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Integração econômica regional e investimento estrangeiro direto na América Latina: os casos do Brasil e Argentina; Regional Economic Integration and Foreign Direct Investment in Latin America: the cases of Brazil and Argentina

Paiva, Donizetti Leônidas de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/12/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
Em face do aumento significativo dos fluxos de investimento estrangeiro direto e da proliferação dos acordos de integração econômica a partir dos anos 90, este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar se a formação do MERCOSUL contribuiu para atrair investimento estrangeiro direto para o Brasil e a Argentina. Para essa discussão, o trabalho está composto de quatro partes, além da introdução e da conclusão. A primeira parte traz uma abordagem teórica, que discute os fatores determinantes do investimento estrangeiro direto e as principais motivações do investidor e do país receptor. Na segunda parte apresentamos uma discussão teórica dos possíveis impactos dos acordos de integração econômica sobre os fluxos de investimento estrangeiro direto; além disso, apresentamos alguns trabalhos empíricos que discutem essa relação. Na terceira parte desenvolvemos uma análise descritiva dos fluxos de investimentos diretos estrangeiros recebidos por Brasil e Argentina no período de 1990-2009, a qual teve por objetivo identificar se o aumento nos fluxos desses investimentos esteve correlacionado a ampliação do intercâmbio comercial desses países com o MERCOSUL. Os resultados dessa análise descritiva sugerem que fatores internos a cada um dos países analisados foram os grandes responsáveis pela atração do investimento estrangeiro direto no período analisado...

Integração econômica e defesa comercial: medidas antidumping nos acordos regionais de comércio; Economic integration and trade remedies: antiduping measures in regional trade agreements

Engelberg, Luciana Costa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/06/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
Atualmente, há um debate acerca dos efeitos da aplicação de medidas antidumping entre as partes de um acordo regional de comércio. Discute-se que o emprego de tais instrumentos pode gerar um óbice ao livre comércio e ao avanço da integração econômica negociados em tais acordos. As regras do sistema multilateral de comércio determinam que direitos antidumping podem ser aplicados quando comprovada a existência de dumping, dano à indústria nacional e a relação causal entre estes. Entretanto, mesmo que haja regras sobre a condução de uma investigação antidumping e a aplicação da medida, ainda há muito espaço para a discricionariedade das autoridades nacionais investigadoras. Isso enseja a preocupação de que a aplicação desse instrumento pode conduzir a uma ineficácia dos objetivos de liberalização comercial negociados nos acordos regionais de comércio, além de neutralizar as concessões tarifárias feitas no âmbito desses acordos, em prol do protecionismo de uma indústria doméstica, muitas vezes, defasada e inapta à concorrência internacional. A presente dissertação pretende demonstrar que, à medida que o antidumping representa um potencial impacto negativo aos ideais dos acordos regionais de comércio...

A política brasileira e a integração econômica latino-americana: do Pacto ABC à ALALC; Brazilian politics and Latin American economic integration: of the ABC Pact to the ALALC

Dalio, Danilo José
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/12/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
Os países da América Latina experimentaram, na década de 1950, um forte estímulo para o regionalismo econômico. O avanço dos processos de industrialização nas principais economias da região, por um lado, e as restrições políticas e econômicas presentes no novo ordenamento internacional do pós-guerra, por outro, tornaram aquela conjuntura histórica receptiva às propostas genuinamente elaboradas no seio da Comissão Econômica para América Latina e Caribe (CEPAL) de uma maior colaboração, cooperação e integração entre os países da região. O Brasil, nesse contexto, se deparou com duas diferentes iniciativas de integração regional que tiveram desfechos contrários. A primeira, assumida como uma tentativa frustrada de reedição do Pacto ABC de 1915, buscava entrelaçar as economias de Argentina, Brasil e Chile sob a rubrica de uma união aduaneira. A assinatura da Ata de Santiago entre Juan D. Perón e Carlos Ibañez Del Campo em fevereiro de 1953 não amainou o cenário para a adesão do Brasil; ao contrário, inflamou a oposição interna ao governo brasileiro, tornando a proposta objeto de denúncia contra Getúlio Vargas. A falta de apoio político interno levaria o governo Vargas a adotar uma atitude realista e instrumental frente à proposta abecista. Já a segunda ocasião referiu-se ao bem-sucedido processo de formação da Associação Latino-Americana de Livre Comércio (ALALC)...

Economic integration in North America: Formal, Informal and Spatial Aspects.

Proulx, P.P.
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1059249 bytes; application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
An exemination of a series of indicators of economic integration in the western hemisphere (Canada-USA-Latin America) indicates that it is proceeding under the influence of formal trade agreements and informal forces including technological change, multinational firm rationalization and location strategies, etc.

On the individual optimality of economic integration

Castro, Rui; Koumtingué, Nelnan
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
Which countries find it optimal to form an economic union? We emphasize the risk-sharing benefits of economic integration. Consider an endowment world economy model, where international financial markets are incomplete and contracts not enforceable. A union solves both frictions among member countries. We uncover conditions on initial incomes and net foreign assets of potential union members such that forming a union is welfare-improving over standing alone in the world economy. Consistently with evidence on economic integration, unions in our model occur (i) relatively infrequently, and (ii) emerge more likely among homogeneous countries, and (iii) rich countries.

An Economic Integration Zone for the East African Community : Exploiting Regional Potential and Addressing Commitment Challenges

Dobronogov, Anton; Farole, Thomas
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
Integration in the East African Community offers significant opportunities not only to expand trade among member states, but more importantly to scale up regional production to take advantage of much larger global market opportunities. Special economic zones are a potentially valuable instrument to facilitate the integration of regional value chains in support of this scaling up. They also have the potential to deliver powerful demonstration effects on the benefits of integration and to help entrench the integration process. This paper discusses the proposal for developing an "economic integration zone" in the East African Community. The benefits of such a zone could be substantial, as would be the practical challenges to implementation -- in particular the political economy challenges. However, a number of institutional and commercial solutions exist to address these challenges.

Arab Economic Integration: Missing Links

Hoekman, Bernard; Sekkat, Khalid
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
This paper surveys the recent literature on Arab economic integration and discusses the goals and progress that has been made to date and some of the key policy, regulatory, and political factors that underpin the segmentation of Arab markets. It argues that there has been an excessive focus by both analysts and policy makers on trade in goods and that the prospects for--and returns to--efforts to deepen integration of other markets (services, labour, and capital) are likely to be higher.

Deeper Integration and Trade in Services in the Euro-Mediterranean Region : Southern Dimensions of the European Neighborhood Policy

Müller-Jentsch, Daniel
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.31%
Deeper economic integration with the enlarged European Union - which accounts for a quarter of global GDP and foreign direct investment - could become a main driver for economic development in the southern Mediterranean countries. The planned Euro-Mediterranean free trade area for goods is a first step into that direction, but additional measures are needed. Especially the liberalization of services trade and the comprehensive domestic reforms this entails would strengthen the linkages with global and European markets. This study analyzes the adjustment needs and policy options associated with deeper integration between the two sides of the Mediterranean Sea. It puts specific emphasis on the dynamics of deeper integration at the company level and their respective policy implications. Besides a general discussion of deeper integration and trade in services liberalization, the study contains detailed assessments of individual sectors - especially the backbone services (e.g. transport, telecommunications...

From Political to Economic Awakening in the Arab World : The Path of Economic Integration - Deauville Partnership Report on Trade and Foreign Direct Investment, Volume 1. Overview Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
The forces unleashed by the Arab political awakening have the power to be transformational. One critical parameter of success will be whether the Arab political awakening is accompanied by a concurrent economic awakening. Economic integration through increased trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) is one key means available in the short to medium term to policy makers to put the Partnership countries on a higher path of sustainable economic growth and in a position to decisively tackle the problem of unemployment, especially youth unemployment. To be sure, skepticism abounds in the region over the merits of trade and FDI and the integrity of the private sector in light of "crony capitalism," where the benefits of past policies are perceived to have accrued only to a well-connected few. Leadership is needed in both Partnership countries and Deauville partners to provide a credible long-term vision and explain the mutual benefits of economic integration. One such powerful vision could be the pursuit of a partnership aimed at gradually promoting four key freedoms in the Mediterranean and beyond: the free movement of goods...

From Political to Economic Awakening : The Path of Economic Integration - Deauville Partnership Report on Trade and Foreign Direct Investment, Volume 2. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.33%
The forces unleashed by the Arab political awakening have the power to be transformational. One critical parameter of success will be whether the Arab political awakening is accompanied by a concurrent economic awakening. Economic integration through increased trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) is one key means available in the short to medium term to policy makers to put the Partnership countries on a higher path of sustainable economic growth and in a position to decisively tackle the problem of unemployment, especially youth unemployment. To be sure, skepticism abounds in the region over the merits of trade and FDI and the integrity of the private sector in light of "crony capitalism," where the benefits of past policies are perceived to have accrued only to a well-connected few. Leadership is needed in both Partnership countries and Deauville partners to provide a credible long-term vision and explain the mutual benefits of economic integration. One such powerful vision could be the pursuit of a partnership aimed at gradually promoting four key freedoms in the Mediterranean and beyond: the free movement of goods...

East Asian economic integration and its impact on future growth

Dee, Philippa
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 183483 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.22%
Two propositions appear to be gaining wide currency, given the revealed preference for preferential trade agreements (PTAs) in the East Asian region and elsewhere. The first is that economic integration is a good way to promote economic growth. The second is that PTAs, particularly ones that go beyond goods trade, are an effective way to promote economic integration. Yet both propositions are empirical questions. In this paper, a partial evaluation of the evidence suggests caution is called for. Current PTAs appear to be doing little to remove the important impediments to growth in the region. Far greater income gains would come from comprehensive reform of nondiscriminatory impediments to competition, as part of a thorough-going program of unilateral domestic regulatory reform. It may be time to rethink East Asian economic integration as a policy priority, or at least review the way in which it might be pursued.; no

European economic integration through 'fiscality’ : a legal perspective

PANTAZATOU, Ekaterini
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
Examining Board: Professor Hans Wolfgang Micklitz (EUI, Supervisor) Professor Marise Cremona (EUI) Professor Theodore Fortsakis (National and Kapodistrian University of Athens) Professor Juka Snell (Swansea University, School of Law).; Defence date: 23 September 2013; The present thesis aims to explore the role and the evolution of tax and fiscal integration (and by implication, a central component of economic integration) from a legal perspective. "Integration through fiscality", as perceived in this dissertation, comprises two components: direct taxation and fiscal policies (the public finance management of the Member States). The present thesis sets out by pointing to the paradox that, despite their central role in the attainment of an 'economic union without frontiers', 'fiscal matters' remain without any solid constitutional framework. After demonstrating the lack of a "constitutional fiscal framework", the thesis proceeds with an 'actors' based' historical account, through the turning points of European Economic integration (Pre- Maastricht, Post-Maastricht and financial crisis). This narrative aims to show the inter institutional struggles among the different actors (the legislator, the Member States, the executive and the judiciary) in their bid to fill this lacuna in the European (Economic) Constitution...

East Asian Economic Integration: China's perspective and policy

Xu, Mingqi
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 158523 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
East Asian economic integration has become a hot topic since the Asian financial crisis. Countries in the region have increasingly moved in favour of closer cooperation and coordination. Various proposals for free trade areas and Asian monetary cooperation have emerged. Regionalism in East Asia has been encouraged by the worldwide tendency to move to regional integration and by increasing interdependence in the region. The Asian financial crisis was a turning point for this awareness. However, institution building for regional integration has been slow, due to lack of political will, different development levels and needs, different opinions on the best mechanisms for cooperation, and contradictions between multilateral and regional arrangements. China was sceptical about regionalism until 1999. At that time, accession to the World Trade Organization, increasing trade and financial flow with East Asian economies and financial system reform and further opening to the world market led China to become more confident about and supportive of regional cooperation and integration in the hope that integration would provide more opportunities for China to realise its comparative advantages and a more secure environment in which to maintain stability. In this paper...

Regional Economic Integration in the Middle East and North Africa : Beyond Trade Reform

Rouis, Mustapha; Tabor, Steven R.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.33%
Limited integration has stifled the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region's ability to tap into its significant potential for economic growth and job creation. The MENA region is among the least integrated in the world economy. Although home to 5.5 percent of the world's population (on average for 2008-10) and 3.9 percent of the world's gross domestic product (GDP), the region's share of nonoil world trade is only 1.8 percent. By contrast, countries that have opted for a liberal trade and investment regime most notably in East Asia have experienced a significant increase in trade, employment, and per capita income. If petroleum and gas are taken into consideration, the MENA region is far more integrated in the world economy, with total exports accounting for 6.2 percent of total world trade. Exports of oil and gas represent about three-quarters of MENA's total exports. This study shows that, in spite of commendable reform efforts in recent years, the MENA region continues to face constraints to economic competitiveness in general...

Is There a New Vision for Maghreb Economic Integation? Volume 1. Main Report; Une nouvelle vision pour l'integration economique du Maghreb : rapport principal

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.33%
This report on the new vision for Magreb economic integration argues that assessing the benefits from regional integration can best be done in the context of the broader issues of economic integration in the world economy and more specifically with the main trading partner, the European Union. Based on empirical evidence the paper finds that there is limited potential for intraregional merchandise trade integration in the Maghreb. The report also alerts that benefits from deeper economic integration are no means automatic. Several worldwide studies have argued that weaknesses in the investment climate not only hinder a country's imports and inward foreign direct investment, they also deter exports from enterprises operating in the domestic economy (World Bank, 2005). Service liberalization requires complementary policies and effective regulation, ranging from prudential regulation to pro-competitive regulation in telecommunications. The concluding message emerging from the analysis is that a strategy focusing on service sector and investment climate reforms aimed at facilitating market competition and contestability would improve growth...

Is There a New Vision for Maghreb Economic Integation? Volume 2. Annex; Une nouvelle vision pour l'integration economique du Maghreb : rapport principal

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.29%
This report on the new vision for Magreb economic integration argues that assessing the benefits from regional integration can best be done in the context of the broader issues of economic integration in the world economy and more specifically with the main trading partner, the European Union. Based on empirical evidence the paper finds that there is limited potential for intraregional merchandise trade integration in the Maghreb. The report also alerts that benefits from deeper economic integration are no means automatic. Several worldwide studies have argued that weaknesses in the investment climate not only hinder a country's imports and inward foreign direct investment, they also deter exports from enterprises operating in the domestic economy (World Bank, 2005). Service liberalization requires complementary policies and effective regulation, ranging from prudential regulation to pro-competitive regulation in telecommunications. The concluding message emerging from the analysis is that a strategy focusing on service sector and investment climate reforms aimed at facilitating market competition and contestability would improve growth...

Regionalizing Infrastructure for Deepening Market Integration : The Case of East Africa

Kessides, Ioannis N.; Benjamin, Nancy C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.3%
The East African Community has long recognized that regional economic integration can yield significant welfare gains to its member states. To that end, the community has been making steady progress towards the removal of tariffs and quantitative restrictions to trade. Moreover, in recent years, there has been an increasing recognition that: (a) even greater welfare gains could be realized through deeper forms of regional integration which entail harmonization of legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks; and (b) reforms that reduce cross-border transaction costs and improve the performance of "backbone" infrastructure services are arguably even more important for the creation of an open, unified regional economic space than trade policy reforms narrowly defined. Disparities of regulatory treatment across borders can introduce distortions that hinder both cross-border trade and the aggregate flows of investment on a regional basis. Regulatory harmonization and infrastructure regionalization could make a significant contribution to the region's economic development by promoting a more efficient utilization of its human and physical resources...

Economic Integration in the Lower Congo Region : Opening the Kinshasa-Brazzaville Bottleneck

Brulhart, Marius; Hoppe, Mombert
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
This working paper assesses cross-border economic integration in the Lower Congo region. It focuses on the Kinshasa-Brazzaville conurbation, which is projected to become Africa's largest urban area by 2025, and is already serving as the gateway to large hinterlands. Despite their size and proximity, formal economic exchanges between the two cities are extremely limited. The volume of recorded passenger travel between Kinshasa and Brazzaville corresponds to about one-fifth of the volume of traffic between East and West Berlin during the time of the Berlin Wall, and formal trade volumes are derisorily small. As a consequence, the authors find evidence of statistically significant differences in retail prices, indicating unexploited scope for cross-river arbitrage. Through a survey of firms, they find that local traders perceive substantial scope for increasing cross-border economic activity if cross-river trade costs were reduced. Trade in locally produced goods and by small firms would especially benefit from such reductions. Existing high trade costs mainly result from a lack of competition in cross-river transport services...

World Bank East Asia and Pacific Economic Update 2010, Volume 1 : Emerging Stronger from the Crisis

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.3%
East Asia has recovered from the economic and financial crisis. Largely thanks to China, the region's output, exports and employment have mostly returned to the levels before the crisis. Leading the global economy, real gross domestic product (GDP) growth in developing East Asia is poised to rise to 8.7 percent in 2010 after slowing from 8.5 percent in 2008 to 7.0 percent in 2009. This report also identifies two common regional agenda items for the medium term. First, the process of regional integration, driven by Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) commitments to creating a single economic area, will need to continue. Deeper regional economic integration is now even more important, given prospects for slower growth in advanced economies. Behind-the-border trade barriers must be lowered, even in the face of incipient protectionist pressures around the world, including in the region. Deeper integration will encourage agglomeration economies and intra-industry trade, support sustainable urbanization...

On the individual optimality of economic integration

Castro, Rui; Koumtingué, Nelnan
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
Which countries find it optimal to form an economic union? We emphasize the risk-sharing benefits of economic integration. Consider an endowment world economy model, where international financial markets are incomplete and contracts not enforceable. A union solves both frictions among member countries. We uncover conditions on initial incomes and net foreign assets of potential union members such that forming a union is welfare-improving over standing alone in the world economy. Consistently with evidence on economic integration, unions in our model occur (i) relatively infrequently, and (ii) emerge more likely among homogeneous countries, and (iii) rich countries.