Página 1 dos resultados de 98306 itens digitais encontrados em 0.053 segundos

Estimativas de efeitos gênicos de diversos caracteres relacionados à eficiência e resposta ao fósforo em milho tropical; Estimative of gene effects for traits related to phosphorus efficiency and responsiveness in tropical maize

Parentoni, Sidney Netto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/02/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
Informações sobre a herança de caracteres relacionados à eficiência e resposta ao P em milho, obtidas em ensaios conduzidos até a maturação em ambientes tropicais são limitadas, sendo prérequisitos para se estabelecer estratégias de seleção eficientes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a herança e as relações entre caracteres de eficiência e resposta ao P em milho tropical. Foram utilizadas seis linhagens e sete F1´s entre elas, contrastantes quanto à sua eficiência ao P. Os genitores, F1´s, F2´s, RC1P1, RC1P2, RC2P1 e RC2P2 de cada um dos sete F1´s, foram avaliados em três ambientes sob baixo P, e dois ambientes sob alto P no solo. Caracteres de eficiência avaliados foram: peso de grãos (PG), teor de P nos grãos (TPG), quantidade P total na parte aérea (FTOT), eficiência de absorção (EFABS), de utilização (EFUTIL), e de uso de P(EFUSO), índice de colheita de P (ICP) e quociente utilização (QUTIL). Caracteres de resposta avaliados foram: diferença PG entre níveis de P (DIFPG), relação PG entre baixo e alto P (RELPG), eficiência recuperação aparente (EFREC), eficiência fisiológica (EFIS) e eficiência agronômica (EFAGR). Foi também avaliado o intervalo entre florescimento masculino e feminino (ASI)...

Eficiência das transferências intergovernamentais para a educação fundamental de municípios brasileiros; Efficiency of intergovernmental transfers for basic education to Brazilian municipalities

Diniz, Josedilton Alves
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/07/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
Existe um consenso na literatura segundo o qual as habilidades, os conhecimentos e a capacidade dos indivíduos produzem um aumento no nível de capital humano, que é elemento-chave para o progresso econômico de um país e de sua qualidade de vida. O Estado procura, de maneira geral, criar formas de potencializar os investimentos destinados à educação. A forma como esses recursos são alocados e distribuídos vai determinar a eficiência do gasto público. A eficiência da educação pode ser expressa por indicadores que refletem a qualidade da atividade educacional, comparados com os recursos aplicados. A definição dessa eficiência depende de vários fatores. Alguns deles são controlados pelo gestor; outros não, tais como: background familiar, característica do aluno e dos professores. Além desses aspectos, há também aqueles de natureza política que podem influenciar a estrutura de todas as relações intergovernamentais de um país, principalmente aquelas referentes ao financiamento dos serviços de educação. As relações definidas no pacto federativo têm implicações nos resultados da educação, na medida em que se efetivam as bases de negociação. Na educação brasileira, há alguns problemas intergovernamentais na definição de diretrizes...

Análise da eficiência do setor sucroenergético brasileiro; Analysis of the Brazilian sugarcane industry efficiency

Xavier, Carlos Eduardo Osório
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e aplicar um critério para mensurar a eficiência econômica da produção do setor sucroenergético do Brasil e, em função disso, avaliar a existência de potenciais melhorias na eficiência nas atividades produtivas do setor. Para atingir esses objetivos foi desenvolvido um modelo DEA - Data Envelopment Analysis baseado na organização do sistema de produção. O modelo foi formulado considerando dados primários coletados com 67 agroindústrias brasileiras, responsáveis pelo processamento de 22,6% da cana produzida no Brasil, na safra 2012/2013. Testes paramétricos e não-paramétricos sobre os resultados de diferentes especificações de modelos DEA, apontaram como mais apropriado a adoção do modelo de análise de eficiência mais simples o qual é especificado pelos inputs área cultivada por cada agroindústria e a quantidade de ATR adquirida de fornecedores e pelo output equivalente a total de ATR recuperado na forma de açúcar e etanol. Considerou-se um modelo DEA com orientação insumo baseado na lógica de mensuração dos índices de eficiência econômica em razão da aproximação de custos, produto dos preços e quantidades de inputs. Com o objetivo de preservar a confidencialidade dos dados de cada empresa...

Developing a decomposable measure of profit efficiency using DEA

Portela, Maria; Thanassoulis, Emmanuel
Fonte: Universidade Católica Portuguesa Publicador: Universidade Católica Portuguesa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
In for-profit organizations efficiency measurement withreference to the potential for profit augmentation is particularly important as is its decomposition into technical, and allocative components. Different profit efficiency approaches can be found in the literature to measure and decompose overall profit efficiency. In this paper, we highlight some problems within existing approaches and propose a new measure of profit efficiency based on a geometric mean of input/output adjustments needed for maximizing profits. Overall profit efficiency is calculated through this efficiency measure and is decomposed into its technical and allocative components. Technical efficiency is calculated based on a non-oriented geometric distance function (GDF) that is able to incorporate all the sources of inefficiency, while allocative efficiency is retrieved residually. We also define a measure of profitability efficiency which complements profit efficiency in that it makes it possible to retrieve the scale efficiency of a unit as a component of its profitability efficiency. In addition, the measure of profitability efficiency allows for a dual profitability interpretation of the GDF measure of technical efficiency. The concepts introduced in the paper are illustrated using a numerical example.

Status of Energy Efficiency in the Western Balkans : A Stocktaking Report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
Across the Western Balkan region, countries exhibit relatively high levels of energy intensity, a high energy savings potential among energy end-users, and heavy dependence on imported hydrocarbons. Energy markets would benefit from enhanced demand-side efforts and integrated energy efficiency measures across all sectors. Since most energy infrastructure was built during the 1960s and 1970s, inadequately maintained since the 1990s, and reaching the end of its useful lifespan, now is a crucial time to consider the way forward in the energy sector. The signing of the Energy Community Treaty in 2003 marked the beginning of systematic energy sector liberalization among Western Balkan countries, allowing them to deal with widespread energy sector problems that included, on the demand side, low energy tariffs, lack of payment discipline and, hence, little incentive for energy users to invest in energy efficiency measures. Building each component of the strong enabling environment required for increased Energy Efficiency (EE) across the Western Balkan countries will need cooperation among decision makers at multiple government levels...

Financing Energy Efficiency : Lessons from Brazil, China, India, and Beyond

Taylor, Robert P.; Govindarajalu, Chandrasekar; Levin, Jeremy; Meyer, Anke S.; Ward, William A.
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
Energy for heating, cooling, lighting, mechanical power, and various chemical processes is a fundamental requirement for both daily life and economic development. The negative impact on the environment of current energy systems is increasingly alarming, especially the global warming consequences of burning fossil fuels. The future requires change through the development and adoption of new supply technologies, through a successful search for new, less resource-intensive paths of economic development, and through adoption of energy. Greater energy efficiency is key for shifting country development paths toward lower-carbon economic growth. Especially in developing countries and transition economies, vast potential for energy savings opportunities remain unrealized even though current financial returns are strong. Activities included specialized technical assistance, training, and applied research covering the four primary areas of country interest: (a) development of commercial banking windows for energy efficiency; (b) support for developing energy service companies (ESCOs); (c) guarantee funds for energy efficiency investment financing; and (d) equity funding for ESCOs or energy efficiency projects. One clear message from the experience of the three country Energy Efficiency Project is the importance of establishing and maintaining practical...

Energy Efficiency for Sustainable Development : Scale Up Strategy and Action Plan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
This study describes the Energy Efficiency for Sustainable Development (EEfSD) action plan, to scale up energy efficiency operations in client countries. The EEfSD strategy comprises of interventions at three levels: policy and regulatory, sector and sub-sector, and at end-use equipment and appliances. It is structured along four tracks: integrating energy efficiency within economic and sector work; mainstreaming energy efficiency in investment operations; improving internal operational, learning and analytic capacity; and monitoring, evaluation, and outreach. Priority focus is on countries with highest energy intensities, where rapid growth of the energy sector is expected and where total energy use is greatest. Implementation of the action plan will be guided by the Energy, Transport and Water Department, and will require cooperation and collaboration across the Bank Group, in particular the regional operations units. This paper presents the estimated incremental costs for FY07-09 which have been committed from energy trust funds and Bank budget.

Public Procurement of Energy Efficiency Services : Lessons from International Experience

Singh, Jas; Limaye, Dilip R.; Henderson, Brian; Shi, Xiaoyu
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
This book explores energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) as a means of overcoming some of the more difficult hurdles in promoting energy efficiency in public facilities. ESPCs represent a very attractive solution to many of the problems that are unique to public agencies, since they involve outsourcing a full project cycle to a service provider. From the detailed audit through implementation and savings verification, ESPCs can relieve public agencies of bureaucratic hassles, while service providers can secure the off-budget project financing and be paid from the actual energy savings, thus internalizing project performance risks. ESPC bidding also allows public agencies to select from a range of technical solutions, maximizing the benefit to the agency. Global experience suggests that ESPCs have been more effective at realizing efficiency gains than many other policy measures and programs, since the service providers have a vested interest in ensuring that a project is actually implemented. Many of the country governments interviewed for the study also saw enormous potential in bundling, financing, and implementing energy efficiency projects on a larger scale in the public sector, a method that increases the rate of efficiency gains and creates further benefits through economies of scale.

Egypt : Improve Energy Efficiency

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
Egypt has an overall low efficiency in using energy resources to create economic wealth. Egypt is among the most energy intensive economies in the Middle East North Africa region as well as in the world. The Egyptian energy intensity is almost twice as high as in some neighboring countries like Morocco and Tunisia and four times as high as industrialized countries like Japan and Germany. On the sector level, most industrial processes, equipment and consumer appliances in Egypt have 20 percent or higher energy consumption than the best international practices. Therefore, Egypt has a great opportunity to improve the efficiency of its energy resource utilization across all segments of economic activities. The objective of this report is to take stock of the past/ongoing energy efficiency initiatives and activities and to recommend a set of the principal strategic actions which could be undertaken by the Government of Egypt to promote and sustain energy efficiency improvements. The first part of the report presents the following topics: a brief general overview of energy use in Egypt; an analysis of the current institutional framework for energy efficiency; a review of the past...

Why Has Energy Efficiency Not Scaled-up in the Industrial and Commercial Sectors in Ukraine? An Empirical Analysis

Hochman, Gal; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
Improvement of energy efficiency is one of the main options to reduce energy demand and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Ukraine. However, large-scale deployment of energy efficient technologies has been constrained by several financial, technical, information, behavioral, and institutional barriers. This study assesses these barriers through a survey of 500 industrial and commercial firms throughout Ukraine. The results from the survey were used in a cumulative multi-logit model to understand the importance of the barriers. The analysis shows that financial barriers caused by high upfront costs of energy efficient technologies, higher costs of finance, and higher opportunity costs of energy efficiency investment are key barriers to the adoption of energy efficiency measures in Ukraine. Institutional barriers particularly lack government policies, which also contributes to the slow adoption of energy efficient technologies in the country. The results suggest targeted policy and credit enhancements could help trigger adoption of energy efficient measures. The empirical analysis shows strong inter-linkages among the barriers and finds heterogeneity between industrial and commercial sectors on the realization of the barriers.

A soil-based method to screen for zinc efficiency in seedlings and its ability to predict yield responses to zinc deficiency in mature plants

Genc, Y.; McDonald, G.; Graham, R.
Fonte: C S I R O Publishing Publicador: C S I R O Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
Nutrient efficiency measures the ability of a plant to grow and produce grain when the availability of a nutrient is low. Seedling tests for nutrient efficiency will be most useful if the results correlate well with grain yield responses. In two experiments, a diverse range of barley genotypes was screened for zinc (Zn) efficiency at the seedling stage and the relationship between vegetative and grain measures of Zn efficiency was examined. In Expt 1, 54 barley and 4 wheat genotypes were grown at 2 levels of Zn (0.02 and 0.8 mg/kg soil) for 21 days. Zinc efficiency ranged from 18% to 52%. The visual symptoms of Zn deficiency varied considerably between genotypes and was significantly correlated with Zn efficiency. Root:shoot ratio was increased by Zn deficiency and varied between genotypes, but these differences were not related to Zn efficiency. Zinc concentration and especially Zn content at 0.02 mg Zn/kg were significantly related to Zn efficiency. In Expt 2, 15 genotypes, selected on the basis of their response in Expt 1, were grown to maturity at either 0.1 mg Zn/kg or 2.4 mg Zn/kg. Zn efficiency, based on relative grain yield, ranged from 5% to 54%. High efficiency was associated with a large number of grains per plant and high kernel weight. Rankings of Zn efficiency in the experiment were significantly correlated with the rankings for visual scores in Expt 1. The 2 experiments suggested that deficiency symptoms at the seedling stage can identify efficient genotypes and could be useful for routine screening for Zn efficiency. Independent data from multisite comparisons over 8 years were used to examine the long-term performance of efficient and inefficient genotypes in the field. Hierarchical cluster was used to define efficient and inefficient groupings within the 56 genotypes examined in Expt 1...

Efficiency in hospitals owned by the Iranian Social Security Organisation: measurement, determinants, and remedial actions.

Afzali, Hossein Haji Ali
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2007
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
Given the need to ensure the best use of scarce resources, increasing emphasis is being placed on hospital efficiency measurement. In the literature about hospital efficiency measurement, there is an absence of a well-defined framework to select the most appropriate set of input and output variables. Variables used in hospital efficiency studies predominantly reflect a narrow view of hospital functions with a little attention to quality variables. This implies that the hospital goal and its full range of functions in efficiency measurement are poorly understood. While numerous studies have been undertaken in developed countries, there have been only a few attempts at measuring hospital efficiency in developing countries. However, there has so far been no systematic attempt, using frontier-based techniques, to measure the efficiency of Iranian hospitals, and to identify factors affecting efficiency and remedial actions to improve efficiency. By focusing on the above two issues, this thesis makes three arguments. First, by undertaking an in-depth investigation regarding the multi-product nature of hospitals, considering a fuller range of hospital functions, and the values of various stakeholders including patient, staff, and community...

Efficiency gains and deregulation policies: evidence from bank level data.

Du, Kai
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
This thesis uses bank level data from developing countries and emerging economies and the data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach to provide empirical evidence on the impact of deregulation policies in the banking industry on the banks’ efficiency. Since the banking industry in China is the largest and most complex among the developing countries and in transition from a centrally planned to a market economy, its transition process and the development of the banking industry is analysed first in order to provide the background information for the following econometric analyses and the thesis. To gather the empirical evidence from China’s banking industry on the correlation between the World Trade Organization (WTO) accession and efficiency gains by commercial banks, this thesis evaluates the efficiency of Chinese banks over the period 2000–09 (this is referred to as the adapting phase of the WTO accession). During this period of time, the restrictions on the foreign banks were removed gradually. The evolution of banks’ efficiency is computed by the DEA approach combined with the bootstrapping technique. All commercial banks are broken down into four groups: (1) all banks in China; (2) domestic banks; (3) private banks; and (4) city banks. Since the categories are mutually exclusive...

Temporale Gehirn-Asymmetrie und Neural-Efficiency: Psychophysiologische Mechanismen sportlicher Spitzenleistung unter Wettkampfdruck im Tischtennis; Temporal brain asymmetry and neural efficiency: psychophysiological mechanisms that underlie high performance under pressure in table tennis

Wolf, Sebastian
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
Die Identifizierung neurophysiologischer Korrelate sportlicher Höchstleistung gewinnt innerhalb der Sportpsychologie immer mehr an Bedeutung. Studien weisen darauf hin, dass auf neurophysiologischer Ebene eine linkshemisphärische, temporale Inhibierung bzw. eine rechtshemisphärische Aktivierung mit Spitzenleistung einhergeht. Diese Aktivitätsasymmetrie könnte mit einer Reduktion verbal-analytischer und einer Steigerung visuell-räumlicher kognitiver Prozesse und damit mit einer Abnahme störender Gedanken, gesteigerter Aufmerksamkeit, dem Erleben von Flow und dadurch mit Automatizität in der Ausführung einer sportlichen Handlung korrelieren. Bei Experten aus statischen Sportarten verringert sich zudem die kortikale Aktivierung in relevanten, v.a. motorischen Hirnregionen, was für kortikale Effizienz spricht und zur „Neural Efficiency Hypothese“ geführt hat. Befunde hierzu sind jedoch widersprüchlich und scheinen von den Anforderungen der Aufgabe abhängig zu sein. Bei hochreaktiven Sportarten wurden spezifische neurophysiologische Korrelate sportlicher Höchstleistung kaum untersucht. Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war daher den Nachweis der hemisphärischen Asymmetrie in der Sportart Tischtennis zu replizieren. Auch sollte die Aktivierung im motorischen Kortex in der Vorbereitungsphase einer sportartspezifischen Bewegung untersucht werden...

Energy Efficiency : Lessons Learned from Success Stories

Stuggins, Gary; Sharabaroff, Alexander; Semikolenova, Yadviga
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
This study is designed to analyze the energy efficiency policies in seven countries that were successful in achieving low energy intensities or in reducing their energy intensity considerably. The study analyzes the evolution of the energy intensity of these countries from 1990 to 2007, identifying points of inflection in the progress towards improvements. Changes to the policy agenda immediately upstream are explored in an effort to identify cause and affect relationships in energy efficiency improvements. Although direct relationships are difficult to isolate, cross country analyses that point to similar successes among a variety of countries give some confidence that these policies have contributed to reducing energy needs. The energy efficiency of new buildings is relatively easily and in expensively addressed by setting standards: making a new building energy efficient typically adds only 5 percent to the total cost. The purpose of this study is to determine what policy changes make a difference in countries' energy in tensity. The starting point for the analysis was the evolution of countries' energy intensity over time to identify inflection points when notable changes took place. Given that the inflection point could have been caused by external price shocks or structural changes...

Energy Efficiency Finance : Assessing the Impact of IFC's China Utility-based Energy Efficiency Finance Program

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
This evaluation assesses the performance of International Finance Corporations (IFC's) energy efficiency finance program in China aimed at stimulating energy efficiency investments through bank guarantees and technical assistance. The program's significance is underpinned by the fact that China's size, rapid economic growth, and inefficiencies in energy use make it one of the world's largest emitters of carbon dioxide (CO2.). The utilization of IFC's program has been rapid compared with other similar programs. The difference made by the program is traced along the chain of interventions: (i) at the level of banks, the program is narrowly based on one of the two partner banks, which, with the help of the program, expanded its energy efficiency lending as a new business line; (ii) at the level of energy management companies, the program's technical assistance improved the program participants' access to finance; and (iii) at the end-user level, it promoted the use of energy efficiency investments that achieved reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The evaluation recommends areas of improvement to realize greater impact. First...

Exploiting Market-Based Mechanisms to Meet Utilities' Energy Efficiency Obligations

Sinton, Jonathan; de Wit, Joeri
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
Electric utilities are key actors in the quest to induce large-scale energy savings among end users. But often it is not enough simply to mandate utilities to achieve a specific target. Three new market-based mechanisms are available for utilities to use in promoting energy efficiency. Historically, mechanisms of demand-side management may be classified as regulatory, policy-based, market-based, and load-targeting. This knowledge note is important, because electric utilities are well-positioned to help raise energy efficiency. The three new market-based mechanisms to help achieve this goal include Establish a white certificates scheme establishing a white certificates scheme, establishing energy efficiency auctions, and establishing energy efficiency feed-in tariffs. These new market-based models are available for utilities to use in promoting energy efficiency, in concert with other means of procurement. Whatever the design, program effectiveness will depend on technically competent and trusted verification of energy savings and their costs...

Tapping a Hidden Resource : Energy Efficiency in the Middle East and North Africa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
Energy efficiency can improve fiscal balances, stimulate growth and competitiveness, strengthen energy security, and reduce the energy burden of the poor. It also can enhance the quality of life by improving energy products and services, reducing pollution, and reallocating savings from energy to social services and other welfare enhancements. From a long-term perspective, energy efficiency preserves energy resources for future generations and mitigates climate change. Most governments in the region consider energy efficiency as a priority issue, although for different reasons. The key issue for many is the weight of energy subsidies in fiscal balances; for others, it is the vulnerability of the economy to swings in hydrocarbon prices and the risk of losing competitiveness; and for still others, it is concern about generating enough financing for energy investments and satisfying the energy demand of their fast-growing economies. These factors have prompted governments to renew their efforts to improve energy efficiency. This report explores opportunities to boost energy efficiency in the Middle East and North Africa and secure a sustainable energy future for the region. It explores governments' growing concern about the burden of energy subsidies and identifies opportunities to improve efficiency...

Rapid Assessment Framework : An Innovative Decision Support Tool for Evaluating Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Cities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
The Rapid Assessment Framework (RAF) is a central component of the Energy Efficient Cities Initiative (EECI), launched by the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) in collaboration with the urban Anchor in 2008. The World Bank's key objective for the RAF is to create: 'a practical tool for conducting rapid assessment in cities to identify and prioritize sectors and suggest specific energy efficiency interventions.' Thus, the RAF will be used to help identify areas of energy use for further focus, develop an outline energy efficiency strategy, and guide potential future investment by ESMAP. The principal aim of the RAF is to provide a practical analytical framework for conducting rapid assessment of a developing country city's energy profile and performance for different activities across different sectors. This information is then used to identify sectors where the most improvements can be made, and provide a range of energy efficiency recommendation options for each sector, along with a list of possible actions. An outline energy efficiency strategy should ultimately be generated from this information to guide potential policy and investment options...

Using RNA-seq to characterize the biological basis of variation in feed efficiency in broiler chickens

Zhou, Nan
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
Abasht, Behnam; Feed cost plays a key role in the total expenses of modern broiler chicken production. Especially with feed prices increasing constantly in recent years, improving feed efficiency has become a concern for poultry producers. Although huge progress has been made on the optimization of feed efficiency in broiler chickens over the past 50 years, a significant portion of feed energy and nutrients is still wasted because of poor efficiency of nutrient utilization. A further consequence is that an excess of manure is produced, causing environmental concerns in the regions with intense poultry production. Therefore, from both economical and environmental standpoints, efficient use of feed is vital for sustainable poultry production. Different selection criteria have been used for improving feed efficiency in broiler chickens. However, the biological basis of the variation in chicken feed efficiency is not well understood. As a result, some undesirable side effects would appear with the cumulative genetic selection for high feed efficiency. A more profound understanding of this highly complex trait is needed to develop more efficient selection strategies and to foresee potential long-term issues that may arise by selection for high feed efficiency. The objective of this project is to characterize the molecular basis of the variation in chicken feed efficiency...