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O fortalecimento da democracia deliberativa por meio dos conselhos gestores: o caso do Conselho Municipal de Educação do município de Poços de Caldas; The strengthening of the deliberate democracy through councils: the case of the Educational Local Council in Poços de Caldas municipality

Silveira Junior, Olney Bruno da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/03/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Os Conselhos Gestores Municipais funcionam como espaços públicos de debate de temas específicos promovendo a aproximação do cidadão à gestão da coisa pública. O ato legal que dá suporte a esta proposta de participação é a Constituição Federal de 1988. O cidadão é o grande pilar de transformação do contexto democrático quando assume as atribuições de interagir com os representantes eleitos na definição das políticas públicas. A política pública de educação dá aos municípios brasileiros a opção de criar seus próprios Sistemas de Ensino e institucionalizar os Conselhos Municipais de Educação. No município de Poços de Caldas o Conselho Municipal de Educação funciona como instrumento de deliberação e consulta. O objetivo geral deste trabalho é analisar as atividades desenvolvidas por este Conselho. Como percurso metodológico optou-se pelo método misto, quantitativo e predominantemente qualitativo. Cujas técnicas para obtenção dos dados foram: o questionário; a observação não-participante; a entrevista e a análise documental. O resultado da pesquisa demonstra que o Conselho Municipal de Educação de Poços de Caldas é agente de fortalecimento da democracia deliberativa, possuindo efetividade e autonomia deliberativa.; The Local management councils work as public places for having a debate of specific subjects promoting to bring the citizens closer the management public matter. The legal act that gives support for this participation offer is the 1988 Federal Constitution. The citizen is the great transformation pillar of the democratic context when taking on the attributions of interacting with the elected representatives defining the public policy. The educational public policy gives the Brazilian councils the option to create their own Teaching System and to establish the Educational Local Councils. In Poços de Caldas municipality the Educational Local council works as an instrument of deliberation and consultation. The major aim of this paper is to analize the activities this council has developed. As a route of methodology it opted for the mixed method...

Dos grupos de pressão na democracia representativa: os limites jurídicos; The pressure groups in representative democracy: the juridical limits.

Sanson, Alexandre
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/05/2013 PT
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Na realidade hodierna, faz-se necessária a análise dos grupos de interesse e, especificamente, de suas ações no âmbito político, por meio de pressão, que refletem o papel da sociedade civil organizada, através de microcosmos de atuação, na realização das aspirações populares, em seus diversos setores da vida, tratando-se de instrumentos de manifestação, canalização e consecução de aspirações coletivas. Nas sociedades complexas e heterogêneas, com a emergência de múltiplos anseios advindos da civilização industrial, por vezes conflitantes, denota-se a insuficiência do Estado em atender igualitariamente a todas as demandas, razão pela qual o cidadão não pode se limitar à figura do eleitor, com atuação periódica pelo voto, devendo assumir postura atuante no núcleo governamental. Os grupos de pressão compõem, assim, uma via da intitulada democracia participativa, com nítido papel contramajoritário, refletindo forças sociais que não encontraram respaldo na estrutura representativa clássica e contribuindo para a otimização do processo decisório institucional, ao aproximar o agente público das realidades dos titulares do poder e conferir legitimidade às medidas em cuja elaboração seus destinatários puderam intervir. A ação coletiva encontra-se alicerçada em preceitos constitucionais...

Democracia e discurso democrático na gestão escolar : estudo de uma escola de aplicação; Democracy and democratratic discourse in school : a study of school application

Vanderlei Pinheiro Bispo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/07/2011 PT
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Este trabalho buscou analisar alguns dos significados da democracia na gestão de uma escola. Uma das preocupações foi identificar como, no interior de uma unidade de educação básica, é utilizado o discurso democrático e quais os procedimentos considerados característicos da gestão. Foi importante analisar os discursos dos candidatos à gestão da escola e captar como pais e educadores qualificavam a gestão da instituição e o que esperavam dela para considerá-la realmente democrática. Foram analisadas atas de reuniões dos diferentes segmentos e relatório de grupos de trabalho que pautavam a avaliação do trabalho escolar e a proposição de encaminhamentos para as eventuais dificuldades e problemas identificados. Foi importante perceber que, mesmo proclamada como democrática nos documentos reguladores da vida institucional, nos discursos dos gestores e nos momentos de maiores dificuldades de gestão, ainda faltavam para pais e educadores mecanismos efetivamente democráticos, chegando a negar sua existência e considerando-a como democracia de fachada. Concluiu que a qualificação de práticas e procedimentos como democráticos legitimavam ações muitas vezes distantes da qualidade proclamada e que a gestão da escola por mecanismos de representação...

Democracia en el buen gobierno: instituciones, inversión social y desarrollo humano; Democracy in Good Governance: Institutions, Social Investment and Human Development

Soley Gutiérrez, Daniel
Fonte: Universidad de Alcalá. Centro de Iniciativas de Cooperación al Desarrollo y Servicio de Publicaciones Publicador: Universidad de Alcalá. Centro de Iniciativas de Cooperación al Desarrollo y Servicio de Publicaciones
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
SPA
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La construcción de una democracia en el buen gobierno implica la adecuación de la gestión pública a la protección efectiva de los derechos humanos; es necesario que la legalidad administrativa a la que deben responder sus actuaciones estén sujetas a una serie de principios que la hacen de calidad porque promueve y respeta estos derechos. Es decir, el accionar público debe estar fundamentado en una serie de principios como la legalidad, la responsabilidad, la equidad, la eficiencia, la transparencia, la rendición de cuentas y la inclusividad. Con esto, se genera un accionar de la administración pública integral, buscando que la toma de decisiones de los entes públicos, sean siempre a la luz de los derechos de las personas. Se debe trabajar en impulsar la creación de riqueza, pero también se deben buscar los mecanismos para distribuirla con criterios de solidaridad, equidad e igualdad que han caracterizado al país a través de su historia y que ahora hay que conservar y fortalecer dentro de los retos del mundo globalizado. Porque el crecimiento económico de un país no necesariamente es sinónimo de desarrollo social y es en ese punto donde se encuentra el principal reto del fortalecimiento del buen gobierno costarricense en el mundo actual y donde se puede hablar de verdadero desarrollo humano.; Constructing a democracy in good governance...

U.S. democracy promotion and al Jazeera a view into Arab reactions and opposing movements

Smith, Marie Elizabeth
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 115 p. : ill. (some col.) ;
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Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; The promotion of democracy in the Arab world, an area to date resistant to effective political liberalization, hasbecome a central pillar in American Middle East foreign policy as well as an integral element in the Global Waron Terrorism (GWOT). How will this advocacy of democracy be received, given our theoretical and historicalknowledge? The underlying assumption of U.S. policy is that democracy will moderate some of the anti-Americansentiments from the region as well as undermine terrorist activities and support. Will overt American promotion ofdemocracy cause these states to democratize? Using aspects of social movement theory, this thesis examines Arabreactions to public American promotion of democracy. I argue that America's campaign is counterproductivebecause it has polarized the political discourse, a result which weakens potential sources of internal pressure anddistorts understandings of democracy, thus facilitating states maintenance of the status quo. It does this throughframing the message as inherently American and spurring opposing movements. Using al-Jazeera data derivedfrom the Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS), I recorded the connotations associated with eacharticulation of the word "democracy" to create a sample of competing frames to observe opposing movementdevelopments and frame contest trends.

The Chechen war and Russia's transition to democracy

Lavan, Derek M
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
ENG
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The Russian government's handling of the crisis in Chechnya has cast a long shadow over the prospects for Russia's successful transition to democracy. The Chechen war has thrown into stark relief the essential authoritarian nature of the Russian state. Russia is weak in several fundamental principles of democracy: rule of law, constitutionalism, a separation of powers, and an effective system of checks-and-balances. Because of the limited powers entrusted to it by the Constitution, the parliament proved unable to influence the government's decisions relative to Chechnya. In the absence of a Russian legal tradition, the Constitutional Court failed to uphold the Constitution and prevent the executive branch from violating the law during the Chechen war. The Russian government is a quasi-autocracy, in which a small circle of ministers and advisors exercise true power. Ultimate, unaccountable authority resides personally with the chief executive, and the key decision-making center of the Russian government is his Security Council. This body is legally unaccountable, and its decisions relative to the Chechen crisis demonstrated a lack of democratic norms. Through a detailed reconstruction of key events and developments during the Chechen crisis...

The evolution of democratic politics and current security challenges in Nigeria: retrospect and prospect

Agbiboa, Daniel Egiegba
Fonte: Taylor & Francis (Routledge); http://www.routledge.com/ Publicador: Taylor & Francis (Routledge); http://www.routledge.com/
Tipo: Journal article; Accepted Version Formato: 21 pages
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This paper analyzes the evolution of democratic politics and continuing lack of success in entrenching liberal democracy in Nigeria. By examining the underlying causes of Nigeria’s purported slowness or imperviousness to the revival of effective democracy, the paper hopes to identify pertinent security challenges that have coalesced to impede her path to political stability and development.; 2014-12-31

Achieving Effective Social Protection for All in Latin America and the Caribbean : From Right to Reality

Ribe, Helena; Robalino, David A.; Walker, Ian
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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Slow progress in improving the coverage of Latin America and the Caribbean's (LAC's) traditional social protection (SP) programs, combined with the deepening of democracy, have led to calls for a new social contract to provide effective social protection to all citizens. This book highlights the main findings of a regional study by the World Bank, from right to reality: how Latin America and the Caribbean can achieve universal social protection by improving redistribution and adapting programs to labor markets. The report analyzes LAC's social insurance (SI) systems and highlights growing concerns about the incentives they may create and the behaviors they may incite on the part of workers, employers and service providers. It offers an economic analysis of the roots of these problems and suggests a way forward to achieve universal coverage in an equitable manner. The report argues that a coherent overall vision for the SP system should be established if such problems are to be understood and resolved. The goal is to turn the theoretical right to social protection...

Brazil - Toward a More Inclusive and Effective Participatory Budget in Porto Alegre : Volume 1. Main report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: City Development Strategy (CDS); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
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This report is about effective participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre. The process was initiated during the early years of re-democratization and decentralization in Brazil, following the end of the military dictatorship in 1985. The 1988 constitution initiated a process of decentralization and tax reforms that created the fiscal space for municipalities to make more significant public investment decisions. A plethora of participatory governance institutions have since proliferated in Brazil, most importantly, municipal policy councils and participatory budgeting bodies. The Participatory Budget (OP) was formally introduced in Porto Alegre under the leadership of the Workers' Party in coalition with pro-democracy social movements. Although initially fraught with difficulties due to fiscal constraints, the OP in Porto Alegre became gradually more systematic over time. Today, the OP has a complex methodology for organizing participation in a city of over 1.4 million inhabitants, as well as for prioritizing public investments based on three main criteria: unmet basic needs...

Brazil - Toward a More Inclusive and Effective Participatory Budget in Porto Alegre : Volume 2. Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: City Development Strategy (CDS); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This report is about effective participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre. The process was initiated during the early years of re-democratization and decentralization in Brazil, following the end of the military dictatorship in 1985. The 1988 constitution initiated a process of decentralization and tax reforms that created the fiscal space for municipalities to make more significant public investment decisions. A plethora of participatory governance institutions have since proliferated in Brazil, most importantly, municipal policy councils and participatory budgeting bodies. The Participatory Budget (OP) was formally introduced in Porto Alegre under the leadership of the Workers' Party in coalition with pro-democracy social movements. Although initially fraught with difficulties due to fiscal constraints, the OP in Porto Alegre became gradually more systematic over time. Today, the OP has a complex methodology for organizing participation in a city of over 1.4 million inhabitants, as well as for prioritizing public investments based on three main criteria: unmet basic needs...

Brazil : Toward a More Inclusive and Effective Participatory Budget in Porto Alegre, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: City Development Strategy (CDS); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
This report is about effective participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre. The process was initiated during the early years of re-democratization and decentralization in Brazil, following the end of the military dictatorship in 1985. The 1988 constitution initiated a process of decentralization and tax reforms that created the fiscal space for municipalities to make more significant public investment decisions. A plethora of participatory governance institutions have since proliferated in Brazil, most importantly, municipal policy councils and participatory budgeting bodies. The Participatory Budget (OP) was formally introduced in Porto Alegre under the leadership of the Workers' Party in coalition with pro-democracy social movements. Although initially fraught with difficulties due to fiscal constraints, the OP in Porto Alegre became gradually more systematic over time. Today, the OP has a complex methodology for organizing participation in a city of over 1.4 million inhabitants, as well as for prioritizing public investments based on three main criteria: unmet basic needs...

Brazil : Toward a More Inclusive and Effective Participatory Budget in Porto Alegre, Volume 2. Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: City Development Strategy (CDS); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
This report is about effective participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre. The process was initiated during the early years of re-democratization and decentralization in Brazil, following the end of the military dictatorship in 1985. The 1988 constitution initiated a process of decentralization and tax reforms that created the fiscal space for municipalities to make more significant public investment decisions. A plethora of participatory governance institutions have since proliferated in Brazil, most importantly, municipal policy councils and participatory budgeting bodies. The Participatory Budget (OP) was formally introduced in Porto Alegre under the leadership of the Workers' Party in coalition with pro-democracy social movements. Although initially fraught with difficulties due to fiscal constraints, the OP in Porto Alegre became gradually more systematic over time. Today, the OP has a complex methodology for organizing participation in a city of over 1.4 million inhabitants, as well as for prioritizing public investments based on three main criteria: unmet basic needs...

Midiendo las Condiciones de empoderamiento en los niveles subnacionales de ColombiaPropuesta metodológica a partir del concepto de la Democracia Efectiva

Vega Carreño, Angélica María
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de Grado Pregrado Formato: Pdf
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La presente investigación busca acercarse a la materialización del concepto de la Democracia Efectiva en los niveles subnacionales de Colombia a partir de las condiciones materiales y culturales que permiten su consolidación. En este sentido, tiene como finalidad proponer una herramienta metodológica para la medición de las condiciones socioeconómicas y socioculturales de empoderamiento propias de los niveles subnacionales de Colombia, que permita poner en discusión: a) el comportamiento del ordenamiento nominal jurídico-político colombiano en los territorios, b) las relaciones de dependencia entre las condiciones propias de los territorios (condiciones socioeconómicas y socioculturales) con el comportamiento de un fenómeno (Democracia Efectiva), c) la existencia de unos factores en los campos (i) material (medios, recursos, oportunidades) (ii) subjetivo (valores, creencias y hábitos) y (iii) legal (derechos), que posibilitan la consolidación de la Democracia Efectiva.; This investigation seeks to approach the materialization of the concept of Effective Democracy in Colombia subnational levels from the material and cultural conditions that enable its consolidation. In this sense, aims to propose a methodological tool for measuring the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of 'empowerment' proper of the subnational Colombian levels...

Legitimacy in question : elite-mass relations, constitutional reform and Canadian democracy /

Worden, Craig W.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
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During the 1980s and 1990s, Canadian political authority orientations underwent a significant transformation. Canadians are no longer deferential towards their political elites. Instead, they are autonomous, challenging, and increasingly participatory, and this continuing trend has brought the procedural legitimacy of the Canadian political process into question. The following study of elite-mass relations within Canadian democracy attempts to provide insight into the meaning of this change and how it should be addressed. An attitudinalbehavioural analysis ofthe electorate presents evidence that popular cynicism and alienation is rooted more deeply in a dissatisfaction with political institutions and traditions than with politicians. A structural analysis of the elected political elite reveals the failure of consociational traditions to provide effective representation as well as the minimal impact which the aforementioned orientation shift has had upon this elite. An event-decisional analysis, or case study, ofelite-mass relations in the arena of constitutional politics augments these complementary profiles and illustrates how the transformed electorate has significantly restricted the elected political elite's role in constitutional reform. The study concludes that the lack ofresponsiveness...

O impacto do controle de constitucionalidade na evolução da democracia; The impact of judicial review in the democracy evolution

Oliveira, Emerson Ademir Borges de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/10/2013 PT
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O princípio democrático está inscrito nas Constituições contemporâneas como fundamental para o desenvolvimento do Estado Constitucional. Embora o conceito possa variar, é certo que existem alguns pressupostos e características que permitem avaliar o status democrático de uma sociedade, bem como a existência de efetividade aos direitos diretamente decorrentes da democracia, vale dizer, direitos voltados à instrumentação do princípio. O projeto constitucional se inscreve cotidianamente e passa a exigir o agir do Poder Público, em qualquer de suas funções, pois a efetivação da Constituição é dever de todos. Quando ausente a efetividade, passa-se a cogitar a transcrição dos direitos sobre a democracia pela veia constitucional. E ultrapassada a vertente meramente aplicadora da lei concepção liberal da separação de poderes -, o Judiciário erege como criador do Direito em um aspecto interpretacionista. Surge, então, a discussão acerca dos limites da interpretação e das técnicas de controle de constitucionalidade para efetivação da democracia. Isto é, a discussão acerca do liame que separa a interpretação criadora da criação interpretativa, assim como o modo técnico-racional utilizado pelo Judiciário para realizar o princípio democrático. De qualquer forma...

¿Son los Planes de Desarrollo un mecanismo eficaz para el fortalecimiento de las democracias participativas?; Are the Development Plans an Effective Mechanism for Strengthening Participatory Democracy?

Puentes Gonzáles, German
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/12/2011 SPA
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El autor se interroga acerca de si el Consejo Nacional de Planeación, al igual que los consejos territoriales, son escenarios para el ejercicio de la democracia y si su participación, en la construcción de los planes de desarrollo, constituye un instrumento eficaz para su fortalecimiento o son, por el contrario, un espejismo en la praxis de la democracia en Colombia. En la primera parte se mencionan algunas versiones de democracia desde Lincoln, pasando por las versiones de Tocqueville, Shumpeter, Dahl, Bryce, Borón y Sartori. Se identifican en cada caso los elementos fundamentales para tenerlos como referente y soporte de análisis para dar cuenta, en la segunda parte, cuál o cuáles formas de esas democracias describen el modus operandi en el seno de los consejos de planeación en los niveles nacional o territorial. Igualmente se analiza el rol de los consejos de planeación, su legitimidad, la calidad y trascendencia de las intervenciones de sus miembros, así como la capacidad de incidir en el proyecto de ley del Plan Nacional de Desarrollo, para lo cual se recurre a entrevistar a miembros y ex miembros de los consejos Nacional y Distrital de planeación. El autor, además de responder algunos interrogantes que se plantea sobre el tema objeto de esta reflexión...

The Influence of Democracy Aid on the Arab Spring Protests: Did Western Democracy Assistance Help Nations Respond Positively to the Protests?

Lang, Courtney
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Publicado em 01/04/2013
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The unprecedented Arab Spring crisis that erupted in late 2010 and spread rapidly across the Middle East and North Africa is history in the making. As the Arab Spring progresses, it has become clear that some nations have been more successful than others in their responses to the crisis, although the reasoning for this is yet to be determined. This thesis suggests that Western foreign aid influenced the way in which these nations responded to the crisis, particularly in regards to their transition to a more legitimate democracy. More specifically, this thesis hypothesizes that those nations that received a significant amount of Western assistance responded more successfully than those that received little. The results gathered from the case study analysis conducted in the paper support this hypothesis. These findings reinforce the literature that argues that foreign aid is effective, and as such, open the door for further research into the ways in which Western foreign aid can be utilized in the future.; Honors Thesis

The Struggle to Regain Effective Government under Democracy in Indonesia

McLeod, Ross
Fonte: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group Publicador: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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With Soeharto's demise, Indonesia gained democracy but lost effective government. A return to sustained, rapid economic growth will require an overhaul of Indonesia's bureaucracy and judiciary which, along with the legislatures, the military and the state-owned enterprises, had been co-opted by the former president into his economy-wide 'franchise' - a system of government designed to redistribute income and wealth from the weak to the strong while maintaining rapid growth. This franchise has disintegrated, its various component parts now working at cross-purposes rather than in mutually reinforcing fashion. The result has been a significant decline in the security of property rights and, in turn, the continued postponement of a sustained economic rebound. To reform the civil service it will be necessary to undertake a radical overhaul of its personnel management practices and salary structures, so as to provide strong incentives for officials to work in the public interest.

Entre cooperação reflexiva e democracia procedimental; Between reflexive cooperation and procedural democracy

Bunchaft, Maria Eugenia; Fundação Oswaldo Aranha
Fonte: Fundação José Arthur Boiteux Publicador: Fundação José Arthur Boiteux
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2009 POR
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2009v30n59p141A filosofia de Axel Honneth sobre reconhecimento procura analisar a relação entre a teoria do desenvolvimento psíquico e a evolução moral da sociedade, de forma a alcançar novos parâmetros capazes de renovar a Teoria Crítica. O elemento fundamental do seu arcabouço teórico constitui a concepção de identidade como uma luta intersubjetiva por reconhecimento mútuo. Por sua vez, Jürgen Habermas desenvolveu uma concepção procedimentalista de direito e democracia, cujos influxos teóricos são fundamentais para a filosofia política do reconhecimento. Nas obras A Inclusão do Outro e Direito e Democracia, o autor sublinha ser o sistema de direitos sensível às demandas por reconhecimento de sociedades multiculturais, de forma que grupos culturais devem articular em processos deliberativos aquelas tradições que desejam perpetuar. Inobstante, para Honneth, a institucionalização de procedimentos capazes de alicerçar as expectativas normativas das demandas identitárias seria insuficiente para garantir efetiva justiça social e, portanto, incapaz de abarcar o substrato moral inerente às lutas intersubjetivas por reconhecimento: a experiência do desrespeito. Com efeito...

Media and democracy: false convergences

Fonseca,Francisco C. P.
Fonte: Revista de Sociologia e Política Publicador: Revista de Sociologia e Política
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2006 EN
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This article discusses the false convergence between the role of the media in promoting democracy and political theories of democracy. With this purpose in mind, we propose critical reflections on arguments that: 1) naturalize the fact that "the news" is a commodity; b) focus on the (supposedly) public goals of the media, in spite of the reality that their agencies are largely private; c) link these agencies to liberal- democratic values. Thus, the text attempts to show both the absence of and need for shields - personified in the theories of weights and counterbalances - against the powers that be, particularly those of the media. We point to the paradox involved in the media's role as intermediary between public and private spheres and question the degree to which the media permit fulfillment of the idea that those have control should be controlled, particularly in a world in which communication has extended its action to the planetary level. We conclude that democracy can only be made effective if democratic controls over the media are exercised; this means the creation of national and international level public information media that would be neither privately nor state owned and managed.