Página 1 dos resultados de 53 itens digitais encontrados em 0.010 segundos

Rethinking Constitutionalism in Late 19th and Early 20th Century China

Zhao, Hui
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
In the tenets of Western political science, “limited government” is usually seen as the touchstone of modern constitutionalism. Yet significant issues can arise when one applies this framework to East Asia. By studying the origin of constitutionalism in China and Japan, my dissertation reexamines the idea that “limited government” is the core of modern constitutionalism. I argue that constitutionalism, as it was introduced in Meiji Japan and late Qing China, focused on strengthening the government rather than limiting it. Many might feel this affirms the popular belief in an inherent affinity for authoritarianism in the Chinese mind, but this dissertation disagrees, finding such a conclusion to be unfairly reductive, and dangerous to achieving a true cross-cultural understanding. It argues instead that Chinese constitutionalism’s desire to strengthen the state was not the manifestation of a cultural predisposition toward authoritarianism, but was instead consciously adopted and constructed in response to the chaotic realities of late 19th and early 20th century China. By studying the constitutional thought of Aristotle, Cicero, Machiavelli, Hobbes, the early English constitutionalists, Locke, Montesquieu, the American founding fathers...

Bringing Whales Ashore: Oceans and the Environment of Early Modern Japan, 1600-1900

Arch, Jakobina Kirsten
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.02%
Whales are an enigma. It is difficult to pin them down because they straddle categories. Whales were difficult not just because of their extraordinary size, but rather because they were peculiar sorts of fish, with meat more like wild boar than tuna. In the same way that they existed at the intersection of classifications, with features of land and sea creatures, whales also were a nexus in a web of linkages between the ocean and the shore. By focusing on whales and the boundaries they straddle, this dissertation highlights the often surprising interconnections between coastal activities and inland life in early modern Japan (1600-1900).; East Asian Languages and Civilizations

The Careers of the Blind in Tokugawa Japan, 1603-1868

Tan, WeiYu Wayne
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.86%
The blind deviate from bodily ideals and how we make sense of this difference matters. My dissertation examines the blind in Tokugawa Japan (1603–1868) to offer a contrasting perspective on disability from a non-Western society. The blind were impaired but not disabled. They were, in fact, enabled and engaged in careers that were mostly unthinkable to their peers in other contemporary societies. By far the most important enabling factor was the growth of a core institution called the tôdôza. I focus on the main professions through which the blind made their living—musical performance, moneylending, and medicine—and their relationships with the tôdôza. In my discussion, I investigate surprising aspects of the careers of the blind. These characteristics not only reflect the complex social history of the blind, but also reveal the intersections with critical developments in Tokugawa society. Founded as a society of blind musicians, the tôdôza was transformed into a political institution and later, a profit-driven organization of diverse professions. The narrative analyzes the social, political, and economic contexts of this transformation. Chapter one discusses the hierarchy of the tôdôza and the financial motives of moneylending. Chapter two looks at how rituals and myths were appropriated to strengthen the internal authority of the tôdôza. In chapter three...

Paths toward the modern fiscal state : England (1642-1752), Japan (1868-1895), and China (1850-1911)

He, Wenkai
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 450 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.02%
This dissertation examines the rise of the modem fiscal state, which enabled the state to use centrally collected revenues from indirect taxes to mobilize financial resources either through long-term borrowing or issuing paper notes. The modem fiscal state greatly enhanced state capacity and stimulated financial development; it thus represented a crucial stage in the transformation from early modem to modem state and economy. My comparative analysis of England, Japan, and China shows multiple sequences and outcomes. All three cases had well-established early modem states and sophisticated market economies. Under the pressure of increasing spending demands, state actors conducted similar experiments, such as short-term borrowing, issuing of paper notes, and the collection of taxes upon domestic consumption. England became a modem fiscal state by the 1750s when its government used the revenues from excises and the customs to service its massive long-term debt. Japan made the leap in the late 1880s when tax revenues were employed to back up paper money, i.e., banknotes issued by the Bank of Japan. China, however, failed to develop into a modem fiscal state. I put forward a temporally-based causal mechanism which resulted from the interactions between a profound state credit crisis and socio-economic conditions. Such credit crises were caused by excessive dependence upon fictitious credit instruments such as bills of short-term borrowing unfunded by tax revenue in England or non-convertible paper notes in Japan. As these credit crises were an unintended consequence of earlier policies or events...

Die frühen russisch-japanischen Beziehungen – Adam Laxmans Beitrag zur Erforschung Japans in der Tokugawa-Zeit; The Early Russian-Japanese Relations - The Contribution of Adam Laxman to the research on Japan during the Tokugawa Period

Ginzburg, Polina
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
In der Arbeit wird die Entwicklung der russisch-japanischen Beziehungen bis zur Öffnung Japans 1853, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der ersten offiziellen russischen Mission nach Japan von Adam Laxman, sowie der Beginn des kulturellen Austausches zwischen Japan und Russland erörtert. Anhand des Tagebuches des ersten russischen Gesandten nach Japan Adam Laxman wird versucht, seinen Beitrag zur Erforschung Japans in der Tokugawa-Zeit in der westlichen Japanologie bekannt zu machen. Außerdem wird versucht, anhand der japanischen Dokumente der Tokugawa-Zeit und der neuen Forschungen über die russisch-japanischen Beziehungen, die Rezeption von Adam Laxman in Japan zu erläutern. Zuerst wird ein Überblick über die Entwicklung des kulturellen Austausches zwischen Japan und Europa seit dem 17. Jahrhundert gegeben. Es wird die Tätigkeit der drei großen Japanforscher der Tokugawa-Zeit (Engelbert Kämpfer, Karl Peter Thunberg und Philipp Franz von Siebold), ihre Hauptwerke, sowie ihr Einfluss in Japan untersucht. Im Hauptteil der Arbeit wird die erste offizielle russische Gesandtschaft 1792-1793 nach Japan unter Adam Laxman dargestellt, mit der der erste Schritt zum kulturellen Austausch zwischen Japan und Russland eingeleitet wurde. Am Anfang wird ein Überblick über die Ereignisse gegeben...

Back to the ‘Normal’ Level of Human-Capital Driven Growth? A Note on Early Numeracy in Korea, China and Japan, 1550 - 1800

Baten, Joerg; Sohn, Kitae
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: ResearchPaper
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
This paper draws on a unique data set, hojok (household registers), to estimate numeracy levels in Korea, 1550–1630, and evidence on Japan and China from the early modern period until 1800. We found that a substantial share of East Asians rounded their ages to multiples of five. However, the extent of age-heaping was quite low by global standards, even considering the potential sources of upward bias inherent in the data. Therefore, the unusually high level of numeracy in East Asia in the early 21st century was already present in the early modern period. The findings imply that in the Korean case, for example, the foundations of the human-capital based catch-up growth were laid very early. More broadly, we argue that Korea, Japan, and China returned to the growth-path at different points of the 20th century, and this return was pre-determined by their early numeracy development.

The Early Modern Chinese Tribute System: Civilization as Source of Soft Power

Danner, Lukas K.
Fonte: SelectedWorks Publicador: SelectedWorks
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.7%

Graduate students and professors: who innovates; who conserves?

Reid, Anthony
Fonte: The Australia-Netherlands Research Collaboration (ANRC); http://www.aust-neth.net/ Publicador: The Australia-Netherlands Research Collaboration (ANRC); http://www.aust-neth.net/
Tipo: Conference paper; Published Version Formato: 6 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
Academic teaching is always a transaction between generations - the cutting edge of change, one might think. Yet universities remain among the most conservative of our institutions, relying a great deal on their legitimating function rather than innovation in their handling of new knowledge. At their worst (and this is a temptation all of us have felt, I suspect), academics appear more interested in reproducing themselves in a new generation, ensuring that a particular kind of approach continues, than in responding to the extraordinary changes of the times. To some extent the process by which graduate students are recruited from around the world reinforces that tendency. The graduate student or his advisor on the other side of the world is likely to be attracted to work that the potential superisor did 10 years earlier, in time to be published and cycled into teaching. In my case work of the 1960s attracted students from Japan and elsewhere in the 1970s and eighties; work on the revolutionary 1940s done in the 1970s attracted students in the 1980s. Only in the 1990s did I get a couple of students working on early modern Southeast Asia (Jane Drakard and Ruurdje Laarhoven) which I had already been working on for nearly 20 years. Whereas undergraduate teaching often forces one into new areas...

Early Mingei and Development of Japanese Crafts 1920s-1940s

Ajioka, Chiaki
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
There has been considerable interest, both in and outside Japan, in the Mingei movement which began in the 1920s. As a result, its theory and history have been studied widely. Most studies, however, have treated the movement in isolation and as one which was conceived, initiated and developed by Yanagi Sdetsu (1889-1961). This thesis challenges the conventional view and argues that the movement had its roots in the development of modern craft in Japan which, in turn, had been influenced by modernist consciousness in art and literature. It does so by two methods: by setting the movement in the context of the modern development of craft and its appreciation, and by examining the contents of Kögei, the magazine which acted as the principal mouthpiece of the movement from 1931 to 1939. The thesis thus establishes: that in its early stage the Mingei movement included different ideas on craft while sharing an appreciation for getemono (ordinary craft wares); that although Yanagi played the central role in the movement, his so-called 'Mingei theory' was by no means unconditionally accepted by the other members: and that a change in the character of the movement, from appreciative to quasi-religious, was brought about not so much by Yanagi himself as by those who put their complete faith in Yanagi's theory. The thesis also argues that this change in the character of the movement did not affect the works of the craft artists of the Mingei movement? they produced their work like other modern Japanese craft artists of the same period...

ID TROUBLES: The National Identification Systems in Japan and the (mis) Construction of the Subject

Ogasawara, Midori
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 866917 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
Modern Japan established three kinds of national identification (ID) systems over its population: Koseki, Alien Registration, and Juki-net. The Koseki system is a patriarchal family registration of all citizens. It began in the 1870s when Japan’s nation-state was developed under the emperor’s rule. Koseki used traditional patriarchal hierarchy and loyalty to construct subjects for the Japanese Empire and reify a fictional unity among the “Japanese” people. Until today, this disciplinary element has functioned as the norm for organizational relations in Japan. The Alien Registration System requires non-citizens to register and carry an ID card to distinguish “foreigners” from “Japanese”. This system stems from surveillance techniques used over the colonial populations in the early twentieth century: the Chinese in the colony of “Manchuria”, in northeast China, and the Koreans on the Japanese mainland. Although the empire collapsed after World War II, the practice was officially legislated to target Koreans and Chinese who remained in post-war democratic Japan. Juki-net is the recently established computer network for sharing the personal data of citizens between government and municipal authorities. Juki-net attaches a unitary ID number to all citizens and gives them an optional ID card. Juki-net uses digital technology to capture individual movement...

Beyond the Modern Beauty: Takehisa Yumeji and the New Media Environment in Early Twentieth Century Japan

Naoi, Nozomi
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
This thesis focuses on the modern Japanese artist Takehisa Yumeji (1884-1934) and his diverse range of graphic production, from illustrations in socialist newspapers and magazines with images of anti-war and leftist sentiment to fashionable images of beautiful women, referred to as "Yumeji-style beauties" (Yumeji-shiki bijin) in newspaper illustrations, coterie magazines, postcards, frontispieces, posters, and advertisements. Such works circulated widely and within the context of a growing female readership and the emergence of a new media environment that transformed the print medium from its "floating world" profile of the previous century into a technically diverse medium of modern visual culture and avant-garde pictorialism. Yumeji's graphic works participated in the generation of new kinds of modern identity. An extensive consideration of Yumeji's life and works reveals his role in the cultivation of a new demography of viewers and readers.; History of Art and Architecture

Afterlives of the Culture: Engaging with the Trans-East Asian Cultural Tradition in Modern Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Taiwanese Literatures, 1880s-1940s

Hashimoto, Satoru
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
This dissertation examines how modern literature in China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan in the late-nineteenth to the early-twentieth centuries was practiced within contexts of these countries' deeply interrelated literary traditions. Premodern East Asian literatures developed out of a millennia-long history of dynamic intra-regional cultural communication, particularly mediated by classical Chinese, the shared traditional literary language of the region. Despite this transnational history, modern East Asian literatures have thus far been examined predominantly as distinct national processes. Challenging this conventional approach, my dissertation focuses on the translational and intertextual relationships among literary works from China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, and argues that these countries' writers and critics, while transculturating modern Western aesthetics, actively engaged with the East Asian cultural tradition in heterogeneous ways in their creations of modern literature. I claim that this transnational tradition was fundamentally involved in the formation of national literary identities, and that it enabled East Asian literati to envision alternative forms of modern civilization beyond national particularity. The dissertation is divided into three parts according to the region's changing linguistic conditions. Part I...

Visualizing the Child: Japanese Children's Literature in the Age of Woodblock Print, 1678-1888

Williams, Kristin Holly
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
Children’s literature flourished in Edo-period Japan, as this dissertation shows through a survey of eighteenth-century woodblock-printed picturebooks for children that feature children in prominent roles. Addressing a persisting neglect of non-Western texts in the study of children’s literature and childhood per se, the dissertation challenges prevailing historical understandings of the origins of children’s literature and conceptions of childhood as a distinct phase of life. The explosive growth of print culture in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Japan not only raised expectations for adult literacy but also encouraged the spread of basic education for children and the publication of books for the young. The limited prior scholarship on Edo-period Japanese children’s books tends to dismiss them as a few isolated exceptions or as limited to moralistic primers and records of oral tradition. This dissertation reveals a long-lasting, influential, and varied body of children’s literature that combines didactic value with entertainment. Eighteenth-century picturebooks drew on literary and religious traditions as well as popular culture, while tailoring their messages to the interests and limitations of child readers. Organized in two parts...

For mothers and sisters : care of the reproductive female body in the medico-ritual world of early and medieval Japan

Triplett, Katja
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.93%
While married female members of the Japanese aristocracy followed the ideal of bearing children, female Buddhist novices and ordained women, often belonging to the aristocracy themselves, had to abstain from sexual activity and reproduction in accordance with the ordination rules. Infertility was considered with disdain by the first group, whereas not bearing children was the utmost expression of leading a virtuous life for the second group. However, both groups were concerned with keeping their physical bodies healthy: some to become mothers, the others to live as nuns or religious sisters. Focusing on the early medieval period, this paper examines various sources to illuminate the ways in which women were cared for and the kind of views and ideas that informed this care. Instead of looking at the ancient methods of treatment through a modern «scientific» lens and sorting them into «proto-scientific» and «superstitious» categories, medico-ritual and religious views on the female body are explored as facets of the worldview prevalent in the period under consideration. Special attention is paid to relevant chapters of the first medical work produced in Japan, the Ishinpō, compiled by a court physician, Tanba no Yasuyori, in the late 10th century CE. The investigation of other sources...

Shanghai-based industrialization in the early 20th century: a quantitative and institutional analysis

Ma, Debin
Fonte: Department of Economic History, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Economic History, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2006 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.76%
A significant but uneven spurt of industrialization started in China during the first three decades of the 20th century at a time of political instability and national disintegration. This article argues that economic growth during this period was closely associated with the rise and expansion of major treaty ports designated under the Western imperialist framework. I focus on the political institutions of a city-state adopted in early 20th century Shanghai – the rule of law, secure property rights and provision of public goods – as a crucial determinant to such growth. Using a historical GDP framework, this paper shows that the Shanghai-based industrialization exerted a significant quantitative impact on her immediate hinterland, the Lower Yangzi region. Per capita income in the two Lower Yangzi provinces was 64% higher than China’s national average, and it had experienced a magnitude of growth and structural change between 1914/18 and 1931/36 comparable to contemporaneous Japan and her East Asian colonies.

Pre-modern economic growth revisited: Japan and the West

Saito, Osamu
Fonte: Department of Economic History, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Economic History, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2005 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
In early modern north-western Europe, real wages declined while GDP per capita was on the increase. In contrast, wage growth in Tokugawa Japan went hand in hand with output growth. Based on this finding, the paper revisits Thomas Smith’s thesis on ‘Pre-modern Economic Growth: Japan and the West’. It is suggested that the common denominator found in both European and Japanese cases was market-led, ‘Smithian growth’. However, unlike north-western Europe, there was no room for mercantile or agricultural capitalism playing a part. Also, Tokugawa growth was not associated with increased income inequality. All this accounted for the slower pace of growth and the absence of any gap between real wage growth and per-capita GDP growth in Japan's pre-modern economic regime.

Hand looms, power looms, and changing production organizations: the case of the Kiryu weaving district in the early 20th century Japan

Hashino, Tomoko; Otsuka, Keijiro
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/2012 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.81%
This study finds that the development process of the Kiryu silk weaving district in Japan from 1895 to 1930 can be divided at least into the two phases, i.e., Smithian growth based on the inter-firm division of labor using hand looms and Schumpeterian development based on factory system using power looms. Weaving manufacturers-cum-contractors led Smithian growth by organizing sub-contracts with out-weavers in rural villages and grew faster than factory production systems. Newly emerged joint stock firms played a role of genuine entrepreneurs by realizing significant scale economies. During this new phase, weaving manufacturers-cum-contractors survived and also introduced new production system.

The business role of Japanese wealth holders in the early 20th century: An analysis of networks and activities during the process of industrialisation.

Nakaoka, Shunsuke
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
This thesis sets out specifically to investigate business wealth holders in modern Japan. It includes the study of businessmen, landlords or even peers who were engaged in business and commerce as founders, owners or investors. It attempts to locate their social, historical and business characteristics in the context of the early 20th century, when Japan emerged as one of the economic powers of Asia, having passed through the transitional period of the late 19th century. The research focuses primarily on characteristics related to the development of Japanese business, and incorporates some comparisons with contemporary members of the European bourgeoisie, especially in Britain and Germany. The second major concern is to analyse Japanese business through an investigation of those wealth holders who succeeded in the modern business world by managing to survive the transition from the pre-modern to the modern economic system. The third and final focus is on the relationship between the state and wealth holders. Chapter 1 of the thesis explains the methodology adopted for the research, along with a detailed explanation of the data and sources utilised. Chapter 2 seeks to establish a profile of Japanese wealth holders in the prewar period. Data on estimated wealth...

Translating maternal violence: the discursive construction of maternal filicide in 1970s Japan

Castellini, Alessandro
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/09/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36%
The present dissertation takes late postwar Japan as its case study and investigates the ways in which ambivalence to/in motherhood’ emerges at the very site where maternal violence and, more specifically, maternal filicide disrupts social norms of acceptable maternal behaviour. In 1970s Japan the number of cases of mothers who killed their own children saw a dramatic increase to the point of reaching, within media representations in particular, the dimension of a social phenomenon. Within the framework of idealizations of maternal identity, formulated in terms of continuous love, self-sacrifice and domesticity, filicidal mothers came to be labelled as either "bad" (cruel, monstrous) or "mad" (mentally unstable, neurotic). The apparent proliferation of maternal child-killing and what was perceived as the unjust treatment meted out to these criminalized mothers became a major concern for a new women’s liberation movement emerging in Japan between the late 1960s and the early 1970s, known as ūman ribu (woman lib). Ribu contested the widespread characterization of mothers who kill as either devilish or mentally ill, and drew on the numerical increase of cases of maternal filicide as evidence of a symptomatic malfunctioning of the dominant gender ideology in modern Japanese society. Postwar Japan also witnessed a boom in women’s literature whose focus on the grotesque...

For mothers and sisters: care of the reproductive female body in the medico-ritual world of early and medieval Japan

Triplett,Katja
Fonte: Dynamis Publicador: Dynamis
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.93%
While married female members of the Japanese aristocracy followed the ideal of bearing children, female Buddhist novices and ordained women, often belonging to the aristocracy themselves, had to abstain from sexual activity and reproduction in accordance with the ordination rules. Infertility was considered with disdain by the first group, whereas not bearing children was the utmost expression of leading a virtuous life for the second group. However, both groups were concerned with keeping their physical bodies healthy: some to become mothers, the others to live as nuns or religious sisters. Focusing on the early medieval period, this paper examines various sources to illuminate the ways in which women were cared for and the kind of views and ideas that informed this care. Instead of looking at the ancient methods of treatment through a modern "scientific" lens and sorting them into "proto-scientific" and "superstitious" categories, medico-ritual and religious views on the female body are explored as facets of the worldview prevalent in the period under consideration. Special attention is paid to relevant chapters of the first medical work produced in Japan, the Ishinpō, compiled by a court physician, Tanba no Yasuyori, in the late 10th century CE. The investigation of other sources...