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O agronegócio e a conservação de vegetação nativa no Brasil: vetores econômicos, código florestal e crédito rural; Agribusiness and conservation of native vegetation in Brazil: economic drivers, forest code and rural credit

Igari, Alexandre Toshiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/02/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
A agropecuária de larga escala é a principal responsável pelo desmatamento em áreas tropicais, e está inserida numa complexa cadeia produtiva que envolve desde a produção de insumos até a distribuição dos bens agropecuários aos consumidores finais. Esse arranjo em cadeia recebeu a denominação de agronegócio. O avanço da agropecuária de larga escala sobre áreas de vegetação nativa representa um trade off entre os benefícios econômicos do agronegócio e a perda de biodiversidade e de serviços ecossistêmicos. O Código Florestal (CF), ao estabelecer a obrigatoriedade de conservação de áreas de vegetação nativa em fazendas brasileiras mitiga parte dos impactos ambientais negativos gerados pela expansão das fronteiras agrícolas. Tendo em vista que o agronegócio toma suas decisões a partir dos resultados econômicos dos empreendimentos, na ausência de marcos regulatórios como o CF, taxações ou incentivos econômicos, o valor da conservação do capital natural não seria levado em consideração nas decisões a respeito do uso das terras. O Crédito Rural (CR) subsidiado constitui um dos principais incentivos econômicos ao agronegócio, financiando toda a cadeia produtiva, desde investimentos na compra de máquinas até o financiamento da comercialização dos produtos agropecuários. O objetivo geral desta tese de doutorado consiste em investigar a influência dos vetores econômicos e legais (destacando o CF e política de CR) nos efeitos do agronegócio sobre a conservação da vegetação nativa no Brasil. Os resultados apresentados ao longo desta tese contribuem para o entendimento de que...

Incentivos econômicos à sustentabilidade da drenagem urbana : o caso de Porto Alegre - RS

Forgiarini, Francisco Rossarolla
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.55%
O uso de incentivos econômicos é uma realidade na busca do desenvolvimento sustentável. No setor da drenagem urbana não é diferente. Para este setor a sustentabilidade é a reprodução do comportamento hidrológico natural de uma área, utilizando técnicas descentralizadas de micro-gestão, representada pelo Desenvolvimento Urbano de Baixo Impacto (Low Impact Development – LID). O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi analisar o uso de incentivos econômicos para a drenagem urbana, de modo a induzir e financiar o planejamento sustentável em desenvolvimento consolidados e novos, em escala de lote urbano, segundo as técnicas do LID. Para tanto, foram desenvolvidas três etapas metodológicas: (i) a aplicação do planejamento sustentável da drenagem urbana em desenvolvimentos consolidados e novos; (ii) o desenvolvimento dos incentivos econômicos; e (iii) a validação dos incentivos econômicos. Para aplicar as etapas metodológicas foram utilizadas três micro-bacias urbanas do município de Porto Alegre/RS com diferenças físicas, sócio-econômicas e quanto aos problemas relacionados à drenagem urbana. O planejamento sustentável foi simulado nos lotes com características médias nas micro-bacias. A partir destas simulações...

Conditional economic incentives to improve HIV treatment adherence: literature review and theoretical considerations

Galárraga, Omar; Genberg, Becky L.; Martin, Rosemarie A.; Laws, M. Barton; Wilson, Ira B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
We present selected theoretical issues regarding conditional economic incentives (CEI) for HIV treatment adherence. High HIV treatment adherence is essential not only to improve individual health for persons living with HIV, but also to reduce transmission. The incentives literature spans several decades and various disciplines, thus we selectively point out useful concepts from economics, psychology and HIV clinical practice to elucidate the complex interaction between socio-economic issues, psychological perspectives and optimal treatment adherence. Appropriately-implemented CEI can help patients improve their adherence to HIV treatment in the short-term, while the incentives are in place. However, more research is needed to uncover mechanisms that can increase habit formation or maintenance effects in the longer-term. We suggest some potentially fruitful avenues for future research in this area, including the use of concepts from self-determination theory. This general framework may have implications for related research among disadvantaged communities with high rates of HIV/AIDS infection.

The disproportionate burden of HIV and STIs among male sex workers in Mexico City and the rationale for economic incentives to reduce risks

Galárraga, Omar; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; González, Andrea; Badial-Hernández, Florentino; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Juárez-Figueroa, Luis; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Kuo, Caroline; Operario, Don; Mayer, Kenneth H
Fonte: International AIDS Society Publicador: International AIDS Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
Introduction: The objective of this article is to present the rationale and baseline results for a randomized controlled pilot trial using economic incentives to reduce HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk among male sex workers (MSWs) in Mexico City. Methods: Participants (n=267) were tested and treated for STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and HIV) and viral hepatitis (hepatitis B and C), received HIV and STI prevention education and were randomized into four groups: (1) control, (2) medium conditional incentive ($50/six months), (3) high conditional incentive ($75/six months) and (4) unconditional incentive ($50/six months). In the conditional arms, incentives were contingent upon testing free of new curable STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis) at follow-up assessments. Results: Participants’ mean age was 25 years; 8% were homeless or lived in a shelter, 16% were unemployed and 21% lived in Mexico City less than 5 years. At baseline, 38% were living with HIV, and 32% tested positive for viral hepatitis or at least one STI (other than HIV). Participants had a mean of five male clients in the previous week; 18% reported condomless sex with their last client. For 37%, sex work was their main occupation and was conducted mainly on the streets (51%) or in bars/discotheques (24%) and hotels (24%). The average price for a sex transaction was $25 with a 35% higher payment for condomless sex. Conclusions: The findings suggest that economic incentives are a relevant approach for HIV prevention among MSWs...

Partially Awakened Giants: Uneven Growth in China and India

Chaudhuri, Shubham; Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
The paper examines the ways in which recent economic growth has been uneven in China and India and what this has meant for inequality and poverty. Drawing on analyses based on existing household survey data and aggregate data from official sources, the authors show that growth has indeed been uneven-geographically, sectorally, and at the household level-and that this has meant uneven progress against poverty, less poverty reduction than might have been achieved had growth been more balanced, and an increase in income inequality. The paper then examines why growth was uneven and why this should be of concern. The discussion is structured around the idea that there are both "good" and "bad" inequalities-drivers and dimensions of inequality and uneven growth that are good or bad in terms of what they imply for both equity and long-term growth and development. The authors argue that the development paths of both China and India have been influenced by, and have generated, both types of inequalities and that while good inequalities-most notably those that reflect the role of economic incentives-have been critical to the growth experience thus far, there is a risk that bad inequalities-those that prevent individuals from connecting to markets and limit investment and accumulation of human capital and physical capital-may undermine the sustainability of growth in the coming years. The authors argue that policies are needed that preserve the good inequalities-continued incentives for innovation and investment-but reduce the scope for bad ones...

Cultural Rights for Zimbabwe’s Sui Generis Legislation : Emphasizing Symbolic Practice Related to Traditional Medicinal Knowledge

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
Throughout two decades of development activity, reports on the "crisis" of desertification, food scarcity, and economic inefficiency have been challenged by local counter-narratives which show local people uniquely engaging in their environment in ways that deny the relevance of economic incentives (Lansing 1995; Leach and Mearns 1996; Appadurai 1990). Recently, the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) characterized plant genetic resources as the "heritage of mankind" (Cullet 2001) in order to globalize conservation of them. Likewise, the World Trade Organization (WTO) and World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) legislation has enabled biotechnology companies to enclose aspects of this heritage within intellectual property rights (IPR) in ways that primarily fuel international industry. As a result, the local cultural practices related to biological resources have been dismissed as inefficient or discussed as barriers to development. This may begin with the fact that the relationship between territorial cultural practices...

Forest Concession Policies and Revenue Systems : Country Experience and Policy Changes for Sustainable Tropical Forestry

Gray, John A.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
Forest concessions have been an important element of forestry, and forest management in many countries, including many developing countries. More often than not, the concessions experience of these countries has not been successful, and, improving their performance is not likely to be popular. Therefore, if sustainable management if tropical forests is to be achieved, and deforestation brought under control, it may be necessary to strengthen the on-the-ground performance of existing forest concessions, and to control the allocation of new concessions. The forest concessions discussed in this study involve both forest utilization contracts, and forest management services contracts. Part one of the study examines the forest concessions experience on public lands, with a focus on natural forests in developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Experiences provide the basis for proposals to strengthen the allocation of forest concessions, and improve their forest, and environmental management. Economic...

Phasing Out Polluting Motorcycles in Bangkok : Policy Design by Using Contingent Valuation Surveys

Xie, Jian; Shah, Jitendra J.; Capannelli, Elisabetta; Wang, Hua
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
The authors use a contingent valuation method to study the design of economic incentives to phase out polluting motorcycles in Bangkok. Like in many other cities, the government of Bangkok has been considering a series of control measures to discourage and eventually eliminate the use of heavily polluting motorcycles. Two of the possible policy instruments under consideration are charges on those polluting vehicles which are operating in the streets and compensation to those polluting vehicles which would stay off the roads. The policy research questions then include (1) what are the charges implied or compensation provided, given a policy target, and (2) what are the reactions of motorcycle owners to those charges or compensation. To answer those policy questions, the authors conducted a stochastic contingent valuation survey in Bangkok to question motorcycle owners on the likelihood they would keep or give up riding their motorcycles in the streets given certain charges or compensations. Results show that among others...

The prevention of occupational injuries and illness: the role of economic incentives

Clayton, Alan
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 524648 bytes; 360 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
This paper is concerned with the role of economic incentives in achieving beneficial occupational health and safety outcomes. This debate (to the extent that there has actually been a debate rather than a process of largely uncritical acceptance) has been largely dominated by the issue of insurance pricing and, in particular, experience rating of employer premiums. However, there are at least two other areas in which it has been argued that economic incentives in this area may operate. The first is the operation of the common law action for damages and its impact upon workplace safety. To some degree this involves a conflation with the issue of experience rating since an employer’s workers’ compensation premium will include an amount for indemnifying the employer against their common law liability. However, there have been arguments, beyond that of cost impact, that the common law action provides a spur to safety outcomes. Following a range of critical studies, from the mid-1960s, that have deconstructed the nature of the common law action and found it wanting in this and other aspects, this argument is now less rarely advanced and usually as an adjunct to a rights-based argument. Secondly, there are arguments that the labour market itself...

The missing piece of acquisition reform : economic incentives

Mason, Marshall L.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 119 p.;28 cm.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
This thesis explores the role of economic incentives in the Federal bureaucracy and the impact these incentives have on achieving and sustaining acquisition reform initiatives. The thesis uses economic theory to demonstrate that Government bureaucrats act in their own self-interest to maximize their agencies' budgets, and have little or no incentive to reduce costs. Previous DoD acquisition reform efforts minimized or ignored the overarching importance of these incentives while attempting to treat the symptomatic problems. The National Performance Review has attempted to incorporate incentive structures by decentralizing decision-malting authority and fostering initiative and innovation in the Federal workforce. The NPR's politically expedient focus on cost savings and personnel reductions, however, has undermined its ability to gain support among Government employees who perceive no tangible economic gain from embracing these reforms. New Zealand has implemented a comprehensive public sector reform program that emphasizes and incorporates economic incentives in the organizational structure, including decentralized resource allocation authority and accountability. Though the United States' political and bureaucratic systems create significant obstacles to adopting a comparable program...

Afghanistan : Economic Incentives and Development Initiatives to Reduce Opium Production

Ward, Christopher; Mansfield, David; Oldham, Peter; Byrd, William
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.4%
This report is about how to progressively reduce over time Afghanistan's dependence on opium - currently the country's leading economic activity - by development initiatives and shifting economic incentives toward sustainable legal livelihoods. Specifically, the report identifies additional investments and policy and institutional measures to support development responses that can counterbalance the economic advantages of opium. It analyzes ways to change the relative incentives between licit and illicit cropping and to help enhance rural livelihoods for the poor, under better governance and security conditions. The report puts forward concrete recommendations and the expected impacts on growth, poverty reduction and the opium economy are assessed. The report first briefly discusses the policy context (Chapter 1) and provides an overview of the opium economy (Chapter 2), focusing on how different segments of the rural population interact with it. The report then analyzes the scope for increasing value added...

Institutional Reform for Irrigation and Drainage : Proceedings of a World Bank Workshop

Gonzalez, Fernando J.; Salman, Salman M.A.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
The report consists of an introduction, and three separate, but inter-related parts. The introduction provides an overview of the workshop discussions, arguing that the irrigation sector is blamed for many environmental problems, suggesting to set the right incentives, and regulations, including stakeholders involvement, and partnerships to overcome sector obstacles. The first part looks at the institutional diversity in irrigation, and drainage sectors, reviewing institutional changes within components of the Bank's portfolio of irrigation, and drainage projects. It addresses the extent to which the Bank's major policy documents of the 1990s have shaped the portfolio, and suggests recommendations to promote institutional changes, and the introduction of alternative solutions, such as private sector involvement, to increase competition, service contracts, and intergovernmental agreements. The second part reviews the irrigation regulatory framework, arguing that participation of Water Users Associations (WUAs) in the management of irrigation systems...

Republic of Burundi - Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) : The Challenge of Achieving Stable and Shared Growth

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) is the first for Burundi since the 1980s. It has been developed in collaboration with the government of Burundi. The CEM has been prepared in cooperation with the African development bank and the U.K. department for international development. Burundi is one of the poorest countries in the world, and has suffered from many years of civil conflict and its consequences. In the last years, peace has been established and a promising recovery of the economy has started. Economic growth rates, however, are not in line with what has been projected in the latest poverty reduction strategy paper (September 2006). Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth had been projected to average almost 7 percent between 2006 and 2009 in that strategy paper, but actual growth will average just above 4 percent for the same period. The report reviews the economic developments in the past and tries to identify the most binding constraints to growth. The CEM then sets out a strategy to address these constraints to promote increased and participatory growth...

Afghanistan : Economic Incentives and Development Initiatives to Reduce Opium Production

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.4%
This report is about how to progressively reduce over time Afghanistan's dependence on opium - currently the country's leading economic activity - by development initiatives and shifting economic incentives toward sustainable legal livelihoods. Specifically, the report identifies additional investments and policy and institutional measures to support development responses that can counterbalance the economic advantages of opium. It analyzes ways to change the relative incentives between licit and illicit cropping and to help enhance rural livelihoods for the poor, under better governance and security conditions. The report puts forward concrete recommendations and the expected impacts on growth, poverty reduction and the opium economy are assessed. The report first briefly discusses the policy context (Chapter 1) and provides an overview of the opium economy (Chapter 2), focusing on how different segments of the rural population interact with it. The report then analyzes the scope for increasing value added...

Urbanization without Growth : A Not-So-Uncommon Phenomenon

Fay, Marianne; Opal, Charlotte
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
To find out why African countries' experience with urbanization and sustained growth appeared to differ from that of other countries, the authors investigated the determinants of urbanization across countries over 40 years. Rather than studying individuals' decisions to migrate, they relied on macroeconomic data and cross-country comparisons. A central hypothesis of their study: that individuals move (with varying degrees of ease) in response to economic incentives and opportunities. If location incentives are distorted, so is growth. The authors find that urbanization levels are closely correlated with levels of income. But urbanization continues even during periods of negative growth, carried by its own momentum, largely a function of the level of urbanization. From that viewpoint, Africa's urbanization without growth is not a puzzle. Factors other than income that help predict differences in levels of urbanization across countries include: a) income structure; b) education; c) rural-urban wage differentials; d) ethnic tensions; and e) civil disturbances. In addition, the relationship between economic incentives and urbanization is weaker in countries with fewer civil or political liberties. Factors other than initial urbanization level that help explain the speed of urbanization include: 1) The sector from which income growth is derived; 2) ethnic tensions; 3) civil disturbances and democracy (these two slow the pace of urbanization if all else is constant); 4) rural-urban wage differentials...

Economic Incentives and Liberal Equality

Macleod, Colin
Fonte: Centre de recherche en éthique de l'UdeM (CRÉUM) Publicador: Centre de recherche en éthique de l'UdeM (CRÉUM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
In order to assess to the degree to which the provision of economic incentives can result in justified inequalities, we need to distinguish between compensatory incentive payments and non-compensatory incentive payments. From a liberal egalitarian perspective, economic inequalities traceable to the provision of compensatory incentive payments are generally justifiable. However, economic inequalities created by the provision of non-compensatory incentive payments are more problematic. I argue that in non-ideal circumstances justice may permit and even require the provision of non-compensatory incentives despite the fact that those who receive non-compensatory payments are not entitled to them. In some circumstances, justice may require us to accede to unreasonable demands for incentive payments by hard bargainers. This leads to a kind of paradox: from a systemic point of view, non-compensatory incentive payments can be justified even though those who receive them have no just claim to them.

Allocation, incentives and distortions: the impact of EU ETS emissions allowance allocations to the electricity sector

Neuhoff, Karsten; Keats, Kim; Sato, Misato
Fonte: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, UK Publicador: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, UK
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 265143 bytes; application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26%
The allowance allocation under the European Emission trading schemes differs fundamentally from earlier cap and trade programs, like SO2 and NOx in the USA. Because of the iterative nature of negotiations of the overall budget, the allocation also has to follow an iterative process. If power generators anticipate that their current behaviour will affect future allowance allocation, then this can distort today??????s decisions. Furthermore, the National Allocation Plans (NAPs) contain multiple provisions dealing with existing installations, what happens to allocation when they close, and allocations to new entrants. We provide a framework to assess the economic incentives and distortions that provisions in NAPs can have on market prices, operation and investment decisions. To this end, we use both analytic models to illustrate the incentives effects and results from numerical simulation runs that estimate the magnitude of impacts from different allocation rules.

Multitask agents and incentives: the case of teaching and research for university professors

Philippis, Marta De
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2015 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
This paper evaluates the behavioural responses of multitask agents to the provision of incentives skewed towards one task only. In particular it studies the case of strong research incentives for university professors and it analyzes their effects on the way university faculty members allocate effort between teaching and quantity and quality of research and on the way they select into different types of universities. I first obtain different individual level measures of teaching and research performance. Then, I estimate a difference in difference model, exploiting a natural experiment that took place at Bocconi University, which heavily strengthened incentives towards research in 2005. I find evidence that teaching and research efforts are substitutable in the professors' cost function: the impact of research incentives is positive on research activity and negative on teaching performance. The effects are driven by career concerns rather than by the monetary incentives and are stronger for low ability researchers. Moreover, under the new incentive regime lower ability researchers tend to leave the university. Since I estimate that teaching and research ability are positively correlated, this implies that also bad teachers tend to leave the university. These results are consistent with a model of incentives where agents allocate effort between two substitute tasks and ability is multidimensional.

Effectiveness of economic incentives on clients' participation in health and safety programmes

Musonda,I; Pretorius,J H C
Fonte: Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering Publicador: Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.61%
The use of economic incentives to improve health and safety (H&S) performance in the construction industry in general has been investigated by various scholars. However, few studies have looked at the impact of economic incentives on construction clients, especially in the developing world. This paper reports findings on the feasibility of incentives to influence construction clients to perform on H&S. The investigation was conducted using a Delphi technique to determine the impact significance of economic incentives or disincentives on construction clients' H&S performance. A panel of experts in construction H&S was assembled from most regions of the world. A three-round iterative Delphi study aimed at establishing consensus from the expert panel was then conducted. The study found that economic factors have critical impact significance on clients' H&S performance, and that clients were 'very likely' to implement various H&S elements as a result of the economic incentives and or disincentives. There is little research on the use of incentives to influence construction clients' H&S performance and the effectiveness of such incentives. This gap in literature, and the need for improvement in construction H&S performance, motivated the current study. Therefore it was necessary to investigate specifically the extent to which economic incentives could be used to influence construction clients to become involved in H&S programmes. Economic incentives are considered to be a proactive way of improving H&S performance among other key parties...

Economic incentives for family controlling shareholders and the monitoring role of non-dominant large shareholders in corporate governance: Evidence from the manufacturing firms in Malaysia

Goh,Chin Fei; Rasli,Amran; Khan,Saif-Ur-Rehman
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Publicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
ABSTRACT This article explores the economic incentives of dominant controlling shareholders with regard to the expropriation of minority shareholders, on the one hand, and the monitoring role of non-dominant large shareholders in family firms, on the other. The authors argue that family controlling shareholders (or family owners) do not share common interests with other shareholders. Drawing on 141 family firms in the manufacturing sector that were listed on Bursa Malaysia (the Malaysian stock exchange) from 2003 to 2006, the article finds an inverted U-shaped relationship between excess control rights and a firm's market performance. The findings also show that both the cash flow rights (i.e. claims on cash payouts) of family controlling shareholders and the presence of non-dominant large shareholders with the ability to contest control of the firm have a positive relationship with market performance. This study contributes to the literature by indicating that family owners are unlikely to collude with other large shareholders to expropriate minority shareholders. Furthermore, low levels of excess family-owner control rights are beneficial for market performance because firms may benefit from group affiliations and receive patronage from wealthy owners. However...