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Fatty acid profile, trans-octadecenoic, alpha-linolenic and conjugated linoleic acid contents differing in certified organic and conventional probiotic fermented milks

Florence, Ana Carolina Rodrigues; Beal, Catherine; Silva, Roberta Claro da; Bogsan, Cristina Stewart Bittencourt; Pilleggi, Ana Lucia O. S.; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; Oliveira, Marice Nogueira de
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD; OXFORD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD; OXFORD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.25%
Development of dairy organic probiotic fermented products is of great interest as they associate ecological practices and benefits of probiotic bacteria. As organic management practices of cow milk production allow modification of the fatty acid composition of milk (as compared to conventional milk), we studied the influence of the type of milk on some characteristics of fermented milks, such as acidification kinetics. bacterial counts and fatty acid content. Conventional and organic probiotic fermented milks were produced using Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019 in co-culture with Streptococcus thermophilus TA040 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LB340. The use of organic milk led to a higher acidification rate and cultivability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Fatty acids profile of organic fermented milks showed higher amounts of trans-octadecenoic acid (C18:1, 1.6 times) and polyunsaturated fatty acids, including cis-9 trans-11. C18:2 conjugated linoleic (CLA-1.4 times), and alpha-linolenic acids (ALA-1.6 times), as compared to conventional fermented milks. These higher levels were the result of both initial percentage in the milk and increase during acidification, with no further modification during storage. Finally...

Indicadores de sustentabilidade: estudo de caso em propriedades produtoras de leite nas regiões sul e sudeste do Brasil utilizando a metodologia RISE; Sustainability indicators: a case study of milk-producing properties in southern and southeastern Brazil using the methodology RISE

Cruz, Alice Aloísia da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/05/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.01%
Cada vez mais a sustentabilidade tem ganhado atenção nas discussões da sociedade. Várias conferências e acordos vêm sido realizados para que os países estabeleçam e cumpram metas para melhorar seu desenvolvimento sustentável. Em especial, no setor agropecuário vêm sendo desenvolvidos vários instrumentos para avaliar e mensurar a sustentabilidade das propriedades agropecuárias. Sendo o setor leiteiro muito representativo para o agronegócio brasileiro, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo analisar a sustentabilidade em propriedades agropecuárias que têm a atividade leiteira sua principal atividade econômica, buscando verificar a hipótese de que elas são sustentáveis nas dimensões ambiental, econômica e social, pela metodologia RISE. A escala ecológica do RISE está dividida em trinta parâmetros que compõe seis indicadores (Uso do solo; Produção animal; Fluxo de nutrientes; Uso da água; Energia e clima; e Biodiversidade e proteção das plantas). A escala social é formada por dez parâmetros que representam dois indicadores (Condições de trabalho e Qualidade de vida). A escala econômica por sua vez é compota por onze parâmetros que geram dois indicadores (Viabilidade econômica e Gestão da fazenda). Cabe destacar que esse trabalho surgiu de uma parceria da Dairy Partners Americas com o Swiss College of Agriculture que visa à avaliação de propriedades leiteiras em várias partes do mundo...

Qualidade do leite ecológico produzido em uma unidade de produção do Rio Grande do Sul.; Ecologic milk quality in a production unit of Rio Grande do Sul

Fernandez, Vitória Noel Vazquez; Zanela, Maira Balbinotti; Pinto, Andrea Troller; Ribeiro, Maria Edi R.
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.4%
No Rio Grande do Sul, assim como no resto do país, a produção agrícola ecológica vem se tornando cada vez mais frequente, como resposta à demanda de mercado e à diversificação dos sistemas de produção. Com isso, cresce a necessidade de caracterização do produto a ser comercializado. Existem poucos relatos a respeito da composição química ou da contagem de células somáticas do leite obtido a partir desse tipo de sistema produtivo no estado. Com o objetivo de fazer uma caracterização inicial da qualidade do leite produzido num sistema de produção ecológico, que está em processo de credenciamento como orgânico, foi analisado o leite de uma pequena propriedade rural localizada no Vale dos Sinos, RS. Foram utilizadas quatro amostras do leite de mistura dos animais, coletadas no tanque de resfriamento, em diferentes dias, no mês de agosto de 2007. As amostras foram encaminhadas ao laboratório de análise de leite da Embrapa Clima Temperado, em Pelotas/RS, para determinação da composição química e contagem de células somáticas (CCS). A composição média encontrada foi: 3,14% gordura, 3,19% proteína bruta, 4,1% lactose, 12,71% sólidos totais e 9,3% sólidos desengordurados. A média da CCS foi 1,26 x 106 cél/mL de leite...

Avaliação da qualidade do leite e de queijos produzidos pela agricultura familiar, em sistemas de produção ecológico e convencional, no leste do Rio Grande do Sul

Fernandez, Victoria Noel Vázquez
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
A produção leiteira do Brasil vem crescendo anualmente desde a década de 1990. Em todo o país a agricultura familiar tem grande participação na produção de leite, sendo que no Rio Grande do Sul mais de 80% do volume de leite entregue à industria é oriundo de propriedades familiares, Essas propriedades adotam sistemas de produção diferenciados quanto à adoção de insumos, podendo ser convencionais ou ecológicas, e muitas vezes procura agregar valor à produção através do beneficiamento do leite a derivados lácteos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade do leite, produzido em sistema convencional e ecológico, e de queijos artesanais oriundos da agricultura familiar e verificar se a qualidade destes está adequada às respectivas legislações vigentes. O trabalho foi realizado entre outubro de 2008 e setembro de 2009, quando 10 UPL da agricultura familiar localizadas na região leste do Rio Grande do Sul eram visitadas mensalmente. Nessa ocasião foram coletadas amostras compostas de leite (do tanque de resfriamento) de cada uma das propriedades e encaminhadas à análise da composição química, contagem de células somáticas, contagem bacteriana total e análises físico-quimicas. Nos meses de fevereiro e julho de 2009 foram coletadas amostras dos alimentos ofertados aos animais em cada uma das propriedades...

Avaliação da qualidade do leite produzido sob diferentes sistemas de produção no oeste de Santa Catarina

Stibuski, Rudinei Butka
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 77 p.| il., grafs., tabs.
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.59%
Dissertação (mestrado profissional) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Genéticos Vegetais (Mestrado Profissional), Florianópolis, 2013; A atividade leiteira no Oeste de Santa Catarina tem sido, nos últimos anos, o principal meio de geração de renda para muitos agricultores familiares. Na região, há um grande número de produtores que adotam o sistema de produção a pasto associado ao uso de suplementos (concentrado e/ou volumoso) e um crescente número de propriedades de base ecológica, algumas já com certificação orgânica. Sendo assim, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi comparar a qualidade química, sanitária e microbiológica do leite proveniente da pecuária de base ecológica com a convencional na região Oeste de Santa Catarina. A caracterização do sistema de produção foi obtida a partir de visitas e entrevistas semi-estruturadas. Para a avaliação da composição química do leite foram realizadas 2 coletas, nas diferentes estações do ano, de 3 animais pré-selecionados de fenótipo (cruzamento Jersey x Holandês) e de estágio de lactação similares (3 a 6 meses) e para a qualidade sanitária e microbiológica dos tanques de resfriamento em cada Unidade de Produção Familiar (UPF) em estudo. Realizou-se também a identificação botânica das espécies forrageiras consumidas a partir da observação dos animais em pastoreio. Os sistemas diferiram na sua configuração produtiva...

An Ecological Study of Lactococci Isolated from Raw Milk in the Camembert Cheese Registered Designation of Origin Area

Corroler, D.; Mangin, I.; Desmasures, N.; Gueguen, M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.1%
The genetic diversity of lactococci isolated from raw milk in the Camembert cheese Registered Designation of Origin area was studied. Two seasonal samples (winter and summer) of raw milk were obtained from six farms in two areas (Bessin and Bocage Falaisien) of Normandy. All of the strains analyzed had a Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis phenotype, whereas the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique genotypically identified the strains as members of L. lactis subsp. lactis or L. lactis subsp. cremoris. The genotypes were confirmed by performing standard PCR with primers corresponding to a region of the histidine biosynthesis operon. The geographic distribution of each subspecies of L. lactis was determined; 80% of the Bocage Falaisien strains were members of L. lactis subsp. lactis, and 30.5% of the Bessin strains were members of L. lactis subsp. lactis. A dendrogram was produced from a computer analysis of the RAPD profiles in order to evaluate the diversity of the lactococci below the subspecies level. The coefficient of similarity for 117 of the 139 strains identified as members of L. lactis subsp. cremoris was as high as 66%. The L. lactis subsp. lactis strains were more heterogeneous and formed 10 separate clusters (the level of similarity among the clusters was 18%). Reference strains of L. lactis subsp. lactis fell into 2 of these 10 clusters...

The salutary effect of milk on amoebiasis and its reversal by iron.

Murray, M J; Murray, A; Murray, C J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/06/1980 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.15%
Observations among milk-drinking African nomads showed an unusual freedom from infection with Entamoeba histolytica compared with similar nomads taking a mixed diet. A controlled study among Maasai pastoralists showed that the administration of iron to correct their dietary iron deficiency sharply increased their susceptibility to amoebiasis. Examination of the milk of their Zebu cattle showed that it not only had a concentration of iron below the minimum necessary for the growth of E histolytica but also contained partly saturated lactoferrin and transferrin, which may actively compete with the parasite in the colon for ambient iron. These observations suggest the possibility of a long-standing ecological compromise between nomads, their milk diet, and E histolytica.

Molecular Ecological Analysis of Fecal Bacterial Populations from Term Infants Fed Formula Supplemented with Selected Blends of Prebiotics▿

Nakamura, Noriko; Gaskins, H. Rex; Collier, Chad T.; Nava, Gerardo M.; Rai, Deshanie; Petschow, Bryon; Russell, W. Michael; Harris, Cheryl; Mackie, Roderick I.; Wampler, Jennifer L.; Walker, D. Carey
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.85%
Supplementation of infant formulas with prebiotic ingredients continues the effort to mimic functional properties of human milk. In this double-blind, controlled, 28-day study, healthy term infants received control formula (control group; n = 25) or control formula supplemented with polydextrose (PDX) and galactooligosaccharide (GOS) (4 g/liter) (PG4 group; n = 27) or with PDX, GOS, and lactulose (LOS) (either 4 g/liter [PGL4 group; n = 27] or 8 g/liter [PGL8 group; n = 25]). A parallel breast-fed group (BF group) (n = 30) was included. Stool characteristics, formula tolerance, and adverse events were monitored. Fecal bacterial subpopulations were evaluated by culture-based selective enumeration (Enterobacteriaceae), quantitative real-time PCR (Clostridium clusters I, XI, and XIV, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (Bifidobacterium). Fecal bacterial community profiles were examined by using 16S rRNA gene PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The daily stool consistency was significantly softer or looser in the BF group than in all of the groups that received formula. The formulas were well tolerated, and the incidences of adverse events did not differ among feeding groups. Few significant changes in bacterial subpopulations were observed at any time point. The bacterial communities were stable; individual profiles tended to cluster by subject rather than by group. Post hoc analysis...

Validation of 131I ecological transfer models and thyroid dose assessments using Chernobyl fallout data from the Plavsk district, Russia

Zvonova, I.; Krajewski, P.; Berkovsky, V.; Ammann, M.; Duffa, C.; Filistovic, V.; Homma, T.; Kanyar, B.; Nedveckaite, T.; Simon, S.L.; Vlasov, O.; Webbe-Wood, D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.85%
Within the project “Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety” (EMRAS) organized by the IAEA in 2003 experimental data of 131I measurements following the Chernobyl accident in the Plavsk district of Tula region, Russia were used to validate the calculations of some radioecological transfer models. Nine models participated in the inter-comparison. Levels of 137Cs soil contamination in all the settlements and 131I/137Cs isotopic ratios in the depositions in some locations were used as the main input information. 370 measurements of 131I content in thyroid of townspeople and villagers, and 90 measurements of 131I concentration in milk were used for validation of the model predictions.

Nutritional and ecological evaluation of dairy farming systems based on concentrate feeding regimes in semi-arid environments of Jordan

Alqaisi, Othman; Hemme, Torsten; Hagemann, Martin; Susenbeth, Andreas
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.44%
The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and ecological aspects of feeding systems practiced under semi-arid environments in Jordan. Nine dairy farms representing the different dairy farming systems were selected for this study. Feed samples (n = 58), fecal samples (n = 108), and milk samples (n = 78) were collected from the farms and analysed for chemical composition. Feed samples were also analysed for metabolisable energy (ME) contents and in vitro organic matter digestibility according to Hohenheim-Feed-Test. Furthermore, fecal nitrogen concentration was determined to estimate in vivo organic matter digestibility. ME and nutrient intakes were calculated based on the farmer’s estimate of dry matter intake and the analysed composition of the feed ingredients. ME and nutrient intakes were compared to recommended standard values for adequate supply of ME, utilizable crude protein, rumen undegradable crude protein (RUCP), phosphorus (P), and calcium (Ca). Technology Impact Policy Impact Calculation model complemented with a partial life cycle assessment model was used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions of milk production at farm gate. The model predicts CH4, N2O and CO2 gases emitted either directly or indirectly. Average daily energy corrected milk yield (ECM) was 19 kg and ranged between 11 and 27 kg. The mean of ME intake of all farms was 184 MJ/d with a range between 115 and 225 MJ/d. Intake of RUCP was lower than the standard requirements in six farms ranging between 19 and 137 g/d...

An?lise da sustentabilidade na produ??o familiar no Sudeste Paraense: o caso dos produtores de leite do Munic?pio de Rio Maria

FEITOSA, Terezinha Cavalcante
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Pará Publicador: Universidade Federal do Pará
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.25%
Neste trabalho ? feita uma an?lise da sustentabilidade da pecu?ria leiteira na agricultura familiar, decorrente do r?pido processo de degrada??o das pastagens formadas em ?rea de terra firme, numa regi?o de fronteira da Amaz?nia brasileira. A pesquisa foi realizada no Munic?pio de Rio Maria, Sudeste Paraense, sendo este um dos Munic?pios do Par? reconhecido internacionalmente pelo alto ?ndice de conflitos fundi?rios. Foram entrevistadas 55 unidades de produ??o familiar, nos Projetos de Assentamentos Itaipavas 126, Barra Mansa, Mata Azul, Fazenda S?o Roque e Vale da Serra que sobrevivem, especificamente, da pecu?ria leiteira, que foram entrevistados nos meses de julho a agosto de 2002. A escolha das propriedades foi intencional, e constitui-se na identifica??o da renda da pecu?ria (venda do leite e reses), bem como, uma an?lise das t?cnicas utilizadas pelos pequenos produtores, no manejo das pastagens, do rebanho para garantir a sustentabilidade da unidade produtiva. Essa an?lise permitiu identificar atrav?s dos indicadores socioecon?micos que, embora a pecu?ria seja considerada uma atividade de baixo risco, economicamente vi?vel para a Amaz?nia, entre os pequenos produtores, torna-se uma atividade insustent?vel, posto que, o processo de degrada??o das pastagens inicia-se a partir de tr?s a cinco anos...

Long-Term Adaptation : Selecting Farm Types across Agro-Ecological Zones in Africa

Seo, Niggol; Mendelsohn, Robert; Dinar, Ariel; Kurukulasuriya, Pradeep; Hassan, Rashid
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
Using economic data from more than 8,500 household surveys across 10 African countries, this paper examines whether the choice of farm type depends on the climate and agro-ecological zone of each farm. The paper also studies how farm type choice varies across farmers in each zone, using a multinomial logit choice model. Farmers are observed to choose from one of the following five types of farms: rainfed crop-only, irrigated crop-only, mixed rainfed (crop and livestock), mixed irrigated, and livestock-only farming. The authors compare current decisions against future decisions as if the only change were climate change. They focus on two climate scenarios from existing climate models: the Canadian Climate Centre scenario, which is hot and dry, and the Parallel Climate Model scenario, which is mild and wet. The results indicate that the change in farm types varies dramatically by climate scenario but also by agro-ecological zone. Policy makers must be careful to encourage the appropriate suite of measures to promote the most adapted farm type to each location.

Investing in the Livestock Sector : Why Good Numbers Matter, A Sourcebook for Decision Makers on How to Improve Livestock Data

Pica-Ciamarra, Ugo; Baker, Derek; Morgan, Nancy; Zezza, Alberto; Azzarri, Carlo; Ly, Cheikh; Nsiima, Longin; Nouala, Simplice; Okello, Patrick; Sserugga, Joseph
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.26%
This sourcebook summarizes the outputs and lessons of the Livestock in Africa: improving data for better policies project. It aims to present the challenges facing professionals collecting and analyzing livestock data and statistics and possible solutions. While the Sourcebook does not address all conceivable issues related to enhancing livestock data and underlining statistical issues, it does represent a unique document for a number of reasons. To begin with, it is possibly the first document which specifically addresses the broad complexity of livestock data collection, taking into consideration the unique characteristics of the sector. Indeed, in most cases livestock data are dealt with, if ever, within the context of major agricultural initiatives. Second, the sourcebook is a joint product of users and suppliers of livestock data, with its overarching objective being to respond to the information needs of data users, and primarily the Ministries responsible for livestock in African countries and the National Statistical Authorities. Finally...

Milk fatty acids predict the foraging locations of the New Zealand fur seal: continental shelf versus oceanic waters

Baylis, Alastair Martin Mitri; Nichols, Peter D.
Fonte: Inter-research Publicador: Inter-research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
Lactating New Zealand fur seals Arctocephalus forsteri utilise 2 ecological regions: continental shelf habitats and oceanic habitats associated with the Subtropical Front. Using milk fatty acids (FA) obtained from 29 satellite-tracked fur seals, we characterised the FA composition of seals that foraged on the continental shelf, and those that foraged in oceanic waters. Seals that foraged within oceanic waters were characterised by milk being comparatively high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA; 47.4 ± 4.4%, mean ± SD), and lower in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; 23.8 ± 4.0%) when compared to seals that foraged in continental shelf waters (MUFA 36.7 ± 5.4 and PUFA 31.4 ± 5.5%). Based on FA compositions, we predicted the likelihood that milk samples collected at random (n = 131) represented individual seals having foraged either on the continental shelf or in distant oceanic waters. Results indicated that 74% (n = 97) of seals were likely to have foraged in oceanic waters, with 26% (n = 34) likely to have foraged within continental shelf waters. These results were supported by the small sub-sample of 29 satellite-tracked seals, which indicated that 62% of seals had foraged in oceanic waters. FA analysis and satellite-tracking results contrasted with scat analyses...

Effective and Ecological Half-lives of 137Cs in Cow's Milk in Alpine Agriculture

LETTNER Herbert; HUBMER Alexander; BOSSEW PETER; STREBL Friederike; STEINHÄUSLER Friedrich
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.46%
Alpine regions have been heavily affected by the Chernobyl fallout depositing 137Cs activities up to more than 100 kBq/m². To a large extent, alpine ecosystems are semi-natural environments and vulnerable to radioactive contaminants with respect to their long persistence in the ecosystem. Since 1988 a continuous monitoring of 137Cs in milk on different seasonally used alpine production sites in Austria has been carried out and ecological half lives have been calculated. With good agreement the decrease of 137Cs in milk follows a simple exponential decay with ecological half-lives between approximately 6 y and 15 y depending on the site of the alpine pasture. However, from the decay curve of some sites there are good hints of more than one ecological half life controlling the decay and of a long lived component which may have an ecological half-life longer than 15 y. The differences are systematic and ecological half-lives are positively correlated with the altitude above sea level. Alpine sites on elevated altitudes show a marked tendency to longer ecological half-lives which corresponds with higher soil to plant transfer of 137Cs and lower migration rates in the soil.; JRC.H.4-Transport and air quality

Investing in African Livestock : Business Opportunities in 2030-2050; Investir dans l'elevage en Afrique : perspectives commerciales pour 2030-2050

Pica-Ciamarra Ugo; Baker, Derek; Morgan, Nancy; Ly, Cheikh; Nouala, Simplice
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.15%
Medium and long-term development perspectives of any productive sector are driven by prospects for demand growth which, dependent on the policy and economic environment, can translate into associated producer responses. For the livestock sector, trends in the consumption of animal-sourced foods and livestock by-products are the first key indicator of opportunities for investment. This paper depicts the medium to long term development prospects for the African livestock sector by reviewing data on the estimated consumption of animal-sourced foods and anticipated responses by producers for 2005-07, 2030, and 2050. By 2050, the meat market is projected at 34.8 million tones and that of milk about 82.6 million tones, an increase of 145 and 155 percent respectively over 2005-07 levels. More notably, over this period, Africa's increase in volume of meat consumed will be on a par with that of the developed world and that of Latin America, with only South Asia and Southeast Asia anticipated registering higher growth. Policy and institutional reforms should be devised...

Differential Adaptation Strategies by Agro-Ecological Zones in African Livestock Management

Seo, S. Niggol; Mendelsohn, Robert; Dinar, Ariel; Kurukulasuriya, Pradeep
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
This paper examines how farmers have adapted their livestock operation to the current climate in each agro-ecological zone in Africa. The authors examine how climate has affected the farmer's choice to raise livestock or not and the choice of animal species. To measure adaptation, the analysis regresses the farmer's choice on climate, soil, water flow, and socio-economic variables. The findings show that climate does in fact affect the farmer's decision about whether to raise livestock and the species. The paper also simulates how future climates may alter these decisions using forecasts from climate models and the estimated model. With a hot dry scenario, livestock ownership will increase slightly across all of Africa, but especially in West Africa and high elevation agro-ecological zones. Dairy cattle will decrease in semi-arid regions, sheep will increase in the lowlands, and chickens will increase at high elevations. With a mild and wet scenario, however, livestock adoption will fall dramatically in lowland and high latitude moist agro-ecological zones. Beef cattle will increase and sheep will fall in dry zones...

Evaluation of non-genetic factors affecting calf growth, reproductive performance and milk yield of traditionally managed Sheko cattle in southwest Ethiopia

Bayou, E.; Haile, A.; Gizaw, S.; Mekasha, Y.
Fonte: Springer International Publishing Publicador: Springer International Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.22%
The study was conducted to estimate calf growth, reproductive performance and milk yield of Ethiopia Sheko cattle and to assess non-genetic factors affecting their performance in their home tract as a step towards designing sustainable cattle conservation and improvement strategy. All the growth traits considered in the study were significantly affected by all non-genetic factors considered except for the fixed effects of Agro ecological zones (AEZs) and season of birth which were not significant for post weaning daily gain. Calving interval (CI) and days open (DO) were significantly influenced by AEZs, season and dam parity. Cows that calved in lowland had shorter CI and DO than cows which calved in midland. Cows that calved in short rainy season had Short CI and DO than those calved during dry season or long rainy season. Cows which calved for the first time had the longest CI and DO from the other parities whereas cows on their fifth parity had the shortest CI and DO. AEZ significantly affected lactation milk yield (LMY) and lactation length (LL), but not significant on daily milk yield (DMY) and 305 days yield (305DY). Season was significant on all milk traits considered except DMY. Parity effect was significant on LMY and 305DY...

Network analysis reveals a potentially 'evil' alliance of opportunistic pathogens inhibited by a cooperative network in human milk bacterial communities

Ma, Zhanshan; Guan, Qiong; Ye, Chengxi; Zhang, Chengchen; Foster, James A.; Forney, Larry J.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/09/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.27%
The critical importance of human milk to infants and even human civilization has been well established. Although the human milk microbiome has received increasing attention with the expansion of research on the human microbiome, our understanding of the milk microbiome has been limited to cataloguing OTUs and computation of community diversity indexes. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report on the bacterial interactions within the human milk microbiome. To bridge this gap, we reconstructed a milk bacterial community network with the data from Hunt et al (2011), which is the largest 16S-rRNA sequence data set of human milk microbiome available to date. Our analysis revealed that the milk microbiome network consists of two disconnected sub-networks. One sub-network is a fully connected complete graph consisting of seven genera as nodes and all of its pair-wise interactions among the bacteria are facilitative or cooperative. In contrast, the interactions in the other sub-network of 8 nodes are mixed but dominantly cooperative. Somewhat surprisingly, the only 'non-cooperative' nodes in the second sub-network are mutually cooperative Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium, genera that include some opportunistic pathogens. This potentially 'evil' alliance between Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium could be inhibited by the remaining nodes who cooperate with one another in the second sub-network. We postulate that the 'confrontation' between the 'evil' alliance and 'benign' alliance in human milk microbiome should have important health implications to lactating women and their infants and shifting the balance between the two alliances may be responsible for dysbiosis of the milk microbiome that permits mastitis. A related study focusing on ecological analysis was reported at (http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-09/scp-ahb090214.php).; Comment: Correspondence: Sam Ma (samma@uidaho.edu)...

An ecological analysis of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes incidence and prevalence in Latin America

Collado-Mesa,Fernando; Barceló,Alberto; Arheart,Kristopher L.; Messiah,Sarah E.
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.25%
OBJECTIVE: To explore, for Latin America, by means of an ecological correlation analysis, the possible relationships between both the incidence and prevalence of childhood type 1 diabetes and selected hypothesized etiological factors, including race/ethnicity, geographical latitude, breast-feeding rates, per capita milk supply and coffee consumption, and wealth-related indicators such as infant mortality rate, life expectancy at birth, and national human development index. METHODS: Recently published data on incidence and prevalence of type 1 diabetes in children ¾ 14 years of age in Latin American countries were utilized. Risk indicators were selected based on existing genetic and environmental hypotheses. Indicator data were obtained from publicly available resources. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to measure the association between both incidence and prevalence of type 1 diabetes and the selected indicators. RESULTS: A strong negative correlation was found between the proportion of Amerindians in a country's population and both incidence (r = ­0.75; P= 0.008) and estimated prevalence (r = ­0.78; P< 0.0001) of childhood type 1 diabetes. The per capita supply of milk showed a strong positive correlation with both incidence (r = 0.70; P= 0.025) and prevalence (r = 0.55; P= 0.018). Wealth-related indicators correlated with prevalence but not with incidence. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the presence of the Amerindian component of the population in Latin America provides protection against childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. Our results also confirm the association previously reported in other countries and regions of the world of type 1 diabetes and milk consumption. Further studies are needed to develop and test potential genetic and environmental hypotheses that could help to better understand the interplay between genetic susceptibility and environment in type 1 diabetes across different ethnic groups.