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Avaliação da toxicidade de fluidos de usinagem através da ecotoxicologia aquática; Evaluation of the toxicity of fluids employed in the metallic tool industrial machining using aquatic ecotoxicology

Coelho, Ricardo dos Santos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/10/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.93%
Análises ecotoxicológicas vêm sendo amplamente empregadas no monitoramento de amostras ambientais, efluentes industriais e substâncias complexas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a toxicidade de fluidos de usinagem usados na indústria de peças metálicas, foram feitos ensaios de toxicidade aguda com espécies de três diferentes níveis tróficos: Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis, Daphnia laevis e Danio rerio. As amostras dos fluidos foram também analisadas quanto aos valores de DQO, fenol, pH, cor, densidade e surfactantes. Os parâmetros físicos e químicos encontram-se dentro dos limites da legislação CONAMA 357 (D.O.U., 2005). Os resultados dos bioensaios revelaram que os fluidos de usinagem apresentaram toxicidade aos organismos empregados neste estudo, e que o tratamento das amostras com radiação gama não foi eficiente na diminuição da toxicidade dessas matrizes. Foi observado que a radiação gama potencializou o efeito tóxico dos fluidos estudados. A biodegradação em solo demonstrou ser efetiva para os fluidos de usinagem e bactérias endêmicas foram identificadas e isoladas para possível utilização no tratamento de áreas contaminadas com fluidos de usinagem. O monitoramento e gestão dos resíduos de fluido de usinagem são necessários para a preservação dos organismos aquáticos devido a sua toxicidade elevada.; Ecotoxicological analyses have being used to monitor environmental samples...

Ensaio cometa em microalgas marinhas: danos no DNA de Dunaliella tertiolecta Butcher 1959 causados pela exposição à 4-nitroquinolina-N-óxido e ao benzo [a] pireno; Comet assay in marine microalgae: DNA damage in Dunaliella tertiolecta Butcher 1959 caused by exposure to 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide and benzo[a]pyrene

Ussami, Keyi Ando
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/10/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.93%
Dunaliella tertiolecta, uma alga verde fitoplanctônica de ampla distribuição no ambiente marinho, foi escolhida como organismo teste para estudar a possibilidade de ser utilizada no ensaio cometa, um teste de detecção de danos no DNA em células individualizadas muito utilizado na ecotoxicologia. Essas algas foram facilmente lisadas pela solução de lise alcalina iônica, seus cometas foram corados eficientemente pelo brometo de etídio e pela prata, e a análise por índice de danos apresentou boa correlação com momento de cauda, comprimento de cauda e porcentagem de DNA na cauda. As algas foram expostas a concentrações crescentes de 4-nitroquinolina-N-óxido (4NQO) e benzo[a]pireno (BAP) por 1, 2 e 4 h no escuro. Após somente 1 h de exposição, observou-se um aumento significativo de danos no DNA das algas expostas a 0,25 µM de 4NQO, demonstrando a sensibilidade das mesmas em relação a células de animais. Os dados obtidos da exposição ao BAP não foram consistentes e necessitam de verificação. A metabolização de BAP em compostos tóxicos pelas algas e o efeito das condições de luminosidade antes e durante as exposições são discutidos. Os resultados indicam que D. tertiolecta pode ser utilizada em laboratório para avaliação de genotoxicidade na água através do ensaio cometa.; D. tertiolecta...

Avaliação ecotoxicológica do uso de dejetos de suínos em solos de Santa Catarina; Ecotoxicological evaluation of swine manure usage in soils from Santa Catarina State Brazil

Segat, Julia Corá
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/06/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.93%
O Brasil ocupa a quarta posição entre os maiores produtores mundiais de carne suína. Destaque nacional deve ser dado ao estado de Santa Catarina, que detém 25% da produção do Brasil. Em Santa Catarina, a intensificação da produção em pequena área territorial gera um grande aporte anual de dejetos de suínos por unidade de área agrícola. Isso se deve ao fato de que a alternativa mais utilizada para descarte desses resíduos é a sua aplicação como fertilizante agrícola, prática que tem gerado um dos maiores problemas de poluição ambiental, especialmente na região Oeste Catarinense. Poucos trabalhos com intuito de avaliar a toxicidade desse material aos organismos edáficos e sua interação com diferentes classes texturais de solos podem ser encontrados. Para avaliação desta toxicidade, uma ferramenta utilizada internacionalmente, e cada vez mais frequentemente no Brasil, é a ecotoxicologia terrestre. Esta técnica é utilizada para avaliar efeitos de substâncias que, quando adicionadas aos solos, causam impactos em organismos, mensurando as respostas de alterações na taxa de letalidade, reprodução, desenvolvimento e comportamento de organismos edáficos padronizados. Desta maneira, este estudo objetivou avaliar por meio de testes ecotoxicológicos os efeitos de doses crescentes de dejeto de suínos (D0: 0 m3 ha-1; D1: 25 m3 ha-1; D2: 50 m3 ha-1; D3: 75 m3 ha-1 e 100 m3 ha-1)...

Avaliação da atividade estrogênica das águas do rio Itapecuru no município de Bacabeira-MA; Assessment of the estrogenic activity of water rom Itapecuru river, at Bacabeira-MA

Verbinnen, Raphael Teixeira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/06/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.93%
O rio Itapecuru foi investigado quanto a sua atividade estrogênica por meio das técnicas de ecotoxicologia aquática e de cromatografia líquida. No município de Bacabeira, amostras de água do rio Itapecuru foram coletadas no ponto de captação do sistema de abastecimento público de água que atende cerca da metade da população de São Luís, capital do Maranhão. Elas foram utilizadas na realização de ensaios ecotoxicológicos crônicos de 21 dias com Danio rerio e Oreochromis niloticus. A VTG nestes organismos-teste foi quantificada por meio do ensaio imunoenzimático ELISA, cujos resultados indicaram a indução de VTG em machos de ambas as espécies. Portanto, a água do rio Itapecuru continha substâncias em concentração suficiente para causar alterações endócrinas no sistema sexual reprodutivo de Danio rerio e de Oreochromis niloticus. Para investigação da ocorrência de 17 β-estradiol (E2) e 17 α-etinilestradiol (EE2), foi desenvolvido um método analítico que utilizou a extração em fase sólida seguida da análise cromatográfica líquida de alta eficiência acoplada a um detector de fluorescência. O método foi validado e demonstrou-se ser seletivo, preciso (E2 = 3,08% e EE2 = 2,26%), exato (E2 = 78...

Ecotoxicology of Nano-TiO2 An Evaluation of its Toxicity to Organisms of Aquatic Ecosystems

Clemente, Z.; Castro, V. L.; Jonsson, C. M.; Fraceto, L. F.
Fonte: Univ Tehran Publicador: Univ Tehran
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 33-50
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.93%
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); The production and use of synthetic nanoparticles is growing rapidly, and therefore the presence of these materials in the environment seems inevitable. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) presents various possible uses in industry, cosmetics, and even in the treatment of contaminated environments. Studies about the potential ecotoxicological risks of TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) have been published but their results are still inconclusive. It should be noted that the properties of the diverse nano-TiO2 must be considered in order to establish experimental models to study their toxicity to environmentally relevant species. Moreover, the lack of descriptions and characterization of nanoparticles, as well as differences in the experimental conditions employed, have been a compromising factor in the comparison of results obtained in various studies. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to make a simple review of the principal properties of TiO2, especially in nanoparticulate form, which should be considered in aquatic toxicology studies...

Fish exposure to nano-TiO2 under different experimental conditions: Methodological aspects for nanoecotoxicology investigations

Clemente, Z.; Castro, V. L.; Feitosa, L. O.; Lima, R.; Jonsson, C. M.; Maia, A. H N; Fraceto, L. F.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 647-656
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.2%
The ecotoxicology of nano-TiO2 has been extensively studied in recent years; however, few toxicological investigations have considered the photocatalytic properties of the substance, which can increase its toxicity to aquatic biota. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects on fish exposed to different nano-TiO2 concentrations and illumination conditions. The interaction of these variables was investigated by observing the survival of the organisms, together with biomarkers of biochemical and genetic alterations. Fish (Piaractus mesopotamicus) were exposed for 96h to 0, 1, 10, and 100mg/L of nano-TiO2, under visible light, and visible light with ultraviolet (UV) light (22.47J/cm2/h). The following biomarkers of oxidative stress were monitored in the liver: concentrations of lipid hydroperoxide and carbonylated protein, and specific activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase. Other biomarkers of physiological function were also studied: the specific activities of acid phosphatase and Na,K-ATPase were analyzed in the liver and brain, respectively, and the concentration of metallothionein was measured in the gills. In addition, micronucleus and comet assays were performed with blood as genotoxic biomarkers. Nano-TiO2 caused no mortality under any of the conditions tested...

The use of diplopods in soil ecotoxicology - A review

Souza, Tatiana da Silva; Christofoletti, Cintya Aparecida; Bozzatto, Vlamir; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 68-73
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.2%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Processo FAPESP: 06/52383-7; Processo FAPESP: 09/50578-3; Diplopods play an important role in the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems, actively participating in the decomposition of organic matter and soil aeration. They have gained increased attention from ecotoxicology research because they are continuously exposed to soil contaminants and biological effects of chemical stressors can be measurable at various levels of biological organization. This paper is the first review on the use of diplopods as soil bioindicators and compiles the effects of the different toxic chemical agents on these animals. Special emphasis is given on the interpretation of the effects of heavy metals and complex mixtures in target organs of diplopods. (C)2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Geoffroy’s side-necked turtle [Phrynops geoffroanus (Schweigger, 1812), Testudines: Chelidae] as a model for evolutionary ecotoxicology: relationship between environmental contamination, conditions and genetic variability

Venancio, L.P.R.; Zuccari, D.A.P.C.; Domingos, Claudia Regina Bonini
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 6858-6859
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.93%
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento em Pesquisa (CNPq); The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of human activity factors, such as environmental contamination and habitat changes, as drivers for changing the physiological, biochemical, and genetic diversity of Geoffroy’s side-necked turtle populations in one of the most impacted watersheds in southeastern Brazil. The impact of chemical and organic contamination was determined by ecotoxicological analyses to assess the action of some of the major components involved in protection against oxidative stress, phase I and II detoxification metabolism, and antioxidant capacity. The results indicated the influence of domestic and industrial effluents on detoxification metabolism and oxidative stress. However, in spite of increased activity and effect of EROD (CYP1A1) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, GST average values in the urban area agreed with those expected for hypoxic conditions according to the literature. This observation suggests that increased GST in response to ROS production due to the presence of pollutants increases the antioxidant defense network, controlling the oxidative damage caused by hypoxia and reperfusion. To determine the conditions that are reflected in individual ability (fitness)...

Ecotoxicological evaluation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, under different illumination conditions = : Avaliação ecotoxicológica do dióxido de titânio nanoparticulado, sob diferentes condições de iluminação; Avaliação ecotoxicológica do dióxido de titânio nanoparticulado, sob diferentes condições de iluminação

Zaira Clemente
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/07/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.2%
A ecotoxicologia de nanopartículas de dióxido de titânio (nano- TiO2) tem sido amplamente estudada nos últimos anos, mas os resultados obtidos ainda são inconclusivos. Assim, permanecem dúvidas sobre a aplicabilidade dos atuais protocolos ecotoxicológicos para avaliação dos possíveis impactos do uso da nanotecnologia. Poucas investigações toxicológicas tem considerado as propriedades fotocatalíticas da substância, que podem aumentar a sua toxicidade para a biota aquática. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos em organismos aquáticos expostos a diferentes nano- TiO2, sob diferentes condições de iluminação. A interação de variáveis como concentração, fase cristal (anatase puro - TA , ou uma mistura de anatase e rutilo - TM) e da condição de iluminação ( luz visível ou luz ultravioleta e visível) foram investigadas através da observação de parâmetros de letalidade e de efeitos subletais em peixes juvenis (pacu caranha, Piaractus mesopotamicus), embriões de peixe (zebrafish, Danio rerio) e microcrustáceos (Daphnia similis e Artemia salina). A exposição aguda e prolongada de peixes juvenis não causou mortalidade nem acúmulo de Ti em músculo dos peixes, mas houve efeitos bioquímicos e genéticos...

Molecular and sub-cellular approaches in soil ecotoxicology

Ferreira, Clara Howcroft
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.2%
O organismo teste Enchytraeus albidus é frequentemente utilizado na avaliação de risco ambiental em solos. Existem testes biológicos padronizados para este organismo (ISO 16387, 2003; OECD 202, 2004) para a determinação de parâmetros tradicionais como a sobrevivência e reprodução (6 semanas). Mais recentemente, têm sido realizados testes de “evitamento” (48h), utilizando a capacidade destes organismos evitarem solos contaminados. Embora se conheçam os efeitos de vários tipos de stress nos níveis crónico e agudo, sabe-se muito pouco sobre os efeitos ao nível subcelular e molecular. O principal objectivo deste trabalho experimental consistiu na determinação de marcadores de stress oxidativo, neuro-musculares (cholinesterases) e de expressão génica em E. albidus expostos a diferentes factores abióticos e aos químicos cobre e fenmedifam durante diferentes períodos de exposição e correlacioná-los com efeitos populacionais e comportamentais. A escolha dos químicos cobre e fenmedifam deveu-se ao facto de representarem dois grupos de stressores químicos com diferentes propriedades, presentes frequentemente nos solos, metais e herbicidas, e devido ao conhecimento prévio dos seus efeitos a nível populacional. A escolha dos parâmetros moleculares e sub-celulares utilizados neste estudo deveu-se às seguintes razões: os biomarcadores de stress oxidativo determinados consistem em defesas antioxidantes que destoxificam espécies reactivas de oxigénio e produtos pró-oxidantes...

Proteins in ecotoxicology - How, why and why not?

Lemos, MFL; Soares, AMVM; Correia, AC; Esteves, AC
Fonte: Wiley-VCH Verlag Berlin Publicador: Wiley-VCH Verlag Berlin
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.37%
The growing interest in the application of proteomic technologies to solve toxicology issues and its relevance in ecotoxicology research has resulted in the emergence of "ecotox-icoproteomics". There is a general consensus that ecotoxicoproteomics is a powerful tool to spot early molecular events involved in toxicant responses, which are responsible for the adverse effects observed at higher levels of biological organization, thus contributing to elucidate the mode of action of stressors and to identify specific biomarkers. Ultimately, early-warning indicators can then be developed and deployed in "in situ" bioassays and in environmental risk assessment. The number of field experiments or laboratory trials using ecologically relevant test-species and involving proteomics has been, until recently, insufficient to allow a critical analysis of the real benefits of the application of this approach to ecotoxicology. This article intends to present an overview on the applications of proteomics in the context of ecotoxicology, focusing mainly on the prospective research to be done in invertebrates. Although these represent around 95% of all animal species and in spite of the key structural and functional roles they play in ecosystems, proteomic research in invertebrates is still in an incipient stage. We will review applications of ecotoxicoproteomics by evaluating the technical methods employed...

Recent Applications of DNA Microarray Technology to Toxicology and Ecotoxicology

Lettieri, Teresa
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.49%
Gene expression is a unique way of characterizing how cells and organisms adapt to changes in the external environment. The measurements of gene expression levels upon exposure to a chemical can be used both to provide information about the mechanism of action of the toxicant and to form a sort of “genetic signature” for the identification of toxic products. The development of high-quality, commercially available gene arrays has allowed this technology to become a standard tool in molecular toxicology. Several national and international initiatives have provided the proof-of-principle tests for the application of gene expression for the study of the toxicity of new and existing chemical compounds. In the last few years the field has progressed from evaluating the potential of the technology to illustrating the practical use of gene expression profiling in toxicology. The application of gene expression profiling to ecotoxicology is at an earlier stage, mainly because of the the many variables involved in analyzing the status of natural populations. Nevertheless, significant studies have been carried out on the response to environmental stressors both in model and in nonmodel organisms. It can be easily predicted that the development of stressor-specific signatures in gene expression profiling in ecotoxicology will have a major impact on the ecotoxicology field in the near future. International collaborations could play an important role in accelerating the application of genomic approaches in ecotoxicology.

Genetic and Molecular Ecotoxicology: A Research Framework

Anderson, Susan; Sadinski, Walter; Shugart, Lee; Brussard, Peter; Depledge, Michael; Ford, Tim; Hose, JoEllen; Stegeman, John; Suk, William; Wirgin, Isaac; Wogan, Gerald
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1994 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.37%
Participants at the Napa Conference on Genetic and Molecular Ecotoxicology assessed the status of this field in light of heightened concerns about the genetic effects of exposure to hazardous substances and recent advancements in our capabilities to measure those effects. We present here a synthesis of the ideas discussed throughout the conference, including definitions of important concepts in the field and critical research needs and opportunities. While there were many opinions expressed on these topics, there was general agreement that there are substantive new opportunities to improve the impact of genetic and molecular ecotoxicology on prediction of sublethal effects of exposure to hazardous substances. Future studies should emphasize integration of genetic ecotoxicology, ecological genetics, and molecular biology and should be directed toward improving our understanding of the ecological implications of genotoxic responses. Ecological implications may be assessed at either the population or ecosystem level; however, a population-level focus may be most pragmatic. Recent technical advancements in measuring genetic and molecular responses to toxicant exposure will spur rapid progress. These new techniques have considerable promise for increasing our understanding of both mechanisms of toxicity on genes or gene products and the relevance of detrimental effects to individual fitness. — Environ Health Perspect 102(Suppl 12):3–8 (1994)

Soil ecotoxicology: state of the art and future directions

van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.
Fonte: Pensoft Publishers Publicador: Pensoft Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/03/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.2%
Developments in soil ecotoxicology started with observations on pesticide effects on soil invertebrates in the 1960s. To support the risk assessment of chemicals, in the 1980s and 1990s development of toxicity tests was the main issue, including single species tests and also more realistic test systems like model ecosystems and field tests focusing on structural and functional endpoints. In the mean time, awareness grew about issues like bioavailability and routes of exposure, while biochemical endpoints (biomarkers) were proposed as sensitive and potential early-warning tools. In recent years, interactions between different chemicals (mixture toxicity) and between chemical and other stressors attracted scientific interest. With the development of molecular biology, omics tools are gaining increasing interest, while the ecological relevance of exposure and effects is translating into concepts like (chemical) stress ecology, ecological vulnerability and trait-based approaches. This contribution addresses historical developments and focuses on current issues in soil ecotoxicology. It is concluded that soil ecotoxicological risk assessment would benefit from extending the available battery of toxicity tests by including e.g. isopods, by paying more attention to exposure...

Phylogeny meets ecotoxicology: evolutionary patterns of sensitivity to a common insecticide

Hammond, John I; Jones, Devin K; Stephens, Patrick R; Relyea, Rick A
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.2%
Pesticides commonly occur in aquatic systems and pose a substantial challenge to the conservation of many taxa. Ecotoxicology has traditionally met this challenge by focusing on short-term, single-species tests and conducting risk assessments based on the most sensitive species tested. Rarely have ecotoxicology data been examined from an evolutionary perspective, and to our knowledge, there has never been a phylogenetic analysis of sensitivity, despite the fact that doing so would provide insights into patterns of sensitivity among species and identify which clades are the most sensitive to a particular pesticide. We examined phylogenetic patterns of pesticide sensitivity in amphibians, a group of conservation concern owing to global population declines. Using the insecticide endosulfan, we combined previously published results across seven species of tadpoles and added eight additional species from the families Bufonidae, Hylidae, and Ranidae. We found significant phylogenetic signal in the sensitivity to the insecticide and in the existence of time lag effects on tadpole mortality. Bufonids were less sensitive than hylids, which were less sensitive than the ranids. Moreover, mortality time lags were common in ranids, occasional in hylids...

ECVAM Key Area Ecotoxicology: Summary of Activities and Future Perspectives

PART PETER; HALDER MARIA
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.37%
The European Centre for Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) is part of the European Commission and is responsible for the development and validation of methods which would reduce, refine and replace (3Rs) the use of animals for the safety testing of chemicals and other products. ECVAM¿s activities in ecotoxicology started 2001 with a workshop on ¿The use of fish cells in ecotoxicology¿ (Castaño et al. (2003). ATLA 31, 317¿351) followed by the establishment of a ECVAM Taskforce Ecotoxicology composed by Commission and Non-commission experts giving scientific advice on 3Rs methods and testing strategies. The approaches focus on acute aquatic toxicity and bioaccumulation being the two endpoints in the regulatory framework (e.g. REACH, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals), which use large numbers of fish. Thus, the threshold approach, a reduction strategy for acute aquatic toxicity testing recently approved by the ECVAM Scientific Advisory Committee (ESAC) has the potential to reduce the number of fish by 50%. Its implementation is discussed at European Union and OECD level. In partnership with regulatory bodies, industry and academia ECVAM is involved in various projects aiming at the complete replacement of the acute fish test using a testing strategy based on fish cells and fish embryos. ECVAM collaborates with ILSI HESI on reducing the number of fish in bioaccumulation testing and will launch a study evaluating the use of in vitro methods for this purpose. More information on ECVAM: Marlies.Halder@jrc.it.; JRC.H.ADV01-Advisor

Transcriptomics and Proteomics - Application to Ecotoxicology

CALZOLAI L; ANSORGE W; CALABRESE E; DENSLOW N; PART PETER; LETTIERI TERESA
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.49%
The Joint Research Center (JRC) of the European Commission hosted a workshop, DNA microarray and Proteomics. Application to Ecotoxicology;, in Ispra, Italy, on May 19-20th 2005. Researchers from Europe and the USA met to discuss how to integrate gene and protein expression analyses with bioinformatics tools in the field of ecotoxicology and how this new approach could be translated in improved risk assessment procedures. The measurements of gene and/or protein expression levels, upon exposure to a chemical or a stressor, can be used to develop robust molecular biomarkers that will allow the early detection of environmental stress, study long-term exposure and infer the mechanism of action. These molecular biomarkers should be linked to traditional end points of exposure such as adverse effects in growth and reproduction in single organisms and populations. At the low concentrations of chemicals found in real environments there could be ¿non standard¿ dose-response curves and this possibility should be taken into account in the experimental design and in the analyses of the data. The application of gene and protein expression profiling in ecotoxicology will have a significant impact on the ecotoxicology field in the near future and international collaborations will play an important role in accelerating the application of those techniques.; JRC.H.ADV01-Advisor

Transcriptomics and Proteomics - Application to Ecotoxicology

CALZOLAI Luigi; ANSORGE Wilhelm; CALABRESE Edward; DENSLOW Nancy; PART PETER; LETTIERI TERESA
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.49%
The Joint Research Center (JRC) of the European Commission hosted a workshop, DNA microarray and Proteomics. Application to Ecotoxicology;, in Ispra, Italy, on May 19-20th 2005. Researchers from Europe and the USA met to discuss how to integrate gene and protein expression analyses with bioinformatics tools in the field of ecotoxicology and how this new approach could be translated in improved risk assessment procedures. The measurements of gene and/or protein expression levels, upon exposure to a chemical or a stressor, can be used to develop robust molecular biomarkers that will allow the early detection of environmental stress, study long-term exposure and infer the mechanism of action. These molecular biomarkers should be linked to traditional end points of exposure such as adverse effects in growth and reproduction in single organisms and populations. At the low concentrations of chemicals found in real environments there could be “non standard” dose-response curves and this possibility should be taken into account in the experimental design and in the analyses of the data. The application of gene and protein expression profiling in ecotoxicology will have a significant impact on the ecotoxicology field in the near future and international collaborations will play an important role in accelerating the application of those techniques.; JRC.H.5-Rural...

Recent applications of DNA Microarray technology to Toxicology and Ecotoxicology

LETTIERI TERESA
Fonte: US DEPT HEALTH HUMAN SCIENCES PUBLIC HEALTH SCIENCE Publicador: US DEPT HEALTH HUMAN SCIENCES PUBLIC HEALTH SCIENCE
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.49%
Gene expression represents a unique way of characterizing how cells and organisms adapt to changes in the external environment. The measurements of gene expression levels, upon exposure to a chemical, can be used both to provide information about the mechanism of action of the toxicant, and also to form a sort of “genetic signature” for the identification of toxic products. The development of high quality, commercially available, gene arrays has allowed this technology to become a standard tool in molecular toxicology. Several national and international initiatives have provided the proof-ofprinciple tests for the application of gene expression to study the toxicity of new and existing chemical compounds. In the last few years, the field has progressed from evaluating the potential of the technology to illustrating the practical use of gene expression profiling in toxicology. The application of gene expression profiling to ecotoxicology is at an earlier stage, mainly due to the many more variables involved in analyzing the status of natural populations. Nevertheless, significant studies have been carried out to study the response to environmental stressors both in model and non-model organisms. It can be easily predicted that the development of stressor-specific signatures in gene expression profiling in ecotoxicology will have a major impact on the ecotoxicology field in the near future. International collaborations could play an important role in accelerating the application of genomic approaches in ecotoxicology; JRC.H.5-Rural...

Integration of Risk and Ecology into Water Quality Criteria for the Protection of Aquatic Life

Workin, Rachel
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 26/04/2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.2%
The demand for increased consideration of ecology has been an important driver of developments in ecotoxicology, a field that originally relied more heavily on the principles of human toxicology. However, translating these developments into policy-level applications has been hindered by a lack of formalized acceptance and guidance. This study analyzes the potential for applying advances in ecotoxicology and risk assessment to the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s process for developing water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life. The current status of ecology in this process is assessed and suggestions for further integration of ecological principles are provided. By increasing consideration of ecology in the criteria development process, water quality criteria will be more realistic and achieve optimum protection of aquatic ecosystems.