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Why Does the Productivity of Education Vary across Individuals in Egypt? Firm Size, Gender, and Access to Technology as Sources of Heterogeneity in Returns to Education

Herrera, Santiago; Badr, Karim
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.71%
The paper estimates the rates of return to investment in education in Egypt, allowing for multiple sources of heterogeneity across individuals. The paper finds that, in the period 1998-2006, returns to education increased for workers with higher education, but fell for workers with intermediate education levels; the relative wage of illiterate workers also fell in the period. This change can be explained by supply and demand factors. On the supply side, the number workers with intermediate education, as well as illiterate ones, outpaced the growth of other categories joining the labor force during the decade. From the labor demand side, the Egyptian economy experienced a structural transformation by which sectors demanding higher-skilled labor, such as financial intermediation and communications, gained importance to the detriment of agriculture and construction, which demand lower-skilled workers. In Egypt, individuals are sorted into different educational tracks, creating the first source of heterogeneity: those that are sorted into the general secondary-university track have higher returns than those sorted into vocational training. Second...

The Value of Vocational Education : High School Type and Labor Market Outcomes in Indonesia

Newhouse, David; Suryadarma, Daniel
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.74%
This paper examines the relationship between the type of senior high school attended by Indonesian youth and their subsequent labor market outcomes. This topic is very timely, given the government s recent decision to dramatically expand vocational enrollment. The analysis controls for an unusually rich set of predetermined characteristics, and exploits longitudinal data spanning 14 years to separately identify cohort and age effects. There are four main findings. First, students are sorted into different school types largely on the basis of their entering exam score. Public schools attract the highest-scoring students, while private vocational schools serve the lowest-scoring students. Second, after controlling for a variety of characteristics, including test scores, male public school graduates earn a substantial premium over their privately schooled counterparts. Third, private vocational school graduates fare at least as well as private general graduates, despite coming from more disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds. Finally...

The Evolving Regulatory Context for Private Education in Emerging Economies : Discussion Paper and Case Studies

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
EN_US
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45.72%
The approach to regulating private sector education is as unique as the countries in which the institutions are located. Governments are under considerable pressure as they endeavor to meet access to education targets at all levels, from basic to tertiary. Increasingly, governments are recognizing that they are unable to meet these demands without investment from private providers and thus are eager to ensure that providers and investors are of the highest possible quality. Many governments are endeavoring to determine the most appropriate policy framework that will enable the private sector to contribute to national education goals. Regulation of private education is an issue of critical importance for all stakeholders involved: government, providers, investors, parents, and students. How the government frames its regulatory policies will determine the ease, or difficulty, for private providers to enter the market. At their best, regulations can be welcome guidelines to enable quality providers to understand the requirements for working in a given jurisdiction. When regulations are transparent and appropriately applied...

Strategies for Sustainable Financing of Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa : Appendix 3 - Costs and Financing of Secondary Education in Benin, A Situational Analysis

Lewin, Keith M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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45.74%
This thematic study discusses strategies for sustainable financing of secondary education in Sub-Saharan Africa. The report provides insight into options for financing the expansion of secondary education and training in Africa. This comes with a hefty price tag and points to the need to undertake fundamental reforms swiftly. This publication messages are clear: secondary education and training in Sub-Saharan Africa faces the challenge of improved efficiency and improved quality simultaneously with a fast growing demand. Sustainable financing will also require more effective public-private partnerships, because governments have many priorities and do not have a lot of room for significant additional public funding of post-primary systems. Educational reforms are needed to expand enrollment in secondary schooling in affordable ways. These reforms will contribute to poverty reduction by increasing the levels of knowledge, skills, and capability; diminishing inequalities in access that limit social mobility and skew income distribution; and contributing to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that relate to education.

The Link Between Health, Social Issues, and Secondary Education : Life Skills, Health, and Civic Education

Smith, Robert; Nesbakken, Guro; Wirak, Anders; Sonn, Brenda
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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45.71%
This working paper is based on a literature review and country case studies in six Sub-Saharan African countries: Eritrea, Mali, Namibia, Senegal, South Africa, and Tanzania. It looks at the role of secondary education and training in promoting health, civics and life skills among the African youth. Specifically, this study focuses on examining which schooling programs are effective in equipping young people with life skills, which programs reduce dropout and increase participation and how schools can become agents in tackling health and social issues.

Recruiting, Retaining, and Retraining Secondary School Teachers and Principals in Sub-Saharan Africa

Mulkeen, Aidan; Chapman, David W.; DeJaeghere, Joan G.; Leu, Elizabeth
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.76%
This working paper is based on country case studies of Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Madagascar, Tanzania, and Uganda, and an extensive literature review. In many parts of Africa, the demand for secondary teachers substantially exceeds the supply, due to factors such as secondary teacher attrition, bottlenecks in the teacher preparation system, and perceived unattractive conditions of service. Few countries have strong policies, strategies, and programs for recruiting able secondary school graduates to secondary teaching. The paper suggests several critical and promising areas for improvement in the quality of secondary teachers through new approaches to recruitment; pre-service and in-service teacher development; and improvements in the deployment, utilization, compensation, and conditions of service for teachers.

Progress in Participation in Tertiary Education in India from 1983 to 2004

Azam, Mehtabul; Blom, Andreas
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.72%
Using nationally representative household surveys, this paper examines the trends in attainment, enrollment, and access to tertiary (higher) education in India from 1983 to 2005. The findings suggest that there has been considerable progress in attainment and participation; however, they remain low. Important gaps exist in enrollment between rich and poor, rural and urban areas, men and women, disadvantaged groups and the general population, and states. Analysis of transition rates from secondary education to tertiary education and regression analysis indicate that inequality in tertiary education between disadvantaged groups and the general population is explained by low completion rates of secondary education. Inequality in tertiary education related to income, gender, rural residence, and between states is explained by: (i) differences in completion rates of secondary education, and (ii) differences in the probability of transitioning from secondary education to tertiary education. In particular, the importance of household income has grown markedly. Equitable expansion of secondary education is therefore critical for improving the equity of tertiary education. There is also a need to help qualified youth from low-income families and rural backgrounds to attend tertiary education...

Universal Secondary Education (USE) in Guyana

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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55.75%
In 2002, Guyana adopted a broadly-based five year plan (2003-2007) to achieve universal secondary education (USE), with a strategy to convert secondary classes in primary schools and grade 7-10 community high schools into General Secondary Schools (GSS) in which all students could present for the Caribbean Examination Certificate (CXC) or an alternative competency-based Certificate. Current status of secondary education (chapter one) summarizes the performance of public schools in Guyana against the Ministry of Education (MOE) policy on universal secondary education (2002), trends evident in the annual statistical digests, and the broad issues presented to Senior MOE officers on 13 December and to the Minister on 19 December 2007. Improving secondary student participation (chapter two) examines national and regional trends in population, enrollment, low levels of apparent transition from primary to secondary schools, poor secondary school entry examination (SSEE) results and issues related to the "size" of secondary schools. Upgrading and qualifying teachers (chapter three) identifies small school enrollment issues in earlier chapters with the enrollment required to offer a viable secondary curriculum...

Bulgaria : Improving the Quality and Relevance of Education for All

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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45.73%
Bulgaria has recently introduced sweeping reforms of its secondary education system to promote more autonomy and accountability of schools for better learning outcomes. Positive results are already showing but more remains to be done to reap the full benefits of the reforms. Per-student-financing and delegated budgets have led to a wave of school closures that had become essential in the wake of a dramatic decline in student numbers. As opposed to the previous centralized system, school-based management with a considerable degree of decision-making power of the school principal has set the stage for schools to better adjust to local needs and opportunities for a better education. External student assessments are now routinely conducted, which have substantially improved the evidence base for education policy-making. However, concerns remain as to the accountability of schools to the local community. While principals are accountable to the municipal authorities for the use of financial resources, parents have little formal ways of holding principals accountable for learning outcomes. The reform was launched in the face of dramatic challenges in terms of unsatisfactory learning outcomes...

Expanding Access and Enhancing the Economic Benefits of Education in the Maldives : Challenges and Prospects

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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45.74%
Human capital is the central determinant of economic well-being and social advancement in the modern global economy. The key characteristic that distinguishes between advanced economies, middle-income economies and low-income economies is the knowledge content of their economic activities and production processes. Industry, agriculture and especially services have become increasingly knowledge and skill intensive in recent years. Further, the dominance of knowledge and skills is increasing at an accelerating rate. Among advanced economies, for instance, the education levels of their populations is the single most important factor determining their economic performance [Hanushek and Welch (2006), Hanushek and Woessmann (2008)]. Among middle-income and low-income countries, too, economies that have high education attainment enjoy considerable welfare gains [Fasih (2008), Patrinos and Psacharopoulos (2011)]. Human resource development is particularly important for the economic development of small states [Martin and Bray (2011)]. Education also produces a variety of social benefits. These include healthier and better nourished families and children; the creation of the enlightened citizenry needed for a modern liberal democracy; and the promotion of social mobility [OECD (2012)]. This paper offers an overview of the general education system and the current status of access and participation in the Maldives. This is followed by a discussion of the economic and social benefits of investment in education. The paper concludes by discussing options to expand access and participation at education levels where the Maldives lags behind other comparable small island economies.

West Bank and Gaza : Education Sector Analysis - Impressive Achievements Under Harsh Conditions and the Way Forward to Consolidate a Quality Education System

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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45.74%
The Palestinian Education System comprises a Mandatory Basic Cycle covering Grades 1 to 10, divided into the Preparation Stage (Grades 1 to 4) and the Empowerment Stage (Grades 5 to 10). Optional Secondary Education covers Grades 11 and 12, with the option of general secondary education, and a few vocational secondary schools. Post secondary education is offered in 11 universities, (10 private and one public), 11 technical colleges (4 government, 2 UNWRA, 4 public and 1 private) which offer mainly 4 year programs. In addition there are 19 community colleges (1 government, 9 public, 2 UNRWA, and 7 private) that offer mainly two-year diploma courses in technical and commercial specializations. The Ministry of Education and Higher Education (MOEHE) developed in 1999 a five-year Education Development Plan for the period 2000-2005. This was the first time after the establishment of the Palestinian Authority in 1994 that the MOEHE developed a National Plan with a unified vision for the Palestinian education system from pre-school to secondary education.

Nepal : Priorities and Strategies for Education Reform

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
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45.73%
The modern education system in Nepal is one of the youngest in the world and operates within a political democracy that was established only in 1991. While parts of the system have been well designed and are implemented effectively, others remain in an embryonic stage and are only partly effective. This report identifies a number of key constraints which currently are hindering the development of the system and suggests priorities and strategies for organizing and managing the required changes. Six aspects of the current status are highlighted: Levels of literacy and educational attainment remain low. While access to all levels of the education system has increased considerably, participation remains unequal across income and social groups and the benefits of public subsidies are inequitably distributed. The quality of education is low. High repetition and dropout rates throughout the system are wasting valuable resources. The system does not serve the labor market well. This report recommends the government to: ensure within the coming decade that all children enroll in and complete a five year primary education while developing the structures and processes for expanding a strengthened basic cycle of schooling for eight years...

Bangladesh : Education Sector Review, Volume 2

World Bank
Fonte: Dhaka: The University Press Limited for the World Bank Publicador: Dhaka: The University Press Limited for the World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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55.63%
This Education Sector Review covers many major educational topics in Bangladesh. Six actions are needed to realize Bangladesh's vision in 2020: build a stronger, wider and deeper foundation of basic education; reorient and establish secondary education on a more equitable footing; transfer vocational skill training to non-government providers; rationalize, reform and revitalize higher education; vastly increase public financing of education; and manage the system better. Volume 1: addresses the above six actions as well as socioeconomic development, implications for education, and education finance. Volume 2 examines in depth primary and pre-primary education; early childhood care and education for development; non-formal education; secondary; and higher secondary education. Volume 3: focuses on technical vocational education and training; and higher education.

An African Exploration of the East Asian Education Experience; Africa regional educational publications

Fredriksen, Birger; Tan, Jee Peng
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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45.72%
Contents of the report are as follows: East Asia education study tour: an overview of key insights by Birger Fredriksen, and Tan Jee Peng. Education in Africa: knowledge makes the difference by Mamadou Ndoye. Education in Singapore: developments since 1965 by Goh Chor Boon, and S. Gopinathan. Education in Vietnam: development history, challenges, and solutions by Nguyen Quang Kinh, and Nguyen Quoc Chi. Education in the Republic of Korea: approaches, achievements, and current challenges by Chong Jae Lee. Education in Thailand: improving secondary education by Luis Benveniste. Education in Ireland: evolution of economic and education policies since the early 1990s by Daniel O' Hare.

Gender Equity in Junior and Senior Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

Sutherland-Addy, Esi
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.8%
This thematic study is about gender equity in junior and senior secondary education in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It consists of case studies of Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda, as well as, a review of studies undertaken over the past ten years on education in Africa with particular attention to girls' and secondary education. Gender equity at the primary level has been the focus of considerable attention within the education for all frameworks of action, but much less so at the secondary level. Evidence of gender inequity and inequality in terms of access, retention and performance in secondary education in SSA raises many questions. While transition rates from primary to secondary are higher for girls than boys, and the repetition rates are lower, girls still significantly trail behind boys in terms of secondary gross enrollment rate (GER). The purpose of this study is to document and analyze the extent and nature of gender disadvantage in junior and senior secondary education, to analyze the causes of this disadvantage and to identify strategies that may be effective in reducing or eliminating it. This thematic study will make a timely and useful contribution to the debate on Secondary Education and Training in Africa (SEIA) issues.

Girls' Education in the 21st Century : Gender Equality, Empowerment, and Economic Growth

Tembon, Mercy; Fort, Lucia
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.72%
Gender equality is not just a women's issue, it is a development issue. Women's economic empowerment is essential for economic development, growth, and poverty reduction not only because of the income it generates, but also because it helps to break the vicious cycle of poverty. Educating girls and women is critical to economic development. Research conducted in a variety of countries and regions has established that educating girls is one of the most cost-effective ways of spurring development. Female education creates powerful poverty-reducing synergies and yields enormous intergenerational gains. It is positively correlated with increased economic productivity, more robust labor markets, higher earnings, and improved societal health and well-being. This book is based on the background papers developed for the symposium. Although the papers have been edited, their key messages remain intact, and the theme of the symposium respected. The overview chapter is a thematic paper prepared by the World Bank that brings out the main messages of the symposium. The subsequent chapters reflect the current state of education from a gender perspective and highlight the importance of and challenges to female education as well as the interdependence of education and development objectives. The final chapter presents five strategic directions for advancing gender equity in education.

Is Optimization an Opportunity? An Assessment of the Impact of Class Size and School Size on the Performance of Ukrainian Secondary Schools

Coupe, Tom; Olefir, Anna; Alonso, Juan Diego
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.73%
Using a rich data set of almost the entire population of Ukrainian secondary schools, the authors estimate the effect of school size and class size on the performance of secondary schools on Ukraine's External Independent Test. They find that larger schools tend to have somewhat better performance, both in terms of test scores and in terms of test participation. The size of this effect is relatively small, however, especially in rural areas for which the estimates are likely to be more clean estimates. Class size is found to be insignificant in most specifications and, if significant, of negligible size.

Education, Training and Labor Market Outcomes for Youth in Indonesia

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.71%
This report is part of the Analytical and Advisory Activities (AAA) program focusing on the engagement area of 'skills development, competitiveness, and knowledge economy' and is based on several background papers and technical notes written on the characteristics of youth employment and the role of education and skills in the school-to-work transition in Indonesia. The slow transition of graduates is explored in detail in section two, which pays special attention to differences by education levels. It highlights the difficulties of senior secondary school graduates in accessing good quality jobs and the high unemployment rate that they face upon graduation. Given these worrisome signs of young senior secondary school graduates (considered the lower tier of 'skilled' workers) and expected increases in the transition to senior secondary education (which are already rising rapidly), section three focuses on the senior secondary school level. Seeking to shed some light on the question of whether senior secondary education is providing the right skills for its students...

Low Female Labor Force Participation in Sri Lanka : Contributory Factors, Challenges and Policy Implications

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.72%
Even though Sri Lanka is a fore-runner in many human development dimensions and aspects of gender equality amongst the South Asian countries, it is similar to other South Asian countries when it comes to women's participation in economic activities. Female labor force participation has not changed much in recent decades and remained stagnant at a rate around 30 to 35 percent of working age women. This rate is much lower than one would expect given the educational attainment of the female population in Sri Lanka. In order to encourage increased women s participation in economic activities, the first condition is to understand what is keeping them out of the scene. This paper analyzes the underlying reasons behind low participation rates of women in economic activities. It also investigates the employment outcomes, occupational choice, rates of returns, and skills set of economically active women in comparison with men to identify and understand the gaps. The findings have been used to suggest potential policies and programs that can help remove some of those barriers and encourage and enable women to become more economically active in the labor market.

Strategic Reform Road-map for the Technical and Vocational Education and Training Sector in West Bengal

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.75%
This report focuses on one of the key pillars of economic growth - namely, human development, and in particular, on skills development in West Bengal. It examines the current status of skills development, and potential ways forward for making the production of skills in the state more aligned to its economic growth needs. More specifically, the report investigates the characteristics of the technical and vocational education and training system that produces skills, how these skills match up in quantity and quality with what is in demand from employers in the organized and informal sectors, governance and quality assurance systems, emerging partnerships between the government and private providers of skills, and the availability of financial resources for skills development. Based on the findings from primary surveys, secondary data analysis, in-depth consultations with stakeholders, and declared policy priorities, the report provides a strategic framework and a time-based implementation road-map for reforming and reorienting technical and vocational education and training in West Bengal. This task was undertaken at the specific request of the new Government of West Bengal (GOWB) who took office in 2011. The GOWB wanted to know how to improve the quality of vocational and technical education and training in the state...