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Geração da série histórica de vazão por meio do modelo SMAP: subsídio para o plano de manejo da bacia do Rio Grande de Ubatuba.; Generating streamflow records through the smap model: a contribution for the elaboration of the management plan for the Rio Grande watershed, Ubatuba.

Buchianeri, Viviane Coelho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/04/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.59%
A bacia hidrográfica do Rio Grande de Ubatuba (26Km2) encontra-se quase que totalmente recoberta com vegetação nativa da Mata Atlântica, e grande parte está inserida no interior do Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar. O Rio Grande é um manancial estratégico para o município, pois abastece 88% da população, que recebe água tratada de serviço público. Com o propósito de conhecer a potencialidade hídrica do manancial de forma a subsidiar tecnicamente a elaboração do Plano de Manejo para a bacia, o presente estudo foi conduzido para gerar a série histórica de vazão, usando o Modelo SMAP (Soil Moisture Accounting Procedure) e analisar o balanço entre a disponibilidade e a demanda de água. Com apenas quatro anos incompletos de dados fluviométricos e com a série histórica de 67 anos de dados de precipitação, foi possível calibrar os parâmetros e validar o modelo com uma correlação de 0,838 entre as vazões estimada e observada e por último gerar a serie histórica de vazão. Com a série histórica de vazão gerada foi feita a análise temporal do balanço entre a disponibilidade e demanda que permitiram identificar a insuficiência hídrica para atender a demanda para abastecimento público ou para manutenção dos processos ecológicos do manancial...

Processo judicial eletrônico: uma abordagem metodológica para o processo de sua implementação; Electronic judicial process: a methodological approach to the process of its implementation

Martinez, Ramses Henrique
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/08/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.74%
Esta tese realiza uma pesquisa exploratória no âmbito do PJe, Processo Judicial Eletrônico, de modo a prover uma abordagem metodológica para orientar o processo de construção de um modelo de governança do ecossistema, que suporte o processo de implementação, sustentação e evolução do PJe e de seu ambiente e permita sua adoção de forma mais ágil, eficiente e eficaz. A pesquisa empírica contempla o estudo desse modelo de caráter normativo do ecossistema e da gestão do projeto PJe dentro desse contexto. O presente trabalho realiza uma revisão da bibliografia existente sobre o tema e das questões a ele associadas. A partir dessa revisão, foi possível desenvolver o modelo de pesquisa. As metodologias de pesquisa utilizadas foram o estudo de caso e a pesquisa-ação, o que permitiu ao pesquisador o aprofundamento em alguns aspectos da governança do processo de implementação do PJe. A pesquisa foi realizada com base em conversações, observações e proposições feitas durante a participação do pesquisador em reuniões do Comitê Gestor do PJe, do CNJ, Conselho Nacional de Justiça. Essas conversações, observações e proposições foram feitas com base no modelo de pesquisa.; This paper makes an exploratory research concerning the PJe - Electronic Legal Proceeding - in order to provide a methodological approach to guide the process of building an ecosystem governance template that supports the process of implementing...

Fisheries in the Southern Ocean: an ecosystem approach

Kock, Karl-Hermann; Reid, Keith; Croxall, John; Nicol, Stephen
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.73%
The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) is bound by its Article II, 3 to follow an ecosystem approach to management. This approach has been extended to the application of a precautionary approach in the late 1980s. In our review, we deal primarily with the science-related aspects of CCAMLR and its development towards an ecosystem approach to the management of the living resources of the Southern Ocean. To assist the Commission in meeting its objectives, as set out in Article II, 3, the Scientific Committee established the CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Programme to detect possible effects of krill fishing on the performance of top-level predators, such as albatrosses, penguins, petrels and fur seals. Fisheries in the Southern Ocean followed the fate of other fisheries worldwide in which target species were depleted to low level one after the other. Currently, two types of fisheries are open: the longline fisheries on Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) and Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni) and the trawl fisheries on mackerel icefish (Champsocephalus gunnari). Both fisheries are managed in a single-species context, however, with conservation measures in place to protect by-catch species...

Trends in Ecosystem Service Research: Early Steps and Current Drivers

Vihervaara, Petteri; Rönkä, Mia; Walls, Mari
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.8%
Over the past 50 years, human beings have influenced ecosystems more rapidly than at any similar time in human history, drastically altering ecosystem functioning. Along with ecosystem transformation and degradation, a number of studies have addressed the functioning, assessment and management of ecosystems. The concept of ecosystem services has been developed in the scientific literature since the end of the 1970s. However, ecosystem service research has focused on certain service categories, ecosystem types, and geographical areas, while substantial knowledge gaps remain concerning several aspects. We assess the development and current status of ecosystem service research on the basis of publications collected from the Web of Science. The material consists of (1) articles (n = 353) from all the years included in the Web of Science down to the completion of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and (2) more recent articles (n = 687) published between 2006 and 2008. We also assess the importance of international processes, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Kyoto Protocol and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, as drivers of ecosystem service research. Finally, we identify future prospects and research needs concerning the assessment and management of ecosystem services.

The EBM-DPSER Conceptual Model: Integrating Ecosystem Services into the DPSIR Framework

Kelble, Christopher R.; Loomis, Dave K.; Lovelace, Susan; Nuttle, William K.; Ortner, Peter B.; Fletcher, Pamela; Cook, Geoffrey S.; Lorenz, Jerry J.; Boyer, Joseph N.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/08/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.89%
There is a pressing need to integrate biophysical and human dimensions science to better inform holistic ecosystem management supporting the transition from single species or single-sector management to multi-sector ecosystem-based management. Ecosystem-based management should focus upon ecosystem services, since they reflect societal goals, values, desires, and benefits. The inclusion of ecosystem services into holistic management strategies improves management by better capturing the diversity of positive and negative human-natural interactions and making explicit the benefits to society. To facilitate this inclusion, we propose a conceptual model that merges the broadly applied Driver, Pressure, State, Impact, and Response (DPSIR) conceptual model with ecosystem services yielding a Driver, Pressure, State, Ecosystem service, and Response (EBM-DPSER) conceptual model. The impact module in traditional DPSIR models focuses attention upon negative anthropomorphic impacts on the ecosystem; by replacing impacts with ecosystem services the EBM-DPSER model incorporates not only negative, but also positive changes in the ecosystem. Responses occur as a result of changes in ecosystem services and include inter alia management actions directed at proactively altering human population or individual behavior and infrastructure to meet societal goals. The EBM-DPSER conceptual model was applied to the Florida Keys and Dry Tortugas marine ecosystem as a case study to illustrate how it can inform management decisions. This case study captures our system-level understanding and results in a more holistic representation of ecosystem and human society interactions...

Enhanced science–stakeholder communication to improve ecosystem model performances for climate change impact assessments

Jönsson, Anna Maria; Anderbrant, Olle; Holmér, Jennie; Johansson, Jacob; Schurgers, Guy; Svensson, Glenn P.; Smith, Henrik G.
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.73%
In recent years, climate impact assessments of relevance to the agricultural and forestry sectors have received considerable attention. Current ecosystem models commonly capture the effect of a warmer climate on biomass production, but they rarely sufficiently capture potential losses caused by pests, pathogens and extreme weather events. In addition, alternative management regimes may not be integrated in the models. A way to improve the quality of climate impact assessments is to increase the science–stakeholder collaboration, and in a two-way dialog link empirical experience and impact modelling with policy and strategies for sustainable management. In this paper we give a brief overview of different ecosystem modelling methods, discuss how to include ecological and management aspects, and highlight the importance of science–stakeholder communication. By this, we hope to stimulate a discussion among the science–stakeholder communities on how to quantify the potential for climate change adaptation by improving the realism in the models.

Developing an analytical framework for assessing progress toward ecosystem-based management

Borgström, Sara; Bodin, Örjan; Sandström, Annica; Crona, Beatrice
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.84%
Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has become a key instrument of contemporary environmental policy and practice. Given the increasingly important role of EBM, there is an urgent need for improved analytical approaches to assess if and to what extent EBM has been accomplished in any given case. Drawing on the vast literature on EBM, we identify five key ecosystem aspects for assessment. By linking these aspects to four phases of management, we develop an interdisciplinary, analytical framework that enables a high-resolution and systematic assessment of the degree of specificity and integration of ecosystem aspects in an EBM. We then apply the framework to evaluate five coastal EBM initiatives in Sweden, four on the Baltic coast and one on the west coast. Our results demonstrate our framework’s usefulness for in-depth and continuous assessments of processes aiming for EBM, and also provide an empirical basis for inferences about the key challenges for successful EBM.

Water Resources Management in South Eastern Europe, Volume 1. Issues and Directions

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.75%
This two-volume report seeks to examine key issues and strategic concerns regarding water resources management (WRM) at the national and transboundary levels in the South Eastern Europe (SEE) region, documents the approach adopted by the SEE countries to address their water challenges, identifies ways of strengthening both WRM regimes and international cooperation to optimize resources management, and makes recommendations for future action. Most of the analysis and assessment included in the report is based on the brief Country Water Notes and Country Water Fact Sheets presented in Volume 2. These notes provide a brief description of the socioeconomic and geographical context and development objectives pursued in each country and their implications for water resources management. WRM includes such crosscutting issues, such as river basin management, flood and watershed management monitoring, institutional management, inter-sectoral water allocation, and water quality management. Volume 1 comprises four chapters. Chapter 1 is a description of the water resource base at the regional level. It includes an assessment of past and present trends in water use by sector. Chapter 2 analyzes key water issues in each of the focus countries...

Water Resources Management in South Eastern Europe : Volume 2. Country Water Notes and Water Fact Sheets

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.66%
This two-volume report seeks to examine key issues and strategic concerns regarding water resources management (WRM) at the national and transboundary levels in the South Eastern Europe (SEE) region, documents the approach adopted by the SEE countries to address their water challenges, identifies ways of strengthening both WRM regimes and international cooperation to optimize resources management, and makes recommendations for future action. Most of the analysis and assessment included in the report is based on the brief Country Water Notes and Country Water Fact Sheets presented in Volume 2. These notes provide a brief description of the socioeconomic and geographical context and development objectives pursued in each country and their implications for water resources management. WRM includes such crosscutting issues, such as river basin management, flood and watershed management monitoring, institutional management, inter-sectoral water allocation, and water quality management. Volume 1 comprises four chapters. Chapter 1 is a description of the water resource base at the regional level. It includes an assessment of past and present trends in water use by sector. Chapter 2 analyzes key water issues in each of the focus countries...

Valuing Forest Products and Services in Turkey; A Pilot Study of Bolu Forest Area

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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25.78%
The country’s forest areas occupy 21.7 million ha (approximately 27.6 percent of its total surface area), and are inhabited by close to 10 percent of its total population. The forest sector generates a variety of timber and non-timber products and eco-services. The Turkish government has put great effort into reforestation and forest management, increasing the total area of forests. In their tenth national development plan (2014-2018), the Turkish Government has decided to take a series of actions, including quantifying the value of natural resources and their ecosystem services and taking them into account in making and implementing policy decisions. In response to the government’s request for technical assistance in valuing natural resources, the World Bank assisted the Directorate General of Forestry (DGF) under the Turkish Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs (MoFWA) in conducting a pilot study in the Bolu forest area to identify and quantify the forest products and services used by humans and assess the possibility to expand and scale up forest valuation. The purpose of this report is to summarize the study’s findings and discuss its policy implications and next steps. The report contains six chapters...

Measuring the bittorrent ecosystem: techniques, tips, and tricks

Kryczka, Michal; Cuevas, Rubén; Guerrero, Carmen; Azcorra, Arturo; Cuevas, Ángel
Fonte: IEEE Publicador: IEEE
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Publicado em /09/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.65%
BitTorrent is the most successful peer-to-peer application. In the last years the research community has studied the BitTorrent ecosystem by collecting data from real BitTorrent swarms using different measurement techniques. In this article we present the first survey of these techniques that constitutes a first step in the design of future measurement techniques and tools for analyzing large-scale systems. The techniques are classified into macroscopic, microscopic, and complementary. Macroscopic techniques allow us to collect aggregated information of torrents and present very high scalability, able to monitor up to hundreds of thousands of torrents in short periods of time. Microscopic techniques operate at the peer level and focus on understanding performance aspects such as the peers¿ download rates. They offer higher granularity but do not scale as well as macroscopic techniques. Finally, complementary techniques utilize recent extensions to the BitTorrent protocol in order to obtain both aggregated and peer-level information. The article also summarizes the main challenges faced by the research community to accurately measure the BitTorrent ecosystem such as accurately identifying peers and estimating peers' upload rates. Furthermore...

Aportes de la ornitología marina a la visión ecosistémica del manejo pesquero; Contributions of marine ornithology to an ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management

González Zevallos, Diego; Tamini, Leandro L.; Seco Pon, Juan Pablo; Góngora, María Eva; Gabriel, Blanco
Fonte: Revista de Ornitología Neotropical; Aves Argentinas; Aves Argentinas / Asociación Ornitológica del Plata Publicador: Revista de Ornitología Neotropical; Aves Argentinas; Aves Argentinas / Asociación Ornitológica del Plata
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2012 SPA
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35.73%
Al menos unas 70 especies de aves marinas se alimentan en la plataforma continental argentina, que es posiblemente el área con mayor biomasa de albatros en el mundo. La distribución de las aves en el mar generalmente coincide con la de las pesquerías comerciales en áreas con elevada productividad marina, por lo que sus interacciones pueden ser frecuentes y diversas. El abordaje del Mar Argentino considerando a las aves como parte de un enfoque integrado representa un desafío. Algunos aspectos de la biología de estas aves podrían actuar como indicadores ambientales permitiendo interpretar los sistemas, evaluar su estado de conservación y analizar relaciones con procesos globales. Aunque las interacciones entre las aves y algunas flotas pesqueras que operan en la plataforma todavía no han sido estudiadas, el conocimiento sobre la ecología, el comportamiento y la conservación de estas aves ha crecido significativamente en la última década. Incluir consideraciones ecosistémicas en el manejo de la pesca es contribuir a largo plazo a la seguridad alimentaria y a asegurar una efectiva conservación y uso sostenible del ecosistema y sus recursos.; At least about 70 species of seabirds feed in the waters of the Argentinean continental shelf...

Sociotechnical management model for governance of an ecosystem

BALLONI, Antonio José; AZEVEDO, Adalberto Mantovani Martiniano de; SILVEIRA, Marco Antonio
Fonte: Centro de Tecnologia da Informação Renato Archer Publicador: Centro de Tecnologia da Informação Renato Archer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.8%
This is an opinion paper regarding a proposal of a model for a Ecosystemm Governance. In the globalized world the importance of Information Systems (IS) and Information Technology (IT) become increasingly relevant regarding the requirements imposed by competition. Both the knowledge of the business as the rapid flow of information are fundamental for a enterprise decision making. Whereas the basic definition of IT = hardware + software, i.e. , tools that has been used to create, store and disseminate data and information in the creation of knowledge, and IS = IT + People + procedures that collect, process and disseminate the information to support decision making, coordination, control, analysis and visualization in the organization [01], it makes implicit the understanding of IS is essential to create competitive companies, to manage global corporations and provide customers with products and services of value. In this work we are correlating IS with the governance of management of an ecosystem. Yet, as IT is redefining the foundations of business, then the customer service, operations, strategies of product marketing and its distribution and even the knowledge management (KM) depends very much, or sometimes even completely, on the IS. The IT and its costs have become a part of day-to-day business [02]. In order to meet this complexity of business needs...

A spatially explicit framework to assess soil erosion prevention vulnerability: contributions for ecosystem service mapping and management in mediterranean land use systems

Guerra, Carlos António
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.86%
This Thesis presents a spatially and temporally explicit and novel framework to identify, quantify and map soil erosion prevention aimed at establishing the links between the provision of ecosystem services and policy implementation and land management. Recent studies show that introducing the ecosystem service concept into policy and decision-making requires spatially explicit information on the state and trends of ecosystems and their services. Current spatially explicit approaches often fail to make a distinction between the actual ecosystem service provision and the underlying ecosystem capacity to provide a specific service. Here we propose and test a spatially and temporally explicit ecosystem service assessment framework to assess the provision of the soil erosion prevention service based on the combination of biogeographic, ecological and land management factors. This ecosystem service is of particular importance in Mediterranean areas dominated by silvo-pastoral systems, which are prone to soil degradation, often caused by a wide variety of social and policy drivers. The proposed framework estimates the service provision based on the spatial and temporal arrangement of potential impacts and its relation to the actual and potential ecosystem service provision...

A sequential approach to calibrate ecosystem models with multiple time series data

Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Verley, Philippe; Shin, Yunne-Jai
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/09/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.75%
Ecosystem approach to fisheries requires a thorough understanding of fishing impacts on ecosystem status and processes as well as predictive tools such as ecosystem models to provide useful information for management. The credibility of such models is essential when used as decision making tools, and model fitting to observed data is one major criterion to assess such credibility. However, more attention has been given to the exploration of model behavior than to a rigorous confrontation to observations, as the calibration of ecosystem models is challenging in many ways. First, ecosystem models can only be simulated numerically and are generally too complex for mathematical analysis and explicit parameter estimation; secondly, the complex dynamics represented in ecosystem models allow species-specific parameters to impact other species parameters through ecological interactions; thirdly, critical data about non-commercial species are often poor; lastly, technical aspects can be impediments to the calibration with regard to the high computational cost potentially involved and the scarce documentation published on fitting complex ecosystem models to data. This work highlights some issues related to the confrontation of complex ecosystem models to data and proposes a methodology for a sequential multi-phases calibration of ecosystem models. We propose criteria to classify the parameters of a model: model dependency and time variability of the parameters. These criteria and the availability of approximate initial estimates are used as decision rules to determine which parameters need to be estimated...

Sociotechnical Management Model for Governance of an Ecosystem

Balloni, Antonio J.; de Azevedo, Adalberto Mantovani Martiniano; Silveira, Marco Antonio
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/09/2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.77%
This is an opinion paper regarding a proposal of a model for a Ecosystemm Governance. In the globalized world the importance of Information Systems (IS) and Information Technology (IT) become increasingly relevant regarding the requirements imposed by competition. Both the knowledge of the business as the rapid flow of information are fundamental for a enterprise decision making. Whereas the basic definition of IT = hardware + software, i.e., tools that has been used to create, store and disseminate data and information in the creation of knowledge, and IS = IT + People + procedures that collect, process and disseminate the information to support decision making, coordination, control, analysis and visualization in the organization [01], it makes implicit the understanding of IS is essential to create competitive companies, to manage global corporations and provide customers with products and services of value. In this work we are correlating IS with the governance of management of an ecosystem. Yet, as IT is redefining the foundations of business, then the customer service, operations, strategies of product marketing and its distribution and even the knowledge management (KM) depends very much, or sometimes even completely, on the IS. The IT and its costs have become a part of day-to-day business [02]. In order to meet this complexity of business needs...

The various aspects of Interoperability: A strategic partnership driving interoperability in research information through standards

Baker, David; Simons, Eduard; Brown, Josh
Fonte: euroCRIS Publicador: euroCRIS
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.57%
25 slides.-- Presentation delivered at the round table session "Introduction to the theme of the Meeting: Interoperability of Research Information"; This joint presentation by euroCRIS, CASRAI and ORCID introduces the concept of “interoperability” and presents an integrated (“turn-key”) approach for the realisation of improved and sustainable interoperability in the research information ecosystem, based on a strategic partnership of international standards organisations, each dealing with separate aspects of interoperability. A three-layer research information interoperability model is described – involving the domain, the technology and the governance levels – as the basis on which this approach should lie.

The Jamaican CARICOMP Site: using a temporal data set to assist in managing coastal resources

Gayle,Peter; Charpentier,Bernadette; Spence,Omar; Levrel,Adrian
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.7%
Discovery Bay is one of nine sites around Jamaica’s coastline, soon to gain the legislative protection of Fish Sanctuary (and Scientific Reserve) status. Cumulative natural and anthropogenic impacts drove the 1980’s coral to algae phase shift. Discovery Bay CARICOMP data (1994 to 2007) showed an increase in coral cover from less than 5% reported in the mid 1980’s to 11.7±0.31% (mean±SE) despite chronically high algal cover (61.4±2.2%) at 9m. Coral cover has been sustained despite low urchin densities (0.99±0.91 urchins m-2), low juvenile coral abundance (2.15±0.19 corals m-2) and coral mortality from repeated bleaching events. Community metrics from the CARICOMP site were compared to an adjacent reef habitat which was found to have higher coral cover (16.36±3.1%), as well as higher urchin (13.7±0.84m-2) and juvenile coral (9.7±1.7m-2) densities. Large branching coral species were absent along the CARICOMP transects and sparse at the nearby shallow reef. Both sites continue to be heavily overfished. Local history records the use of spatially and temporally isolated management strategies which have attempt to rehabilitate various aspects of this area. This unique temporal data set (based on the CARICOMP Methods Manual 2000) provides a baseline for evaluating Government (in)action and is used to justify proposals for ecosystem management which could facilitate phase shift reversal in a coral dominated system. An ecosystem approach that implements several concurrent strategies within and adjacent to the Reserve could accelerate the recovery process. The long term viability and benefit of both old and new marine protected or reserve areas could be enhanced through coral gardening on artificial reef structures with a view to restoring the reefs’ three-dimensional complexity. Such actions could heoretically accelerate phase reversal to coral dominated reefs common in the area prior to the devastating impacts of the 1980s. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 3): 63-69. Epub 2010 October 01.

Hydrologic ecosystem services: water quality and quantity in the Magdalena River, Mexico City

Jujnovsky,Julieta; Almeida-Leñero,Lucia; Bojorge-García,Miriam; Monges,Yani Laura; Cantoral-Uriza,Enrique; Mazari-Hiriart,Marisa
Fonte: UAM, Unidad Iztapalapa, Publicador: UAM, Unidad Iztapalapa,
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.68%
The increasing urbanization in big cities, that jeopardizes the ecosystems, makes it important to protect them as well as to recognize and manage the services they provide. In order to have the required scientific evidence to support conservation projects, an assessment of water quality and quantity seen as hydrological ecosystem services in the Magdalena River watershed, was carried out. Water quality was assessed in two annual cycles based on physicochemical, chemical, bacteriological and algal indicators, showing an abrupt change between the natural and urbanized areas. This has the potential to affect negatively the recreational activities practised in the area. The relevance of the indicators for water quality is that they show different aspects of the problem: physical and chemical parameters indicate variations across sites along the Magdalena River and point the places where domestic discharges occur. Algae reveal the natural conditions of the habitat and the risks to public health can be assessed with bacteriological indicators. To calculate the water quantity, balances were made in order to know the amount of water that runoff in the three dominant plant communities: the fir forest that generates 10,944,800 m³ of water per year...

Progress towards marine ecosystem observing systems in South Africa

Moloney,Coleen L.; Shillington,Frank A.
Fonte: South African Journal of Science Publicador: South African Journal of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.82%
Marine ecosystem observing systems combine measurements, observations and models through a data management and interpretation process to provide information on the status of marine ecosystems. Both biotic and abiotic aspects of the marine environment need to be considered. Single variables typically can be used to represent aspects of the physical and chemical environment, but ecosystem indicators are required for the living components. There are no true marine ecosystem observing systems globally, because most observing systems focus on the physical environment. In South Africa, some fledgling systems are being developed, using the knowledge base provided by focused marine ecosystem research over the past 30 years. Further development should be based on international guidelines, which highlight three interrelated elements: (i) Measurements, obtained directly from ships, drifters or buoys, or remotely from satellites. In South Africa, sustained, long-term measurements are hampered by limited available ship's time, lack of suitable instruments, and insufficient qualified personnel. (ii) Models and other analytical tools to augment observations. South Africa is making progress in marine modelling, but not in marine data assimilation; qualified persons need to be attracted...