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Teaching methodologies and open source software: empirical application to econometrics and mathematics

Nunes, Alcina; Balsa, Carlos
Fonte: International Association for Scientific Knowledge Publicador: International Association for Scientific Knowledge
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
Nowadays, the software open source represents an important teaching resource. However, it is not sufficiently explored as an higher education teaching methodology. In subjects with a very specific goal, applied contents and attended by a small number of students, the commercial software is still preferred to the open source software. Aware of this reality, this paper presents a reflection about the use of open source software in Applied Econometrics and Mathematics. The adoption of two different software programmes – Gretl and Octave – allows the discussion about a comprehensive set of pedagogical, economical and technical advantages and some observed practical limitations. In practice, the refereed advantages are stressed when the students’ results are analysed. Their academic results benefit from the adoption of software which is executed, distributed and improved freely.

Teaching methodologies and open source software: empirical application to econometrics and mathematics

Nunes, Alcina; Balsa, Carlos
Fonte: Mario Muñoz, Ivan Jelìnek, Fernando Ferreira Publicador: Mario Muñoz, Ivan Jelìnek, Fernando Ferreira
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
Em co-autoria com Alcina Nunes do Departamento de Economia e Gestão.; Nowadays, the software open source represents an important teaching resource. However, it is not sufficiently explored as an higher education teaching methodology. In subjects with a very specific goal, applied contents and attended by a small number of students, the commercial software is still preferred to the open source software. Aware of this reality, this paper presents a reflection about the use of open source software in Applied Econometrics and Mathematics. The adoption of two different software programmes – Gretl and Octave – allows the discussion about a comprehensive set of pedagogical, economical and technical advantages and some observed practical limitations. In practice, the refereed advantages are stressed when the students’ results are analysed. Their academic results benefit from the adoption of software which is executed, distributed and improved freely.

The role of econometrics in economic science: An essay about the monopolization of economic methodology by econometric methods

Pinto, Hugo
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
Econometrics is seen as the dominant method in terms of applicability, accuracy and efficiency in economic science. It is widely used and other methods have been reduced to marginal contributions. Econometricians behave as if their techniques were universal when in fact they are not. If alternative methods are accepted, one can largely eliminate the restrictions and distance to reality of econometrics. The article debates the pathways for a satisfactory economics in a context where theoretical and methodological pluralism is entering even in mainstream ideas. The historical construction of econometrics as the main method in economics and the limitations and possibilities of this tool are explored, underlining the need of pluralism.

Ciclos eleitorais, reeleição e déficit fiscal nos municípios brasileiros: uma análise via dados em painel; Electoral cycles, reelection and fiscal deficits in Brazilian municipalities: a panel data analysis.

Sakurai, Sérgio Naruhiko
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/06/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.88%
A percepção de que a economia é um sistema isolado e sem influência de fatores externos é, em algumas circunstâncias, incompleta. Considerando a validade deste raciocínio, o propósito principal desta tese é prover evidências empíricas a respeito de como fatores econômicos podem influenciar e ser influenciados por um elemento social que vem recebendo atenção especial e crescente da literatura econômica: Política. Particularmente, os municípios brasileiros durante os anos de 1989 a 2003 são o foco de três investigações distintas, separadas em três capítulos que preservam uma característica comum: uma abordagem de Econometria de dados em painel. O primeiro capítulo é uma análise a respeito de dois fenômenos específicos: o primeiro é a ocorrência, em anos eleitorais, de alterações em categorias distintas de despesas públicas ? comumente conhecido como ciclos políticos oportunistas. O segundo é a ocorrência de alterações fiscais em função de diferenças partidárias por parte dos governantes ? em outras palavras, os ciclos políticos partidários. O segundo capítulo é uma extensão natural da análise realizada no capítulo anterior, em que a possibilidade de reeleição é analisada levando em consideração como a mesma é influenciada pela política fiscal dos municípios brasileiros e pela existência de diferentes partidos políticos. Finalmente...

Influência das instituições no desempenho econômico setorial: uma abordagem complementar entre dados em painel (América Latina) e o laboratório de gestão; Institutional influences in sectoral economic development

Palombo, Paulo Eduardo Moledo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/01/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.88%
A análise das influências institucionais sobre a conduta empresarial tem, segundo Eggertsson (1990) e Black (2000), espaço para uso de novos ferramentais analíticos e de abordagens quantitativas. Estes autores apontam deficiências a sanar: a incipiente coleta de dados institucionais, principalmente nos países em desenvolvimento e a complexidade de uma análise institucional comparada. O objetivo deste estudo é buscar indícios na literatura e evidências nas pesquisas quantitativas de que as regras institucionais influenciaram a estrutura do setor industrial, a conduta dos agentes e o desenvolvimento econômico nas duas amostras estudadas, a da econometria e a do laboratório. A literatura avançou com Williamson (1985) e Kliksberg (1994), entre outros, no que tange a instituições e com Sauaia (1995, 2006, 2008, 2010) no que tange a simulações e experimentos. Foram adotadas abordagens metodológicas complementares por meio da econometria de dados em painel, com o exame de dados secundários de 24 países da América Latina em 17 anos de observação e do Laboratório de Gestão com dados primários de dois experimentos onde 105 empresas reunidas em 12 setores industriais (2009 e 2010) operaram em 2 diferentes ambientes institucionais desenhados para a aprendizagem de estudantes de graduação na FEA/USP. Com a econometria foram identificadas as variáveis institucionais que melhor explicaram o desempenho do PIB industrial dos países. Três delas que apresentaram significância estatística foram adotadas nos experimentos: a efetividade da ação governamental (+) com sinal positivo...

Understanding the election results in Portugal: A spatial econometrics point of view

Caleiro, António; Guerreiro, Gertrudes
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
The great majority of the theoretical analyses about electoral cycles has considered the national space as the territory of interest when studying the economic consequences of an electoralist behaviour by the central government. This fact, in conjunction to the nature of the data most commonly available, has lead many authors to empirical studies that test the evidence of electoral cycles mostly at a national level. Given that the election results for the main parties, at least in Portugal, clearly reflect some spatial localisation we find rather intriguing to verify that so very few of those empirical studies use spatial econometrics techniques. The main objective of the paper is to detect empirical evidence supporting the existence of a link between voters’ ideology and the 2002 election results obtained by the two main parties in Portugal. The confrontation of the spatial econometric results with the ones obtained ignoring the spatial localisation of the data shows that, in order to better understand the election results, space must be taken into account.

Understanding the Election Results in Portugal, A spatial econometrics point of view

Caleiro, António; Guerreiro, Gertrudes
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
The great majority of the theoretical analysis about electoral cycles has considered the national space as the territory of interest for the study of the economic consequences of an electoralist behaviour by the central government. This fact, in conjunction to the nature of the data most commonly available, has lead many authors to empirical studies which, by the use of more or less sophisticated econometric echniques, intend to verify the empirical evidence of electoral cycles whether in their political versions or in their partisan versions. Given that the election results for the main parties, at least for Portugal, clearly reflect some spatial localization we find rather intriguing to verify that so very few of those empirical studies use spatial econometrics techniques. This being said, the main objective of the paper is to analyse the results corresponding to the last legislative election that took place in Portugal, from the partisan viewpoint, by the use of well-known techniques of spatial econometrics. The confrontation of the results with the ones obtained ignoring the spatial localization of the data will lead us to the nature and extent of the improvement on the results obtained by spatial econometrics techniques in what concerns the detection of empirical evidence supporting the existence of a link between voters’ ideology and the election results obtained by the two main parties in Portugal.

Econometrics for summative evaluations: an introduction to recent developments

Cobb Clark, Deborah A; Crossley, Thomas
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 372155 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
There has recently been a rapid expansion of interest in the econometrics of summative program evaluation, both within Australia and around the world. We provide a review of the key issue and recent developments in this field. A central feature of recent developments is the attempt to allow for program impacts that vary across individuals. This contrasts with earlier econometric approaches which implicitly assumed a homogenous treatment effect. We survey alternative non-experimental estimation strategies, and note that they can be characterised by (1) an assumption about how untreated outcomes vary across individuals: this assumption in turn suggests how the counter-factual untreated outcomes of program participants should be estimated, and (2) the way in which the estimator aggregates or weights the program impacts of different individuals in the treatment group.; no

Three Essays in Time Series Econometrics

KASCHA, Christian
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
This thesis deals with different topics in time series econometrics that belong, broadly speaking, to the area of macroeconometrics. That is, topics and methods are investigated which are of interest to applied researchers that want to analyze the behavior of aggregate measurements of the economy by means of time series data. For instance, macroeconomic time series often display specific nonlinear characteristics. Chapter 1 applies one of the recently proposed techniques to capture nonlinearity to U.S. interest rate data. Another important area of macroeconomic research is the identification of structural shocks that have an economically meaningful interpretation, in contrast to prediction errors. Chapter 2 compares some alternative structural estimators in the context of a recent discussion on the reliability of standard structural estimators. Finally, the third chapter compares different estimators of so-called vector autoregressive moving-average (VARMA) models that are a potential alternative to vector autoregressive models which are used predominantly in applied macroeconomic research. In the following, I will briefly describe each chapter in more detail. Chapter 1 reviews some simple extensions of the threshold cointegration models forwarded by Balke and Fomby (1997). These are models designed for non-stationary series with non- linear dynamics that are tight together by a long-run equilibrium relationship. I apply one of these models to the U.S. interest rate spread and show that there is evidence in favor of a threshold model of this kind. The model suggests that the spread is probably not mean- reverting in a large band around the equilibrium. However...

Urban income and city size : Ecological Inference with Entropy Econometrics for the Spanish municipalities; Renta municipal y tamaño urbano : inferencia ecológica con máxima entropía para los municipios españoles

Fernández Vázquez, Esteban; Rubiera Morollón, Fernando; Aponte Jaramillo, Elizabeth
Fonte: Universidad de Alcalá. Instituto Universitario de Análisis Económico y Social Publicador: Universidad de Alcalá. Instituto Universitario de Análisis Económico y Social
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
Most of the regional empirical analyses are limited by the lack of data. Researches have to use information which is structured in administrative or political regions not always economically meaningful. Any aggregation of a territory in regions with economic sense requires data of the main economic variables at basic spatial units, like GDP at a local level. In this paper a methodology to approximate local GDP values is proposed using entropy econometrics which can be defined as an exercise of ecological inference. In addition to the analysis of the main characteristics of the techniques proposed, the paper illustrates how the procedure works taking as empirical application the estimation of income for the Spanish municipalities according to their size. As an example of the possibilities open by this methodology a regional classification based on the relevance of the cities size, which allows us to measure the relevance of agglomeration economics, is empirically applied to the Spanish case obtaining some interesting first results.; La mayoría de los análisis regionales están limitados por la ausencia de datos. Los investigadores tienen que usar la información estructurada en unidades políticoadministrativas que carecen de sentido económico. Cualquier agregación del territorio se hace sobre la base de estas unidades espaciales administrativas que limitan mucho las posibilidades del análisis. Para poder superar estas limitaciones es preciso enfrentarse a la obtención de datos a escala local. En este trabajo se propone una metodología que puede ser de gran utilidad para superar esta limitación y que nos permite estimar variables como el PIB local mediante máxima entropía. Se propone la técnica que podría ser más apropiada para un ejercicio de inferencia ecológica de este tipo y se ilustran sus posibilidades mediante una aplicación al caso de la economía española estimando los niveles de renta de los municipios españoles. Ello nos permite hacer una clasificación de los mismos atendiendo a su posición y tamaño que nos posibilita hacer un estudio del efecto de las economías de aglomeración y la influencia de la localización en los municipios españoles. Algunos de los resultados permiten valorar la importancia de las grandes metrópolis españolas así como la distancia respecto a las mismas.

Spatial Econometrics Applied to Study the Influencing Factors of Honey Prices in Brazil

Koshiyama, Adriano Soares; Lorenzon, Maria Cristina Affonso; Tassinari, Wagner de Souza
Fonte: Brazilian Association for Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (ABEPRO) Publicador: Brazilian Association for Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (ABEPRO)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Peer-reviewed Article; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/12/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
Recently, empirical econometric research has started to take into account the potential bias and lossof efficiency when spatial effects are ignored in the estimation process. The spatial econometricsmethods deals with this kind of problem, by incorporating the spatial dependence into modelspecification. The application of this methodology has wide use, including rural economy, asapiculture. Currently, brazilian beekeeping is undergoing an expressive growth, projecting thecountry through the honey production and other bee products as well. Although, beekeeping sectorhas faced some important problems to reduce the deficits that strongly influence the beekeepingchain. Important issues are related to market, especially to understand the factors that influencethe honey prices. This study aims to identify socio-economic, technological, management andgeographic factors that have influenced the honey prices in Brazil. The analyses were based onclassical linear and spatial econometrics regression models. In order to measure spatial dependencethe Moran’s Index was applied and the stepAIC and Nagelkerke Pseudo-R² approaches to selectthe most appropriate model. The best model identified factors linked to improper agriculturalpractices...

Econometrics

Creel, Michael
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Documento de trabajo
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
This is a project to develop a document for teaching graduate econometrics that is "open source", specifically, licensed as GNU GPL. That is, anyone can access the document in editable form, and can modify it, as long as they make their modifications available. This allows for personalization, as well as a simple way to make contributions and error corrections. The hope is that people preparing to teach econometrics for the first time might find it useful, and eventually be motivated to contribute back to the project. The central document is something between a set of lecture notes and a text book. It's not as terse as lecture notes, but not as complete or well-referenced as a text book. Of course, the document is constantly evolving, and you are welcome to modify it as you like. The document contains (at least when viewed in HTML or PDF form) hyperlinks to example programs written using the GNU/Octave language. The document itself is written using the LyX word processor. LyX documents can be exported as LaTeX, so the system is quite portable.

Econometrics: A Bird's Eye View

Geweke, John; Horowitz, Joel; Pesaran, M. Hashem
Fonte: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, UK Publicador: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, UK
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
As a unified discipline, econometrics is still relatively young and has been transforming and expanding very rapidly over the past few decades. Major advances have taken place in the analysis of cross sectional data by means of semi-parametric and non-parametric techniques. Heterogeneity of economic relations across individuals, firms and industries is increasingly acknowledge and attempts have been made to take them into account either by integrating out their effects or by modeling the sources of heterogeneity when suitable panel data exists. The counterfactual considerations that underlie policy analysis and treatment evaluation have been given a more satisfactory foundation. New time series econometric techniques have been developed and employed extensively in the areas of macroeconometrics and finance. Non-linear econometric techniques are used increasingly in the analysis of cross section and time series observations. Applications of Bayesian techniques to econometric problems have been given new impetus largely thanks to advances in computer power and computational techniques. The use of Bayesian techniques have in turn provided the investigators with a unifying framework where the tasks and forecasting, decision making, model evaluation and learning can be considered as parts of the same interactive and iterative process; thus paving the way for establishing the foundation of the "real time econometrics". This paper attempts to provide an overview of some of these developments.

The Past as the Future: The Marshallian Approach to Post-Walrasian Econometrics

Hoover, Dr Kevin
Fonte: Post Walrasian Macroeconomics: Beyond the Dyanamic Stochastic General Equilibrium Model. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Publicador: Post Walrasian Macroeconomics: Beyond the Dyanamic Stochastic General Equilibrium Model. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 159796 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 13/10/2004 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
The popular image of the scientific revolution usually pits young revolutionaries against old conservatives. Freeman Dyson (2004, p. 16) observes that, in particle physics in the mid-20th century, something had to change. But in the revolution of quantum electrodynamics, Einstein, Dirac, Heisenberg, Born, and Schödinger were old revolutionaries, while the winners, Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomonaga, were young conservatives. Post-Walrasian economics is not a doctrine, but a slogan announcing that something has to change. Most of the self-conscious efforts to forge a post-Walrasian economics are due to old radicals. Here I want to explore the space of the young conservative: the future is past, particularly in the methodology of Alfred Marshall’s methodological essay, “The Present Position of Economics” (1885). The radical approach identifies the problem as Walrasian theory and seeks to replace it with something better and altogether different. The conservative approach says that theory is not the problem. The problem is rather to establish an empirical discipline that connects theory to the world. Marshall’s methodology places the relationship between theory and empirical tools on center stage. In North America, if not in Europe...

Symposium on Marshall's Tendencies: 5 Sutton's Critique of Econometrics

Hoover, Dr Kevin
Fonte: Economics and Philosophy Publicador: Economics and Philosophy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 83853 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2002 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
Through most of the history of economics, the most influential commentators on methodology were also eminent practitioners of economics. And even not so long ago, it was so. Milton Friedman, Paul Samuelson, Trygve Haavelmo, and Tjalling Koopmans were awarded Nobel prizes for their substantive contributions to economics, and were each important contributors to methodological thought. But the fashion has changed. Specialization has increased. Not only has methodology become its own field, but many practitioners have come to agree with Frank Hahn's (1992) view that methodology is a distraction to the practitioner, best left to the professional methodologists and philosophers, and of little practical import even when delivered from their pens. John Sutton's lectures, Marshall's Tendencies: What Economists Can Know, is a welcome return to the older fashion, for Sutton is an eminent practitioner of game theory and industrial organization. One of the main themes of these rich and nuanced lectures ± and the one on which I shall focus ± is the relationship of economic theory to econometric evidence. Sutton's reflections on econometrics appear to arise from the darker recesses of his practitioner's soul. While he affects a sunny disposition and ends on a hopeful note...

A note on extraneous information in regression

Brook, Richard; Wallace, Dudley
Fonte: Journal of Econometrics Publicador: Journal of Econometrics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 73670 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //1973 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
The Theil-Goldberger ( 196 1) exposition of combining sample and prior information is well known and appears now in standard textbooks for graduate econometrics courses. Diminishing the value of the prior relative to the sample information can be easily seen to lead to least squares in the limit, given the formula for the BLU estimator. However, it is not so obvious what happens when the converse limit is examined. Therefore, the purpose of this note is to show that as the variance of the errors on the priors approaches zero, the Theil-Goldberger estimator goes to the estimator implied by exact restrictions.

Some Uses of Simulation in Econometrics

Pagan, Adrian
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
Simulation methods are now widely used in econometrics. The range of uses covers both the estimation of parameters in and the use of models. In this paper we discuss how simulation methods can be used to investigate some issues that have proven extremely

Econometrics for Evaluations: An Introduction to Recent Developements

Cobb-Clark, Deborah; Crossley, Thomas
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
There has recently been a rapid expansion of interest in the econometrics of program evaluation, both within Australia and around the world. We provide a review of the key issues and recent developments in this field. A central feature of recent developments is the attempt to allow for program impacts that vary across individuals. This contrasts with earlier econometric approaches that implicitly assumed a homogeneous treatment effect. We survey alternative nonexperimental estimation strategies and note that they can be characterised by (1) an assumption about how untreated outcomes vary across individuals: this assumption in turn suggests how the counter-factual untreated outcomes of program participants should be estimated, and (2) the way in which the estimator aggregates or weights the program impacts of different individuals in the treatment group. We also emphasise the importance of good data.

Applying recent developments in time series econometrics to the spatial domain

Stern, David
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
This paper surveys some recent developments in time series econometrics and examines to what degree they might have useful analogs in spatial econometrics. Spatial analogs of stationary vector autoregression models might be useful in modeling groups of spatial series, but the literature on non-stationarity and cointegration does not have a useful purely spatial analog. With the exception of some special cases, pure spatial series cannot be integrated processes. However, cointegration might apply to space-time processes. Space-time cointegration and Granger causality methods are developed and applied to explaining reductions in sulfur emissions in Europe.

A philosophical analysis of causality in econometrics.

Fennell, Damien James
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.02%
This thesis makes explicit, develops and critically discusses a concept of causality that is assumed in structural models in econometrics. The thesis begins with a development of Herbert Simon's (1953) treatment of causal order for linear deterministic, simultaneous systems of equations to provide a fully explicit mechanistic interpretation for these systems. Doing this allows important properties of the assumed causal reading to be discussed including: the invariance of mechanisms to intervention and the role of independence in interventions. This work is then extended to basic structural models actually used in econometrics, linear models with errors-in-the-equations. This part of the thesis provides a discussion of how error terms are to be interpreted and sets out a way to introduce probabilistic concepts into the mechanistic interpretation set out earlier. The resulting analysis is then critically compared with similar work by economists, Stephen LeRoy (1995) and Kevin Hoover (2001a) who both develop Simon's work on causal order in different ways. In the latter part of the thesis, the mechanistic interpretation set out at the beginning is used to interpret identification conditions. Typically, these are presented in econometrics as mathematical conditions for determining whether unknown parameters in equations can be measured from observation. In the thesis it is shown that the identification conditions imposed on sets of equations when interpreted mechanistically require a sparseness of causal structure that ensures that experiments are hypothetically possible of the causal structure. It also analyses the role of identifiability conditions in causal inference. The final part of the thesis shows that the mechanistic interpretation developed in the thesis succeeds...