the effects of economic policies on the poor, it is important to estimate elasticities that reflect the behavioral responses of the poor rather than of the entire population. The results from the micro simulation suggest that since poorer households rely mostly on maize, legumes, and vegetables to fulfill their caloric intake, any price reform that reduces the price of these products will have a larger effect on the welfare of poor households. In particular, reducing the taxes on maize, alcoholic beverages, and vegetables would be both more equitable and more efficient in terms of social welfare. Meanwhile, a reduction in the tax on legumes...

Labor Demand and Trade Reform in Latin America

Fajnzylber, Pablo; Maloney, William F.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
There are concerns that trade reform and globalization will increase the uncertainty that the average worker, especially the relatively unskilled worker, faces. The increased competitiveness of product markets and greater access to foreign inputs, the argument goes, will lead to more elastic demand for workers. This may have adverse consequences for both labor market volatility and wage dispersion. The authors argue that while the case that trade liberalization should increase own-wage elasticities may be broadly compelling for competitive import-competing industries, it is less so for imperfectly competitive, nontradable, or export industries. They test the hypothesis using establishment-level panel data from three countries with periods of liberalization. The data provide only mixed support for the idea that trade liberalization has an impact on own-wage elasticities. No consistent patterns emerge. If globalization is making the lives of workers more insecure, it is probably working through some other mechanism.

Carbon Price Efficiency : Lock-in and Path Dependence in Urban Forms and Transport Infrastructure

Avner, Paolo; Rentschler, Jun; Hallegatte, Stéphane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.55%
This paper investigates the effect of carbon or gasoline taxes on commuting-related CO2 emissions in an urban context. To assess the impact of public transport on the efficiency of the tax, the paper investigates two exogenous scenarios using a dynamic urban model (NEDUM-2D) calibrated for the urban area of Paris: (i) a scenario with the current dense public transport infrastructure, and (ii) a scenario without. It is shown that the price elasticity of CO2 emissions is twice as high in the short run if public transport options exist. Reducing commuting-related emissions thus requires lower (and more acceptable) tax levels in the presence of dense public transportation. If the goal of a carbon or gasoline tax is to change behaviors and reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions (not to raise revenues), then there is an incentive to increase the price elasticity through complementary policies such as public transport development. The emission elasticity also depends on the baseline scenario and is larger when population growth and income growth are high. In the longer run...

Estimation of Armington elasticities : an application to the Philippines

Kapuscinski, C.A; Warr, Peter
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 86087 bytes; 348 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.33%
The elasticities of substitution between imported and domestically produced goods - Armington elasticities - are estimated in this paper for the Philippines. The estimated elasticities are intended for use in a large, empirically based computable general equilibrium model of the Philippine economy. Armington elasticities are known to be important for the properties of these models but are seldom estimated empirically. The results of this paper suggest that estimation is possible for developing countries, like the Philippines, for which economic data are generally considered poor, provided appropriate account is taken of the dynamic properties of the data.; no

Estimation of Armington elasticities in a CGE economy–energy–environment model for Europe.

NÉMETH Gabriella; SZABO Laszlo; CISCAR MARTINEZ Juan Carlos
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.15%
The main goal of the article is to estimate Armington elasticities of the energy and energy-intensive sectors of the GEM-E3 computable general equilibrium model. The model follows the standard two-stage budget optimisation of the consumer by first optimising between domestically produced and imported goods and, then, by country of origin. A panel data econometric framework is used here with dynamic adjustment to capture both the long and short term elasticities for the studied six aggregated sectors in Europe. The estimated long-term elasticities are in line with the literature, but higher than those used in the GEM-E3 model. The results suggest that consumer choice appears to be more price sensitive between the domestic and the composite imported goods, and amongst the importers, than already assumed in the model.; JRC.J.2-The economics of climate change, energy and transport

Robust investment climate effects on alternative firm-level productivity measures

Escribano, Álvaro; Guasch, J. Luis
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/draft; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.15%
Developing countries are increasingly concerned about improving country competitiveness and productivity, as they face the increasing pressures of globalization and attempt to improve economic growth and reduce poverty. Among such countries, Investment Climate surveys (ICs) at the firm level, have become the standard way for the World Bank to identify key obstacles to country competitiveness, in order to prioritize policy reforms for enhancing competitiveness. Given the surveys objectives and the nature and limitations of the data collected, this paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using different total factor productivity (TFP) measures. The main objective is to develop a methodology to generate robust investment climate impacts (elasticities) on TFP under alternative measures. The paper applies it to the data collected for ICs in four developing countries: Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. Observations on logarithms of the production function variables are pooled across three countries (Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua). Endogeneity of the production function inputs and of the investment climate variables is addressed by using observable firm level information, a variant of the control function approach...

Import Demand Elasticities and Trade Distortions; Review of Economics and Statistics

Kee, Hiau Looi; Nicita, Alessandro; Olarreaga, Marcelo
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
This paper provides a systematic estimation of import demand elasticities for a broad group of countries at a very disaggregated level of product detail. We use a semiflexible translog GDP function approach to formally derive import demands and their elasticities, which are estimated with data on prices and endowments. Within a theoretically consistent framework, we use the estimated elasticities to construct Feenstra's (1995) simplification of Anderson and Neary's trade restrictiveness index (TRI). The difference between TRIs and import-weighted tariffs is shown to depend on the tariff variance and the covariance between tariffs and import demand elasticities.

Import Demand Elasticities and Trade Distortions

Kee, Hiau Looi; Nicita, Alessandro; Olarreaga, Marcelo
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
To study the effects of tariffs on gross domestic product (GDP), one needs import demand elasticities at the tariff line level that are consistent with GDP maximization. These do not exist. The authors modify Kohli's (1991) GDP function approach to estimate demand elasticities for 4,625 imported goods in 117 countries. Following Anderson and Neary (1992, 1994) and Feenstra (1995), they use these estimates to construct theoretically sound trade restrictiveness indices, and GDP losses associated with existing tariff structures. Countries are revealed to be 30 percent more restrictive than their simple or import-weighted average tariffs would suggest. Thus, distortion is nontrivial. GDP losses are largest in China, Germany, India, Mexico, and the United States.

Firm Entry and Exit, Labor Demand, and Trade Reform : Evidence from Chile and Colombia

Fajnzylber, Pablo; Maloney, William F.; Ribeiro, Eduardo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
There are increasing fears that trade reform - and globalization generally - will increase the uncertainty the average (especially less skilled) worker faces. If product markets become more competitive and the access to foreign inputs is increased, will demand for workers among existing firms become more elastic? Will labor markets become more volatile because bad shocks to output will translate into greater impacts on wages and employment? So far the literature on this question has focused almost entirely on labor demand within continuing firms. But much of the movement in the job market arises from the entry and exit of firms. The authors show that firms entering and exiting a market contribute almost as much to employment changes as firms continuing in a market. In several samples, firms entering and exiting affected the net change in-positions more than the expansion of continuing plants did, although contributions varied greatly across the business cycle and period of adjustment. Estimates of labor demand elasticities of entering and exiting firms were surprisingly similar in Chile and Colombia and somewhat higher than elasticities for firms that survived. Estimates of the effect of trade liberalization offer only ambiguous lessons on trade reform's probable impact on these elasticities. The data suggest that in Chile greater exchange rate protection does reduce the wage-employment elasticity of entering and exiting plants...

Demand and supply: price elasticities and corporate performance in the UK

Menezes Filho, Naércio Aquino
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.15%
This paper investigates the relationship between consumer demand and corporate performance in several consumer industries in the UK, using two independent datasets. It uses data on consumer expenditures and the retail price index to estimate Almost Ideal Demand Systems on micro-data and compute timevarying price elasticities of demand for disaggregated commodity groups. Then, it matches the product definitions to the Standard Industry Classification and uses the estimated elasticities to investigate the impact of consumer behaviour on firm-level profitability equations. The time-varying household characteristics are ideal instruments for the demand effects in the firms' supply equation. The paper concludes that demand elasticities have a significant and tangible impact on the profitability of UK firms and that this impact can shed some light on the relationship between market structure and economic performance.

A Multi-Stage Almost Ideal Demand System: the case of beef demand in Colombia

Ramírez Hassan, Andrés
Fonte: Escola de Administração, Finanças e Tecnologia Publicador: Escola de Administração, Finanças e Tecnologia
Tipo: workingPaper; Documento de trabajo de investigación; draf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.47%
The main objective in this paper is to obtain reliable long-term and short-term elasticities estimates of the beef demand in Colombia using quarterly data since 1998 until 2007. However, complexity on the decision process of consumption should be taken into account, since expenditure on a particular good is sequential. In the case of beef demand in Colom- bia, a Multi-Stage process is proposed based on an Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS). The econometric novelty in this paper is to estimate si- multaneously all the stages by the Generalized Method of Moments to obtain a joint covariance matrix of parameters estimates in order to use the Delta Method for calculating the standard deviation of the long-term elasticities estimates. Additionally, this approach allows us to get elastic- ities estimates in each stage, but also, total elasticities which incorporates interaction between stages. On the other hand, the short-term dynamic is handled by a simultaneous estimation of the Error Correction version of the model; therefore, Monte Carlo simulation exercises are performed to analyse the impact on beef demand because of shocks at di erent levels of the decision making process of consumers. The results indicate that, although the total expenditure elasticity estimate of demand for beef is 1.78 in the long-term and the expenditure elasticity estimate within the meat group is 1.07...

Adjustment Costs, Firm Responses, and Micro vs. Macro Labor Supply Elasticities: Evidence from Danish Tax Records

Chetty, Raj; Friedman, John Norton; Olsen, Tore; Pistaferri, Luigi
Fonte: MIT Press Publicador: MIT Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.15%
We show that the effects of taxes on labor supply are shaped by interactions between adjustment costs for workers and hours constraints set by firms. We develop a model in which firms post job offers characterized by an hours requirement and workers pay search costs to find jobs. We present evidence supporting three predictions of this model by analyzing bunching at kinks using Danish tax records. First, larger kinks generate larger taxable income elasticities. Second, kinks that apply to a larger group of workers generate larger elasticities. Third, the distribution of job offers is tailored to match workers' aggregate tax preferences in equilibrium. Our results suggest that macro elasticities may be substantially larger than the estimates obtained using standard microeconometric methods.

Adjustment Costs, Firm Responses, and Micro vs. Macro Labor Supply Elasticities: Evidence from Danish Tax Records*

Chetty, Raj; Friedman, John N.; Olsen, Tore; Pistaferri, Luigi
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/05/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.15%
We show that the effects of taxes on labor supply are shaped by interactions between adjustment costs for workers and hours constraints set by firms. We develop a model in which firms post job offers characterized by an hours requirement and workers pay search costs to find jobs. We present evidence supporting three predictions of this model by analyzing bunching at kinks using Danish tax records. First, larger kinks generate larger taxable income elasticities. Second, kinks that apply to a larger group of workers generate larger elasticities. Third, the distribution of job offers is tailored to match workers' aggregate tax preferences in equilibrium. Our results suggest that macro elasticities may be substantially larger than the estimates obtained using standard microeconometric methods.