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Eficiência nutricional de fontes de fósforo com solubilidade variável em água em cultivares de arroz (Oryza sativa L.); Nutritional effectiveness of phosphorus sources varying in water solubility for cultivars of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Matias, Gean Carlos Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/06/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
Cultivares de arroz variam quanto à capacidade de absorver e utilizar fósforo em solos deficientes neste nutriente. O melhoramento genético é realizado em condições ótimas de fertilidade, sendo possível que alguns dos materiais genéticos modernos apresentem perdas ou diminuição na capacidade de absorver P. A eficiência agronômica das fontes é influenciada por diversos fatores, dentre eles a espécie vegetal. Cultivares de arroz tradicionais podem apresentar mecanismos que possibilitam maior eficiência das fontes de menor solubilidade. O presente trabalho constou de dois estudos, ambos realizados em casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Solos e Nutrição de Plantas da ESALQ/USP: (i) avaliação da eficiência de absorção e utilização de fósforo por cultivares de arroz de terras altas tradicionais e modernos, no qual nove cultivares de arroz de terras altas foram utilizados, sendo cinco tradicionais (Caiapó, Carajás, IAC 47, Bico Ganga e Guarani) e quatro modernos (Bonança, Curinga, Vencedora e Primavera), e (ii) avaliação da eficiência agronômica de fontes de fósforo com solubilidade variável em água em cultivares de arroz, no qual quatro cultivares de arroz, sendo dois tradicionais (Bico Ganga e Guarani) e dois modernos (Bonança e Primavera) interagiram com quatro fontes de P (fosfato monocálcico - FMC...

Análise da relação custo-efetividade do tratamento com DCI - Desfibrilador Cardioversor Implantável; Cost-effectiveness analysis of implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy (ICD)

Matos, Afonso José de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/03/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
Objetivo: Análise da relação custo-efetividade do tratamento com o uso do DCI - Desfibrilador Cardioversor Implantável comparado com o tratamento clínico alternativo através de medicamentos. Revisão de literatura: O estudo contemplou a revisão da conceituação das técnicas de avaliação econômica e de apropriação de custos de procedimentos hospitalares, bem como experiências sobre a análise da relação custo-efetividade aplicadas às intervenções médicas consideradas na pesquisa. Métodos: O estudo utilizou a unidade de Custo por AVG - Ano de Vida Ganho, como expressão do indicador de custo-efetividade. A metodologia compreendeu a definição da perspectiva da pesquisa (Sistema Único de Saúde na qualidade de principal financiador do implante de DCIs, no Brasil), elaboração dos protocolos padrões de tratamento, cálculo dos custos totais dos tratamentos baseados em indicadores praticados por hospitais de referência, os quais encontram-se estimados para o período de dez anos e ajustados para valor presente à taxa de desconto de 6% ao ano. No âmbito da efetividade, foram utilizados parâmetros da literatura, os quais encontram-se baseados nos anos de vida ganhos do tratamento com o uso do DCI, em relação ao tratamento clínico. Resultados: O custo por AVG alcançado pelo estudo foi de R$ 20.530...

O papel do juiz na efetividade do processo civil contemporâneo; The judges role on the effectiveness of contemporary civil process

Nagao, Paulo Issamu
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/10/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A presente pesquisa teve como proposta o estudo da efetividade do processo civil contemporâneo, notadamente na confrontação dos valores da celeridade e segurança, sob a perspectiva do juiz, no desempenho de seu ofício reservado no instrumento estatal destinado à solução de controvérsias e à consequente pacificação social, em cumprimento da garantia constitucional do acesso à justiça. Como prolegômenos, acentuou-se a importância da adaptação do direito às constantes transformações sociais, inclusive da ciência processual, para estabelecer a legitimidade da ordem jurídica no âmbito da sociedade à qual se destina a regular. A partir de então, foi dedicado um capítulo sobre a jurisdição, no qual, após sucinta digressão sobre a separação de poderes, foram mencionadas as principais correntes doutrinárias, as suas características, escopos e princípios informativos, extraindo-se, em derradeiro, a visão atualizada do instituto. Em seguida, procurou-se determinar a posição do juiz perante o Estado e no exercício da jurisdição, assim como se fez uma breve consideração sobre a crise do Poder Judiciário brasileiro e a atuação que se deseja daquele agente político na sociedade dos tempos modernos, apontando-se...

Saúde Pública no Brasil: proposta de um modelo de avaliação de custo-efetividade utilizando o IDSUS; Public Health in Brazil: a proposal for a cost-effectiveness evaluation model using IDSUS

Oliveira, Lilian Ribeiro de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/06/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
O Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), modelo universalista que existe atualmente no Brasil, encontra-se em posição de destaque dentre as políticas sociais vigentes. Num contexto de aumento de recursos e crescimento da demanda, o SUS constantemente sofre alterações que visam aumentar a qualidade, o acesso e a efetividade do serviço prestado; dessa forma, são necessários instrumentos para acompanhar seu desempenho. Não obstante, este trabalho versa em seu marco teórico sobre a trajetória do Sistema Único de Saúde e as avaliações de políticas públicas em saúde, visto que a incorporação de novas ferramentas é incontestavelmente importante para a produtividade do recurso destinado à saúde pública no Brasil - cada vez mais, a utilização de novas tecnologias e processos contribuirá para a adequada tomada de decisão dos gestores, melhores políticas públicas de saúde e um sistema verdadeiramente universal e funcional. Uma das novas ferramentas utilizadas pelo SUS é o IDSUS, que se propõe a medir o desempenho de cada município e região em relação ao acesso e à efetividade do sistema. O índice é composto por 24 indicadores, em que 14 medem o acesso à saúde e 10 se referem à efetividade do sistema. Oportunamente...

Understanding leadership effectiveness in organizational settings : an integrative approach

Lacerda, Teresa Maria Raposo Dias de Oliveira Correia de
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão Publicador: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
Doutoramento em Gestão; Os líderes estão envolvidos no processo de influenciar pessoas para atingir metas que sustentam o elevado desempenho corporativo ao longo do tempo. Tradicionalmente, os investigadores têm estudado este fenómeno usando modelos teóricos não integrados (ou seja, considerando isoladamente traços de personalidade, competências ou comportamentos de liderança). Esta tese preenche esta lacuna na literatura, ao adotar uma perspetiva integradora da teoria da liderança. Para responder à questão de "como alguns líderes são mais eficazes do que outros?", este estudo utilizou uma metodologia mista com carácter exploratório, composta de um estudo qualitativo para o investigador obter informação relevante sobre o tema, e de um estudo quantitativo para confirmar as principais conclusões da fase exploratória. Os resultados do estudo qualitativo revelam que a eficácia da liderança é um constructo multidimensional composto por quatro dimensões: (1) traços, (2) competências, (3) comportamentos, e (4) processos. Além disso, o modelo testado na fase quantitativa identifica fatores que explicam uma variância significativa da eficácia organizacional. Estes resultados sugerem que os líderes que são orientados para objetivos...

Different approaches to modelling the cost-effectiveness of schistosomiasis control

Guyatt,Helen
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper reviews three different approaches to modelling the cost-effectiveness of schistosomiasis control. Although these approaches vary in their assessment of costs, the major focus of the paper is on the evaluation of effectiveness. The first model presented is a static economic model which assesses effectiveness in terms of the proportion of cases cured. This model is important in highlighting that the optimal choice of chemotherapy regime depends critically on the level of budget constraint, the unit costs of screening and treatment, the rates of compliance with screening and chemotherapy and the prevalence of infection. The limitations of this approach is that it models the cost-effectiveness of only one cycle of treatment, and effectiveness reflects only the immediate impact of treatment. The second model presented is a prevalence-based dynamic model which links prevalence rates from one year to the next, and assesses effectiveness as the proportion of cases prevented. This model was important as it introduced the concept of measuring the long-term impact of control by using a transmission model which can assess reduction in infection through time, but is limited to assessing the impact only on the prevalence of infection. The third approach presented is a theoretical framework which describes the dynamic relationships between infection and morbidity...

Effectiveness of a mass immunization campaign against serogroup C meningococci in children in the Federal State of Santa Catarina, Brazil

Kupek,Emil; Puricelli,Rubens C. B.; Westrupp,Maria Helena B.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In addition to vaccine efficacy studies, there is a pressing need to evaluate vaccine effectiveness in a way that takes into account the limitations of health care systems in certain settings. An attempt to reach this objective was exemplified by a vaccination campaign against serogroup C meningococci in the federal state of Santa Catarina, in Brazil. A polysaccharide vaccine against serogroup C meningococci was administered to all individuals between 6 months and 14 years of age in March, 1996, in the municipalities that had the highest incidence of meningococcal disease in the previous year. All cases of the disease due to this serogroup observed in Santa Catarina during a 1-year period before and after the vaccination were included in the analysis. The cumulative incidence rate ratio was calculated for the unvaccinated compared to the vaccinated area. As a second step, the ratio of this quantity for the period before and after the vaccination, i.e. the ratio of the rate ratios (RRR), was calculated. One minus RRR was used to estimate the vaccine effectiveness. In the general population, the vaccine effectiveness was 74.3% (95% confidence intervals 52.7% to 99.6%). In children 6 months to 14 years, vaccine effectiveness was 93.1% (85.2% to 100%). Vaccine effectiveness could not be confirmed within more specific age bands...

Examining Methods Used to Evaluate the Cost-Effectiveness of Childhood Obesity Interventions

Wright, Davene
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
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This dissertation examines methods used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of childhood obesity interventions in order to help decision-makers prioritize among competing health programs using standardized outcomes. Chapter 1 generates inputs for use in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of childhood obesity interventions. In Chapter 1.1, I use data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to predict expenditures associated with obesity in childhood and adolescence. I found that obese children and adolescents have significantly different expenditures than their normal weight counterparts. I conclude that exclusion of obesity-related medical expenditures can potentially undervalue the cost-effectiveness of interventions. In Chapter 1.2, I use data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to examine the longitudinal trajectory of child weight. I derived probabilities of transitioning between weight classes that can be used in a decision-analytic model to extrapolate the effectiveness of childhood obesity interventions beyond childhood. I found that deviating from CDC BMI reference categories can more accurately capture the risk of future obesity. In Chapter 2, I evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a primary care-based obesity prevention program...

Assessing the comparative effectiveness of Tai Chi versus physical therapy for knee osteoarthritis: design and rationale for a randomized trial

Wang, Chenchen; Iversen, Maura D; McAlindon, Timothy; Harvey, William F; Wong, John B; Fielding, Roger A; Driban, Jeffrey B; Price, Lori Lyn; Rones, Ramel; Gamache, Tressa; Schmid, Christopher H
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Background: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) causes pain and long-term disability with annual healthcare costs exceeding $185 billion in the United States. Few medical remedies effectively influence the course of the disease. Finding effective treatments to maintain function and quality of life in patients with knee OA is one of the national priorities identified by the Institute of Medicine. We are currently conducting the first comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness randomized trial of Tai Chi versus a physical-therapy regimen in a sample of patients with symptomatic and radiographically confirmed knee OA. This article describes the design and conduct of this trial. Methods/Design A single-center, 52-week, comparative effectiveness randomized controlled trial of Tai Chi versus a standardized physical-therapy regimen is being conducted at an urban tertiary medical center in Boston, Massachusetts. The study population consists of adults ≥ 40 years of age with symptomatic and radiographic knee OA (American College of Rheumatology criteria). Participants are randomly allocated to either 12 weeks of Tai Chi (2x/week) or Physical Therapy (2x/week for 6 weeks, followed by 6 weeks of rigorously monitored home exercise). The primary outcome measure is pain (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities WOMAC) subscale at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes include WOMAC stkiffness and function domain scores...

Where to Use Cost Effectiveness Techniques Rather Than Cost Benefit Analysis

Mackie, Peter; Nellthorp, John; Laird, James
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Cost Benefit Analysis, and the measures of economic performance that can be derived from it (see Note 6: When and How to Use NPV, IRR and Adjusted IRR), is the preferred method for demonstrating the economic justification of transport investments. Such an approach, however, relies on the ability to be able to measure costs and benefits in monetary terms (see Note 5: Framework), which renders it problematic for projects where the majority of benefits cannot be readily monetised. Such a project could be a Low Volume Rural Road (see Note 21: Low Volume Rural Roads). In such situations consideration should be given to the use of measures derived from cost effectiveness or weighted cost effectiveness (also known as Multi Criteria Analysis) techniques as the basis for the decision regarding whether to invest or not. Cost effectiveness techniques are also a very useful tool for project screening or ranking. Such a screening process ensures that projects that are subjected to a more detailed analysis (including cost benefit analysis) are those that best fit with the objectives of the investment (e.g. poverty alleviation). Section 1 of this note outlines the situations in which cost effectiveness techniques should be used...

Cost-Effectiveness Measurement in Development : Accounting for Local Costs and Noisy Impacts

Evans, David K.; Popova, Anna
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
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As evidence from rigorous impact evaluations grows in development, there have been more calls to complement impact evaluation analysis with cost analysis, so that policy makers can make investment decisions based on costs as well as impacts. This paper discusses important considerations for implementing cost-effectiveness analysis in the policy making process. The analysis is applied in the context of education interventions, although the findings generalize to other areas. First, the paper demonstrates a systematic method for characterizing the sensitivity of impact estimates. Second, the concept of context-specificity is applied to cost measurement: program costs vary greatly across contexts -- both within and across countries -- and with program complexity. The paper shows how adapting a single cost ingredient across settings dramatically shifts cost-effectiveness measures. Third, the paper provides evidence that interventions with fewer beneficiaries tend to have higher per-beneficiary costs, resulting in potential cost overestimates when extrapolating to large-scale applications. At the same time...

Cost-effectiveness of induction of labour at term with a Foley catheter compared to vaginal prostaglandin E₂ gel (PROBAAT trial); Cost-effectiveness of induction of labour at term with a Foley catheter compared to vaginal prostaglandin E(2) gel (PROBAAT trial)

van Baaren, G.J.; Jozwiak, M.; Opmeer, B.; Oude Rengerink, K.; Benthem, M.; Dijksterhuis, M.; van Huizen, M.; van der Salm, P.; Schuitemaker, N.; Papatsonis, D.; Perquin, D.; Porath, M.; van der Post, J.; Rijnders, R.; Scheepers, H.; Spaanderman, M.; van
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
Objective: To assess the economic consequences of labour induction with Foley catheter compared to prostaglandin E2 gel. Design: Economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial. Setting: Obstetric departments of one university and 11 teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. Population: Women scheduled for labour induction with a singleton pregnancy in cephalic presentation at term, intact membranes and an unfavourable cervix; and without previous caesarean section. Methods: Cost-effectiveness analysis from a hospital perspective. Main outcome measures: We estimated direct medical costs associated with healthcare utilisation from randomisation to 6 weeks postpartum. For caesarean section rate, and maternal and neonatal morbidity we calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, which represent the costs to prevent one of these adverse outcomes. Results: Mean costs per woman in the Foley catheter group (n = 411) and in the prostaglandin E2 gel group (n = 408), were €3297 versus €3075, respectively, with an average difference of €222 (95% confidence interval −€157 to €633). In the Foley catheter group we observed higher costs due to longer labour ward occupation and less cost related to induction material and neonatal admissions. Foley catheter induction showed a comparable caesarean section rate compared with prostaglandin induction...

Economics of Chronic Diseases Protocol: Cost-effectiveness modelling and the future burden of non-communicable disease in Europe

Divajeva, D.; Marsh, T.; Logstrup, S.; Kestens, M.; Vemer, P.; Kriaucioniene, V.; Peresson, S.; O’Kelly, S.; Rito, A.; Webber, L.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/05/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Background: The majority of chronic disease is caused by risk factors which are mostly preventable. Effective interventions to reduce these risks are known and proven to be applicable to a variety of settings. Chronic disease is generally developed long before the fatal outcome, meaning that a lot of people spend a number of years in poor health. Effective prevention measures can prolong lives of individuals and significantly improve their quality of life. However, the methods to measure cost-effectiveness are a subject to much debate. The Economics of Chronic Diseases project aims to establish the best possible methods of measuring cost-effectiveness as well as develop micro-simulation models apt at projecting future burden of chronic diseases, their costs and potential savings after implementation of cost-effective interventions. Method: This research project will involve eight European countries: Bulgaria, Finland, Greece, Lithuania, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and the United Kingdom (UK). A literature review will be conducted to identify scientific articles which critically review the methods of cost-effectiveness. Contact will be made health economists to inform and enrich this review. This evidence will be used as a springboard for discussion at a meeting with key European stakeholders and experts with the aim of reaching a consensus on recommendations for cost-effectiveness methodology. Epidemiological data for coronary heart disease...

How does a human rights-based approach demonstrate its effectiveness?

Cooper, Ashley Laine
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In the human rights-based arena, the issue of effectiveness is contested tenitory. Since United Nations agencies first began to adopt the human rights-based approach (HRBA) in 1997, many international NGOs have come to accept the value added by the approach. Nonetheless, there are a plethora of international and govemment actors who remain unconvinced about its true value. With sceptics pointing to the conceptual cloud hanging over its definition, the development sector must move away from relying on a gut-sense of effectiveness, and be proactive rather than reactive in proving the programmatic impact of a HRBA. Focusing on rights, as opposed to needs that the chatity-based approach endorses, the HRBA challenges the fundamental power structures that lie at the root of global inequality. Integrating the norms, standards and ptinciples of patticipation, empowerment, accountability and nondiscrimination into plans, policies and processes of development, the HRBA reconfigures development relationships and provides development programs with a more legitimate and authoritative voice with which to pursue effective development. Despite this, the cun ent government and civil society literature on the HRBA and its 'on the ground' impact...

Population Health Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of Tuberculosis Diagnosis with Xpert MTB/RIF: A Dynamic Simulation and Economic Evaluation

Cohen, Ted; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Menzies, Nicolas Alan; Murray, Megan Blanche; Salomon, Joshua A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Background: The Xpert MTB/RIF test enables rapid detection of tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin resistance. The World Health Organization recommends Xpert for initial diagnosis in individuals suspected of having multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) or HIV-associated TB, and many countries are moving quickly toward adopting Xpert. As roll-out proceeds, it is essential to understand the potential health impact and cost-effectiveness of diagnostic strategies based on Xpert. Methods and findings: We evaluated potential health and economic consequences of implementing Xpert in five southern African countries—Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland—where drug resistance and TB-HIV coinfection are prevalent. Using a calibrated, dynamic mathematical model, we compared the status quo diagnostic algorithm, emphasizing sputum smear, against an algorithm incorporating Xpert for initial diagnosis. Results were projected over 10- and 20-y time periods starting from 2012. Compared to status quo, implementation of Xpert would avert 132,000 (95% CI: 55,000–284,000) TB cases and 182,000 (97,000–302,000) TB deaths in southern Africa over the 10 y following introduction, and would reduce prevalence by 28% (14%–40%) by 2022, with more modest reductions in incidence. Health system costs are projected to increase substantially with Xpert...

Incorporating patients' characteristics in cost-effectiveness studies with clinical trial data : a flexible Bayesian approach

Vázquez Polo, Francisco José; Negrín Hernández, Miguel Ángel
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Most published research on the comparison between medical treatment options merely compares the results (effectiveness and cost) obtained for each treatment group. The present work proposes the incorporation of other patient characteristics into the analysis. Most of the studies carried out in this context assume normality of both costs and effectiveness. In practice, however, the data are not always distributed according to this assumption. Altervative models have to be developed. In this paper, we present a general model of cost-effectiveness, incorporating both binary effectiveness and skewed cost. In a practical application, we compare two highly active antiretroviral treatments applied to asymptomatic HIV patients. We propose a logit model when the effectiveness is measured depending on whether an initial purpose is achieved. For this model, the measure to compare treatments is the difference in the probability of success. Besides, the cost data usually present a right skewing. We propose the use of the logtransformation to carry out the regression model. The three models are fitted demonstrating the advantages of this modelling. The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve is used as a measure for decision-making.

Predicting Leader Effectiveness: Personality Traits and Character Strengths

O'Neil, Dennis P
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 1629411 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 07/05/2007 EN_US
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Personality traits have been used extensively over the past forty years in assessing leadership potential, with varying degrees of success. A major limitation of this research has been the measures of personality. Another important limitation has been the availability of quantifiable measures of leader effectiveness. A third limitation is the lack of longitudinal studies. Because of these limitations, researchers have had difficulty determining the strength of personality traits as predictors of leadership effectiveness over time. Recent studies have used the Five Factor Model of personality to predict leadership effectiveness (e.g., Hogan, Curphy, & Hogan, 1994; Judge, Bono, Ilies, & Gerhardt, 2002; McCormack & Mellor, 2002); and researchers in positive psychology (e.g., Seligman, Steen, Park, & Peterson, 2005; Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000) have suggested that character strength and virtues (i.e., courage, temperance, and transcendence) might also offer an approach useful in predicting leadership success. This research builds on these approaches and examined two trait-based instruments, the Big Five instrument (NEO-PI-R) and the Values in Action Inventory of Strength (VIA-IS) instrument as they relate to leader effectiveness. Using undergraduates at the United States Military Academy as participants...

Cost-effectiveness of Interferon Gamma Release Assay (QFT-IT) as a Diagnostic Test for Intraocular Tuberculosis

Chen, Shu
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%

Background:

Interferon Gamma Release Assays (IGRAs) have proven to be potential replacement of tuberculin skin test (TST) in screening and diagnosing tuberculosis as shown by previous health economic studies. Given that these studies all center on pulmonary tuberculosis, we sought to examine the cost-effectiveness of IGRAs, specifically QFT-IT, as a diagnostic test for intraocular tuberculosis among uveitis patients in Singapore.

Method:

A decision tree was constructed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the QFT-IT for diagnosing intraocular tuberculosis among uveitis patients over a 30-year horizon. The input data were based on a cohort of 102 patients who presented with symptoms of uveitis and underwent relevant treatment and follow-up visits from 2009 to 2010 at Singapore National Eye Center (SNEC). By calculating their incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, we compared the cost-effectiveness of three strategies: TST alone, QFT-IT alone and TST followed by QFT-IT as a confirmatory test.

Results:

Our results show that in cost terms alone, QFT-IT alone strategy is the most expensive one (889 SGD per person), followed by TST alone (850 SGD per person) and finally the dual strategy (789 SGD per person). While examining effectiveness alone...

Análise custo-efetividade e índice de qualidade da refeição aplicados à Estratégia Global da OMS; Cost-effectiveness analysis and diet quality index applied to the WHO Global Strategy

Machado, Flávia Mori Sarti; Simões, Arlete Naresse
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/02/2008 POR
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OBJETIVO: Testar o uso da metodologia de análise custo-efetividade como instrumento de decisão na produção de refeições para inclusão das recomendações proferidas na Estratégia Global da Organização Mundial da Saúde. MÉTODOS: Cinco opções alternativas de cardápio de café da manhã foram analisadas previamente à implementação da refeição em unidade de alimentação e nutrição de uma universidade do estado de São Paulo, no ano de 2006. O custo de cada opção baseou-se em preços de mercado dos componentes de custo direto. Os benefícios em saúde foram calculados com base em adaptação do Índice de Qualidade da Refeição (IQR). Foram calculadas a razão custo-efetividade dos cardápios pela divisão dos benefícios pelos custos e a razão custo-efetividade incremental pelo diferencial de custo por unidade de benefício adicional. A escolha considerou unidades de benefício à saúde em relação ao custo direto de produção, assim como a efetividade incremental por unidade de custo diferencial. RESULTADOS: A análise resultou na opção mais simples com adição de uma fruta (IQR=64 e custo=R$1,58) como melhor alternativa. Observou-se maior efetividade das alternativas com uma porção de fruta (IQR1=64 / IQR3=58 / IQR5=72) sobre as demais (IQR2=48 / IQR4=58). CONCLUSÕES: O cálculo da razão custo-efetividade permitiu identificar a melhor opção de café da manhã com base na análise custo-efetividade e Índice de Qualidade da Refeição. Tais instrumentos agregam características de facilidade de aplicação e objetividade de avaliação...

School effectiveness: conceptualising divergent assessment approaches

Botha,RJ (Nico)
Fonte: South African Journal of Education Publicador: South African Journal of Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
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Studies on school effectiveness have dominated the literature of education management and administration for some time. According to the literature, these studies have two distinct aims: firstly, to identify factors that are characteristic of effective schools, and secondly, to identify differences between education outcomes in these schools. The choice and use of uniformed outcome measures has, however, been open to debate in many areas of education research. One of the touchstones for effective schools is the impact on learners' (scholars or students) education outcomes. Researchers into school effectiveness, however, continuously aim to clarify the dilemma with regard to learners' education outcomes. In parallel with this has been a call for schools to be more accountable, which in many cases leads to school effectiveness being judged on academic results, while other contributing factors are ignored. Apart from these studies, the uniform assessment of effectiveness in the school context has recently also received attention. This article, descriptive and narrative in nature and based on a literature study, offers a dynamic perspective on the assessment of school effectiveness and concludes with conceptualisation and analysis of three different...