Página 1 dos resultados de 3084 itens digitais encontrados em 0.012 segundos

Economic Structure, Development Policy and Environmental Quality : An Empirical Analysis of Environmental Kuznets Curves with Chinese Municipal Data

He, Jie; Wang, Hua
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.95%
In many cases, the relationship between environmental pollution and economic development can be generally depicted by an inverted U-shaped curve, or an environmental Kuznets curve, where pollution increases with income at the beginning and decreases after a certain level of income. However, what determine the shape of an enviornmental Kuznets curve, such as the height and the turning point of the curve, have not been thoroughly studied. A good understanding of the determinants is vitally important to the development community, especially for the developing world, where income growth is a high priority and yet environmental pollution also needs to be carefully controlled. This study analyzes the impacts of economic structure, development strategy and environmental regulation on the shape of the environmental Kuznets curve with a city-level panel dataset obtained from China. The results show that economic structure, development strategy and environmental regulation can all have important implications on the relationship between environmental environmental quality and economic development but the impacts can be different at different development stages.

Economic Valuation of Development Projects : A Case Study of a Non-Motorized Transport Project in India

Wang, Hua; Fang, Ke; Shi, Yuyan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
One of the major difficulties in doing cost-benefit analysis of a development project is to estimate the total economic value of project benefits, which are usually multi-dimensional and include goods and services that are not traded in the market. Challenges also arise in aggregating the values of different benefits, which may not be mutually exclusive. This paper uses a contingent valuation approach to estimate the economic value of a non-motorized transport project in Pune, India, across beneficiaries. The heads of households which are potentially affected by the project are presented with a detailed description of the project, and then are asked to vote on whether such a project should be undertaken given different specifications of costs to the households. The total value of the project is then derived from the survey answers. Econometric analysis indicates that the survey responses provide generally reasonable valuation estimates.

Trade and Economic Growth : Evidence on the Role of Complementarities for CAFTA-DR Countries

Calderón, César; Poggioa, Virginia
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
This paper examines the effects of trade on growth among Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement countries. To accomplish this task, the authors collected a panel data set of 136 countries over 1960-2010, and estimated cross-country growth regressions using an econometric methodology that accounts for unobserved effects and the likely endogeneity of the growth determinants. Following recent empirical efforts, they tested whether the impact of trade openness on growth may be more effective after surpassing a "minimum threshold" in specific areas closely related to economic development. The analysis finds not only that there is a robust causal link from trade to growth, but also that the growth benefits from trade are larger in countries with higher levels of education and innovation, deeper financial markets, a stronger institutional framework, more developed infrastructure networks, a high level of integration with world capital markets, and less stringent economic regulations. On average...

Banking Sector Openness and Economic Growth

Bayraktar, Nihal; Wang, Yan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
Banking sector openness may directly affect growth by improving the access to financial services and indirectly by improving the efficiency of financial intermediaries, both of which reduce the cost of financing, and in turn, stimulate capital accumulation and economic growth. The objective of the paper is to empirically reinvestigate these direct and indirect links using a more advanced econometric technique (GMM dynamic panel estimators). An illustrative model is presented to link financial market development with investment. The empirical results confirm the presence of direct and indirect links, and thus provide support for countries planning to open their banking sector for international competition.

Global Strategy to Improve Agricultural and Rural Statistics

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
Policy makers and development practitioners who are responsible for developing investment strategies to promote economic growth find many challenges in the changing face of agriculture in the twenty-first century. In addition to its productive role of providing food, clothing, fuel, and housing for a growing world population, agriculture assumes other roles, the importance of which has more recently been recognized. In addition to its essential role in food security, agricultural development is now seen as a vital and high-impact source of poverty reduction. It is also seen as a source of environmental problems and a contributor to global warming, water scarcity and pollution, and land degradation. At the same time its potential as a source of environmental services needs to be defined, monitored, and evaluated. Many of the issues facing the sector transcend national boundaries. The Global Strategy is the result of an extensive consultation process with national and international statistical organizations as well as with agriculture ministries and other governmental institutions represented in Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) governing bodies. Considerable input came from the United Nations statistical commission friends of chair working group and the 2009 meetings of the International Statistical Institute in Maputo and Durban. Other collaboration involved the FAO Biannual conference and discussions at the regional commissions on agricultural statistics attended by national directors of agricultural statistics...

Measuring and Explaining the Impact of Productive Efficiency on Economic Development

Jayasuriya, Ruwan; Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
A limitation of most empirical cross-country studies that focus on determinants of gross domestic product (GDP) is that they fail to distinguish explicitly between inputs used in production and conditions that facilitate production. For example, physical capital, human capital, and labor are production inputs, whereas the quality of institutions, macroeconomic stability, and market quality are conditions that facilitate production. This article takes this distinction seriously and uses a stochastic frontier approach to study factors affecting economic performance. A panel data set of 71 countries for the 1980-98 periods is used to estimate a production frontier with physical capital, human capital, and labor as inputs. The article also analyzes what drives productive efficiency, using the institutional framework, macroeconomic stability, market quality, and urbanization as possible explanatory factors. Urbanization turns out to be an important determinant, with the rule of law, inflation rate, and market quality also affecting productive efficiency.

New Coincident and Leading Indicators for the Lebanese Economy

Matta, Samer
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
Weak economic statistics in Lebanon impede economic analysis and decision making. This paper presents a new coincident indicator and a leading indicator for the Lebanese economy. A new methodology, based on the National Bureau of Economic Research-Conference Board approach, was used to construct these indicators. The indicators can be used as monthly proxies for the evolution of real gross domestic product with a relatively small time lag (four to five months). Notwithstanding the relatively small sample period, the results reveal promising statistical properties that should make these new indications valuable coincident and leading (one-year ahead) indicators for analyzing the dynamics of the Lebanese economy. However, given limitations on the length of the gross domestic product time series in Lebanon, the accuracy of these indicators in tracking the business cycle of the Lebanese economy is expected to improve over time as more data points become available.

Vegetable situation

United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service; United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics; United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economic Research Service
Fonte: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division; U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division ( Washington ) Publicador: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division; U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division ( Washington )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 213 v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Publicado em // ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
(Dates or Sequential Designation) TVS-6 (June 1937) - TVS-218 (Nov. 1980).; (Dates or Sequential Designation) -TVS-218, Nov. 1980.; (Issuing Body) Vols. for 1937-Nov. 1953 issued by Bureau of Agricultural Economics; 1954-Jan. 1961, by Agricultural Marketing Service; Apr. 1961- by Economic Research Service; Feb. 1978- by Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service; Nov. 1980 by Economics and Statistics Service, each a subdivision of the United States Department of Agriculture; Nov. 1980 approved by the World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board.; MONTHLY CATALOG NUMBER: gp 81007565

Vegetable situation

United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service; United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics; United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economic Research Service
Fonte: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division; U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division ( Washington ) Publicador: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division; U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division ( Washington )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 213 v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Publicado em // ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
(Dates or Sequential Designation) TVS-6 (June 1937) - TVS-218 (Nov. 1980).; (Dates or Sequential Designation) -TVS-218, Nov. 1980.; (Issuing Body) Vols. for 1937-Nov. 1953 issued by Bureau of Agricultural Economics; 1954-Jan. 1961, by Agricultural Marketing Service; Apr. 1961- by Economic Research Service; Feb. 1978- by Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service; Nov. 1980 by Economics and Statistics Service, each a subdivision of the United States Department of Agriculture; Nov. 1980 approved by the World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board.; MONTHLY CATALOG NUMBER: gp 81007565

Vegetable situation

United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service; United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics; United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economic Research Service
Fonte: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division; U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division ( Washington ) Publicador: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division; U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division ( Washington )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 213 v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Publicado em // ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
(Dates or Sequential Designation) TVS-6 (June 1937) - TVS-218 (Nov. 1980).; (Dates or Sequential Designation) -TVS-218, Nov. 1980.; (Issuing Body) Vols. for 1937-Nov. 1953 issued by Bureau of Agricultural Economics; 1954-Jan. 1961, by Agricultural Marketing Service; Apr. 1961- by Economic Research Service; Feb. 1978- by Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service; Nov. 1980 by Economics and Statistics Service, each a subdivision of the United States Department of Agriculture; Nov. 1980 approved by the World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board.; MONTHLY CATALOG NUMBER: gp 81007565

Vegetable situation

United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service; United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics; United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economic Research Service
Fonte: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division; U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division ( Washington ) Publicador: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division; U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division ( Washington )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 213 v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Publicado em // ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
(Dates or Sequential Designation) TVS-6 (June 1937) - TVS-218 (Nov. 1980).; (Dates or Sequential Designation) -TVS-218, Nov. 1980.; (Issuing Body) Vols. for 1937-Nov. 1953 issued by Bureau of Agricultural Economics; 1954-Jan. 1961, by Agricultural Marketing Service; Apr. 1961- by Economic Research Service; Feb. 1978- by Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service; Nov. 1980 by Economics and Statistics Service, each a subdivision of the United States Department of Agriculture; Nov. 1980 approved by the World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board.; MONTHLY CATALOG NUMBER: gp 81007565

Vegetable situation

United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service; United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics; United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economic Research Service
Fonte: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division; U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division ( Washington ) Publicador: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division; U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division ( Washington )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 213 v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Publicado em // ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
(Dates or Sequential Designation) TVS-6 (June 1937) - TVS-218 (Nov. 1980).; (Dates or Sequential Designation) -TVS-218, Nov. 1980.; (Issuing Body) Vols. for 1937-Nov. 1953 issued by Bureau of Agricultural Economics; 1954-Jan. 1961, by Agricultural Marketing Service; Apr. 1961- by Economic Research Service; Feb. 1978- by Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service; Nov. 1980 by Economics and Statistics Service, each a subdivision of the United States Department of Agriculture; Nov. 1980 approved by the World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board.; MONTHLY CATALOG NUMBER: gp 81007565

Vegetable situation

United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service; United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics; United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economic Research Service
Fonte: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division; U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division ( Washington ) Publicador: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division; U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division ( Washington )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 213 v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Publicado em // ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
(Dates or Sequential Designation) TVS-6 (June 1937) - TVS-218 (Nov. 1980).; (Dates or Sequential Designation) -TVS-218, Nov. 1980.; (Issuing Body) Vols. for 1937-Nov. 1953 issued by Bureau of Agricultural Economics; 1954-Jan. 1961, by Agricultural Marketing Service; Apr. 1961- by Economic Research Service; Feb. 1978- by Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service; Nov. 1980 by Economics and Statistics Service, each a subdivision of the United States Department of Agriculture; Nov. 1980 approved by the World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board.; MONTHLY CATALOG NUMBER: gp 81007565

Nigeria Economic Report, No. 1, May 2013

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Economic Updates and Modeling; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
The Nigeria economic report represents a new World Bank product intended to be produced on a biannual basis. Each report will provide an assessment of the current economic situation in the country and give special attention to selected topics of high policy relevance for Nigeria. This first Nigeria economic report will give some attention to longer term trends in the country, including the puzzle of why a decade of rapid Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth by official statistics, concentrated in the pro-poor areas of agriculture and trade, did not bring stronger welfare and employment benefits to the population. The second chapter of this Report turns to the question of Government oil revenues and related future budgetary challenges to the country. Due to relatively slow expected growth in oil production and the real appreciation of the naira, the share of Government oil revenues in GDP fell significantly in 2012, and will likely continue to fall in the medium term. The third chapter addresses a question that has been at the center of many recent controversies and initiatives in Nigeria: fiscal federalist relations. The chapter argues that the current basic model of fiscal federalism may actually suit Nigeria very well...

Toward Economic Diversification in Trinidad and Tobago

Longmore, Rohan; Jaupart, Pascal; Cazorla, Marta Riveira
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
This paper contributes to the predominant diversification debate that has been ongoing in Trinidad and Tobago for more than three decades. The paper makes a determination of the key impediments to the country's attempts at diversification. Econometric techniques are applied on panel data to identify the most significant obstacles to economic diversification for a set of 183 countries. The results indicate that openness to foreign direct investment inflows is the most fundamental driver of diversification. The findings are then applied to the specific case of Trinidad and Tobago through a detailed analysis of the links in the trends followed by foreign direct investment and diversification between 1980 and 2011. Greater openness to foreign direct investment and improving the business climate appear to be key policies the twin-island republic could implement further in order to expand the range of activities of its economic structure.

Economic Resilience : Definition and Measurement

Hallegatte, Stephane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
The welfare impact of a disaster does not only depend on the physical characteristics of the event or its direct impacts in terms of lost lives and assets. Welfare impacts also depend on the ability of the economy to cope, recover, and reconstruct and therefore to minimize aggregate consumption losses. This ability can be referred to as the macroeconomic resilience to natural disasters. Macroeconomic resilience has two components: instantaneous resilience, which is the ability to limit the magnitude of immediate production losses for a given amount of asset losses, and dynamic resilience, which is the ability to reconstruct and recover. Welfare impacts also depend on micro-economic resilience, which depends on the distribution of losses; on households' vulnerability, such as their pre-disaster income and ability to smooth shocks over time with savings, borrowing, and insurance, and on the social protection system, or the mechanisms for sharing risks across the population. The (economic) welfare disaster risk in a country can be reduced by reducing the exposure or vulnerability of people and assets (reducing asset losses)...

Nighttime Lights Revisited; The Use of Nighttime Lights Data as a Proxy for Economic Variables

Addison, Douglas; Stewart, Benjamin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
The growing availability of free or inexpensive satellite imagery has inspired many researchers to investigate the use of earth observation data for monitoring economic activity around the world. One of the most popular earth observation data sets is the so-called nighttime lights from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. Researchers have found positive correlations between nighttime lights and several economic variables. These correlations are based on data measured in levels, with a cross-section of observations within a single time period across countries or other geographic units. The findings suggest that nighttime lights could be used as a proxy for some economic variables, especially in areas or times where data are weak or unavailable. Yet, logic suggests that nighttime lights cannot serve as a good proxy for monitoring the within-in country growth rates all of these variables. Examples examined this paper include constant price gross domestic product, non-agricultural gross domestic product...

Seven centuries of European economic growth and decline

Fouquet, Roger; Broadberry, Stephen
Fonte: American Economic Association. Publicador: American Economic Association.
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
This paper investigates very long run pre-industrial economic development. New annual GDP per capita data for six European countries over the last seven hundred years paint a clearer picture of the history of European economic development. First, the paper confirms that sustained growth has been a recent phenomenon, but rejects the argument that there was no long run growth in living standards before the Industrial Revolution. Instead, the evidence demonstrates the existence of numerous periods of economic growth before the nineteenth century - unsustained, but raising GDP per capita. It also shows that many of these economies experienced substantial economic decline. Thus, rather than being stagnant, pre-nineteenth century European economies experienced a great deal of change. Finally, it offers some evidence that, from the nineteenth century, these economies increased the likelihood of being in a phase of economic growth and reduced the risk of being in a phase of economic decline.

Discovering economic history in footnotes: the story of Tŏng Tàishēng merchant archive (1790-1850) and the historiography of modern China

Ma, Debin; Yuan, Weipeng
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2014 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
The Tong Taisheng (统泰升) merchant account books in the Ninjing county of Northern China in 1800-1850 is the most complete and integrated surviving archive of a family business. It contains unusually detailed and high-quality statistics on exchange rates, commodity prices and other information. Utilized once in the 1950s, the archive has been left largely untouched until our recent, almost accidental rediscovery. Tracing the personal history of the original owner and donor, we show that the nature of evidence and records of economic statistics of China’s early 19th century, - indeed - of the entire early modern era – have been profoundly impacted by the development of political ideology and consequently of academic discipline in modern and contemporary China. Our article discusses the important historiographical and epistemological issue in interpreting surviving historical statistics which have been largely neglected in the current Great Divergence debate.

External integration, structural transformation and economic development: evidence from Argentina

Fajgelbaum, Pablo; Redding, Stephen
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2014 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.91%
This paper uses the natural experiment of Argentina’s integration into world markets in the late-nineteenth century to provide evidence on the role of internal geography in shaping the effects of external integration. We develop a quantitative model of the distribution of economic activity across regions and sectors. The model predicts a spatial Balassa-Samuelson effect, in which locations with better access to world markets have higher population densities, higher shares of employment in the non-traded sector, higher relative prices of non-traded goods, and higher land prices relative to wages. We use the model and data on population density and sectoral employment shares to recover sufficient statistics that isolate the economic mechanisms through which external and internal integration affect economic development. Our analysis highlights the role of complementary investments in internal infrastructure and technology adoption in mediating the economy’s response to external integration.