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Aglomerações populacionais na região norte do Brasil de 1980 a 2000: uma abordagem por meio da nova geografia econômica; Population Agglomeration in Brazilian North Region from 1980 to 2000: an approach based on the New Economic Geography

Silva, Renilson Rodrigues da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/03/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.37%
O objetivo geral da tese é analisar o crescimento populacional desigual dos municípios que compõem a Região Norte do Brasil e quantificar os determinantes desse crescimento no período de 1980 a 2000. Esse período é longo o suficiente para captar o movimento de pessoas e também foi escolhido devido à disponibilidade de informações para estimar as equações a serem propostas. Utilizando os conceitos da Nova Geografia Econômica - NGE em nível de município, são propostas e estimadas duas equações para explicar o crescimento populacional, uma para a população rural e outra para a urbana. Estas equações visam testar as hipóteses de que o isolamento geográfico é um determinante da condição econômica da Região Norte e de que as aglomerações populacionais, representadas pelas taxas de crescimento populacional, atuam como indutores do crescimento. Essas equações têm como variável dependente a taxa de crescimento populacional. Como variáveis explanatórias, utilizam-se aquelas chamadas de primeira natureza: latitude, longitude, altitude e proximidade às capitais. De segunda natureza, aquelas ligadas a aspectos socioeconômicos: IDHs, salários, participação dos setores rural e urbano no emprego e o potencial de mercado. Esta última variável...

Economic Geography : Real or Hype?

Koo, Jun; Lall, Somik V.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.58%
Economic geography has become a mantra for many economists, geographers, and regional scientists. Previous studies have tested the importance of economic geography for production activities and found a significant association between them. Most of these studies, however, have not taken into account that economic geography influences location decisions at the firm level. The authors show a potential bias that can arise when firm location choices are not considered in estimating the contribution of economic geography to industry performance. Their analysis using microdata of Indian manufacturing firms shows there is an upward bias in the contribution of economic geography to productivity when firm location choices are not considered in the analysis.

Reshaping Economic Geography of East Africa : From Regional to Global Integration, Volume 2. Technical Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.39%
Five East African countries Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda have made solid progress on integrating regionally in the East African Community (EAC) since 1999. Such advances are crucial, as integration in East Africa has the potential for higher than usual benefits: Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda are landlocked, with very high costs to their economies. Successful integration will transform the five countries into one coastal, regional economy, slashing such costs. Looking at the East African integration through the lens of economic geography helps to improve sequencing of the integration process and to develop new policies to complement ongoing efforts, maximizing their benefits. Reducing disparities in provision of social services will increase the chances of workers from the inland parts of the EAC to find jobs, especially as administrative obstacles to labor mobility are being removed under the Common Market Protocol. Implementing and deepening the current program of regional infrastructure improvements will ensure that consumers and producers throughout the region are better connected to each other and to global markets. Integration policies facilitating greater economic activity in the coastal areas will help the EAC take advantage of the global demand for manufactured goods and thus to promote employment. That will also generate substantial demand for services and agricultural goods produced inland...

Reshaping Economic Geography of East Africa : From Regional to Global Integration (Vol. 1 of 2)

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.43%
Five East African countries Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda have made solid progress on integrating regionally in the East African Community (EAC) since 1999. Such advances are crucial, as integration in East Africa has the potential for higher than usual benefits: Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda are landlocked, with very high costs to their economies. Successful integration will transform the five countries into one coastal, regional economy, slashing such costs. Looking at the East African integration through the lens of economic geography helps to improve sequencing of the integration process and to develop new policies to complement ongoing efforts, maximizing their benefits. Reducing disparities in provision of social services will increase the chances of workers from the inland parts of the EAC to find jobs, especially as administrative obstacles to labor mobility are being removed under the Common Market Protocol. Implementing and deepening the current program of regional infrastructure improvements will ensure that consumers and producers throughout the region are better connected to each other and to global markets. Integration policies facilitating greater economic activity in the coastal areas will help the EAC take advantage of the global demand for manufactured goods and thus to promote employment. That will also generate substantial demand for services and agricultural goods produced inland...

Diversity Matters : The Economic Geography of Industry Location in India

Lall, Somik V.; Koo, Jun; Chakravorty, Sanjoy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.57%
How does economic geography influence industrial production and thereby affect industrial location decisions and the spatial distribution of development? For manufacturing industry, what are the externalities that matter, and to what extent? Are these externalities spatially localized? The authors answer these questions by analyzing the influence of economic geography on the cost structure of manufacturing firms by firm size for eight industry sectors in India. The economic geography factors include market access and local and urban externalities-which are concentrations of own-industry firms, concentrations of buyer-supplier links, and industrial diversity at the district (local) level. The authors find that industrial diversity is the only economic geography variable that has a significant, consistent, and substantial cost-reducing effect for firms, particularly small firms. This finding calls into question the fundamental assumptions regarding localization economies and raises further concerns on the industrial development prospects of lagging regions in developing countries.

Sri Lanka - Reshaping Economic Geography : Connecting People to Prosperity

World Bank
Fonte: Colombo Publicador: Colombo
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.44%
Economic progress is accompanied by a fundamental spatial transformation where the economic landscapes of countries become increasingly uneven. The journey from low incomes to high incomes involves rising concentration of prosperity in a few places. Connecting people to prosperity - is the principle behind economic integration policies that can help countries reap the benefits of both uneven growth and inclusive development. These principles are important for Sri Lanka, which has laid the foundations for long term progress. Sri Lankas rise into middle income has been accompanied by a rapid transformation in how global markets view the country. This reshaped the countrys economic geography - firms not farms now lead Sri Lankas connectivity with the rest of the world. And these firms benefit from concentrating production close to Colombo, whose port moved 3.7 million containers in 2008. As a consequence Colombo and its neighboring areas have prospered.

The economic geography of Australia and its analysis: from industrial to post-industrial regions

Beer, A.
Fonte: Wiley Blackwell Publishing Asia Publicador: Wiley Blackwell Publishing Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.35%
The Australian economy has experienced profound change over the last five decades, moving from an industrial to a post-industrial structure. This transformation has had far-reaching implications for the nature of economic activity in Australia and has provided the backdrop for the evolving analysis of the nation’s space economy. The paper argues that three interrelated themes underpin much of the work of economic geographers in Australia: the impacts of globalisation on Australia’s space economy; neoliberalism and the governance of regions; and policy-focused analysis of regions, their history and prospects. The paper concludes that economic geography will continue to make important intellectual and practical contributions to Australia in the near future as the reshaping of the Australian economy continues and as new challenges reshape the nation’s regions.; Andrew Beer

Reshaping Economic Geography in East Asia

Huang, Yukon; Magnoli Bocchi, Alessandro
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.6%
Reshaping economic geography in East Asia illustrates how extensively spatial factors have influenced and informed by growth and development in the region. This study was conceived as a companion volume to and informed by the World Development Report (WDR) 2009: reshaping economic geography. By providing case studies and illustrative examples and by deepening the understanding of the forces of economic geography in the East Asia region, this work helped to substantiate some of the key concepts in the WDR 2009. There is full consistency in terms of the analytical framework used and broad agreement on how economic geography has influenced growth trends across a diverse range of countries. Reshaping economic geography in East Asia also highlights the dramatic urbanization process under way in the region, evidenced by the number of globally recognized 'mega cities'. Seven of the world's 21 mega cities are in East Asia. Cities in East Asia generate about three-quarters of annual output and between a half and two-thirds of exports. Often...

Russia : Reshaping Economic Geography

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.45%
The report has three main chapters discussing modernization, diversification and competitiveness. The chapters examine problems and barriers facing households, private firms and public agencies to achieving these objectives, and then identify the instruments that can help Russia achieve the necessary spatial transformation of its economy. Russia's long history as one of Europe's leading nations, and its more recent past as a superpower, give it grounds for greater aspirations. To realize them will require significant improvements across all aspects of the economy. Russia's economy faces many challenges, some of which are a persistent legacy from its tumultuous history in the twentieth century of civil war, two world wars and a long period of communism. But as the largest country in the world, it is not surprising that many of Russia's problems relate to its economic geography, which is the focus of this report.

World Development Report 2009: A Practical Economic Geography; Economic Geography

Deichmann, Uwe; Gill, Indermit; Goh, Chor Ching
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.47%
The World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography (WDR 2009) was written to inform policy debates about urbanization, lagging areas, and globalization. During almost two years of consultations and dissemination, the report met with broad acceptance among government officials, development professionals, and researchers. Policymakers grappling with difficult spatial development issues have found the report's analytical framework compelling and its policy guidance useful. An exception to this generally favorable reception has been the reaction from a number of economic geographers. In this article, we respond to criticisms about the report's scope, guiding framework, and policy implications that are emphasized in the accompanying articles in this issue of Economic Geography. In conclusion, we agree with economic geographers such as Rodriguez-Pose who call for critical engagement with the report and with the more detailed follow-up studies that use the WDR 2009's framework. This would both improve the quality of spatial policy advice and increase the visibility of economic geographers in international development debates.

On the Road to Prosperity? The Economic Geography of China’s National Expressway Network

Roberts, Mark; Deichmann, Uwe; Fingleton, Bernard; Shi, Tuo
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.39%
Over the past two decades, China has embarked on an ambitious program of expressway network expansion. By facilitating market integration, this program aims both to promote efficiency at the national level and to contribute to the catch-up of lagging inland regions with prosperous Eastern ones. This paper evaluates the aggregate and spatial economic impacts of China's newly constructed National Expressway Network, focussing, in particular, on its short-run impacts. To achieve this aim, the authors adopt a counterfactual approach based on the estimation and simulation of a structural "new economic geography" model. Overall, they find that aggregate Chinese real income was approximately 6 percent higher than it would have been in 2007 had the expressway network not been built. Although there is considerable heterogeneity in the results, the authors do not find evidence of a significant reduction in disparities across prefectural level regions or of a reduction in urban-rural disparities. If anything, the expressway network appears to have reinforced existing patterns of spatial inequality...

Market Access, Supplier Access, and Africa's Manufactured Exports : An Analysis of the Role of Geography and Institutions

Elbadawi, Ibrahim; Mengistae, Taye; Zeufack, Albert
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.52%
In a large cross-country sample of manufacturing establishments drawn from 188 cities, average exports per establishment are smaller for African firms than for businesses in other regions. The authors show that this is mainly because, on average, African firms face more adverse economic geography and operate in poorer institutional settings. Once they control for the quality of institutions and economic geography, what in effect is a negative African dummy disappears from the firm level exports equation they estimate. One part of the effect of geography operates through Africa's lower "foreign market access:" African firms are located further away from wealthier or denser potential export markets. A second occurs through the region's lower "supplier access:" African firms face steeper input prices, partly because of their physical distance from cheaper foreign suppliers, and partly because domestic substitutes for importable inputs are more expensive. Africa's poorer institutions reduce its manufactured exports directly, as well as indirectly, by lowering foreign market access and supplier access. Both geography and institutions influence average firm level exports significantly more through their effect on the number of exporters than through their impact on how much each exporter sells in foreign markets.

The Impact of Business Environment and Economic Geography on Plant-Level Productivity : An Analysis of Indian Industry

Lall, Somik V.; Mengistae, Taye
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.37%
The authors' analysis of manufacturing plants sampled from India's major industrial centers shows large productivity gaps across cities. The gaps partly reflect differences in agglomeration economies and in market access. However, they are also explained to a greater extent by differences in the degree of labor regulation and in the severity of power shortages. This is an indication that governments can help narrow regional disparities in industrial growth by fostering the "right business environment" in locations where industry might otherwise be held back by powerful forces of economic geography. There is indeed a pattern in the data whereby geographically disadvantaged cities seem to compensate partially for their natural disadvantage by having a better business environment than more geographically advantaged locations.

Reshaping Economic Geography : Implications for New EU Member States

Gill, Indermit; Goh, Chor-ching; Roberts, Mark
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.43%
The ongoing crisis should spur deeper European integration, rather than a return to the nationalism of the past. The World Development Report 2009, reshaping economic geography, spotlights several issues for new European Union (EU) member states. From 1950 to 1990, Eastern Europe was impermeable to the flow of goods, services and ideas from the West, and grew slowly. During the same period, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in fourteen Western European economies grew at three times the pace of Eastern Europe. The drivers of West European growth were market economies, regional cooperation, and global economic integration. The European Economic Community, started by six Western European nations in 1957, continued to increase its membership with the ultimate aim of full economic and monetary integration. After the collapse of the former Soviet Union in 1991, the EU10 countries, along with Malta and Cyprus, joined the expanded European Union, an economic zone based on the principles of democracy, markets and the free mobility of goods...

Geography and Development

Henderson, J. Vernon; Shalizi, Zmarak; Venables, Anthony J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.48%
The most striking fact about the economic geography of the world is the uneven spatial distribution of economic activity, including the coexistence of economic development and underdevelopment. High-income regions are almost entirely concentrated in a few temperate zones, half of the world's GDP is produced by 15 percent of the world's population, and 54 percent of the world's GDP is produced by countries occupying just 10 percent of the world's land area. The poorest half of the world's population produces only 14 percent of the world's GDP, and 17 of the poorest 20 nations are in tropical Africa. The unevenness is also manifest within countries and within metropolitan concentrations of activity. Why are these spatial differences in land rents and wages not bid away by firms and individuals in search of low-cost or high-income locations? Why does economic activity cluster in centers of activity? And what are the consequences of remoteness from existing centers? The authors argue that understanding these issues is central for understanding many aspects of economic development and underdevelopment at the international...

The economic geography of trade, production, and income: a survey of empirics

Overman, Henry G.; Redding, Stephen; Venables, Anthony J.
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2001 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.33%
This paper surveys the empirical literature on the economic geography of trade flows, factor prices, and the location of production. The discussion is structured around the empirical predictions of a canonical theoretical model. We review empirical evidence on the determinants of trade costs and the effects of these costs on trade flows. Geography is a major determinant of factor prices, and access to foreign markets alone is shown to explain some 35% of the cross-country variation in per capita income. The paper documents empirical findings of home market (or magnification) effects, suggesting that imperfectly competitive industries are drawn more than proportionately to locations with good market access. Sub-national evidence establishes the presence of industrial clustering, and we examine the roles played by product market linkages to customer and supplier firms, knowledge spillovers, and labour market externalities. This paper was produced as part of the Centre’s Globalisation Programme

Economic geography and international inequality

Redding, Stephen; Venables, Anthony J.
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2001 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.33%
This paper estimates a structural model of economic geography using cross-country data on per capita income, bilateral trade, and the relative price of manufacturing goods. More than 70% of the variation in per capita income can be explained by the geography of access to markets and to sources of supply of intermediate inputs. These results are robust to the inclusion of other geographical, social, and institutional characteristics. The estimated coefficients are consistent with plausible values for the structural parameters of the model. We find quantitatively important effects of distance, access to the coast, and openness on levels of per capita income.

The empirics of new economic geography

Redding, Stephen
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/2009 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
Although a rich and extensive body of theoretical research on new economic geography has emerged, empirical research remains comparatively less well developed. This paper reviews the existing empirical literature on the predictions of new economic geography models for the distribution of income and production across space. The discussion highlights connections with other research in regional and urban economics, identification issues, potential alternative explanations and possible areas for further research.

Economic geography: a review of the theoretical and empirical literature

Redding, Stephen
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/2009 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.35%
This paper reviews the new economic geography literature, which accounts for the uneven distribution of economic activity across space in terms of a combination of love of variety preferences, increasing returns to scale and transport costs. After outlining the canonical core and periphery model, the paper examines the empirical evidence on three of its central predictions: the role of market access in determining factor prices, the related home market effect in which demand has a more than proportionate effect on production, and the potential existence of multiple equilibria. In reviewing the evidence, we highlight issues of measurement and identification, alternative potential explanations, and remaining areas for further research.

Why capital does not migrate to the south: a new economic geography perspective

Thia, Jang Ping
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2008 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
This paper explains why capital does not flow from the North to the South - the Lucas Paradox - with a New Economic Geography model that incorporates mobile capital, immobile labour, and productively heterogeneous firms. In contrast to neoclassical theories, the results show that even a small difference in the ex-ante productivity distribution between North and South can a have significant impact on the location of firms. Despite differences in aggregate capital to labour ratios, wage and rental rates continue to be the same in both locations. The paper also analyses the effects of risk on industrial locations, and shows why ‘low-tech’ industries tend to migrate to the South, while ‘high-tech’ industries continue to locate in the North.