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Reflexos das barreiras comerciais européias sobre as exportações brasileiras: uma abordagem utilizando a nova economia institucional; Reflexes of the european trade barriers on brazilian exports: an approach using the new institutional economics

Maragno, Renata Camargo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/10/2007 PT
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37.03%
O tema referente ao aumento das exportações vem ganhando importância para o comércio exterior brasileiro. Desde 2003 as exportações brasileiras têm apresentado resultados recordes e o saldo da balança comercial acompanha este resultado. Entretanto, as exportações brasileiras tornam-se inexpressivas se comparadas às exportações que ocorrem no mundo, pois elas representam somente pouco mais de 1% das exportações mundiais. Um dos fatores responsáveis por este resultado seria a incidência de barreiras comerciais aos produtos brasileiros exportados, uma vez que estas barreiras aumentam os custos das transações envolvidos nos processos de exportações e são capazes de torná-los inviáveis. Assim, este trabalho possui como objetivo principal utilizar a abordagem da nova economia institucional (NEI) para analisar o desempenho de alguns dos principais produtos da pauta exportadora brasileira considerando a incidência de barreiras comerciais européias sobre eles. Para atingir este objetivo, faz-se necessário levantar as barreiras comerciais impostas pela União Européia, principal parceiro comercial do Brasil, aos produtos brasileiros e mostrar quais os possíveis reflexos que estas barreiras representam ao comportamento do comércio exterior brasileiro.; The subject that refers to the increase of the exports has been becoming an important issue to the brazilian international business. The brazilian exports have been showing an excellent performance since 2003 and the balance of trade imitates this result. However...

Competitividade internacional das exportações brasileiras de manga e de uva; International competitiveness of brazilian exports of mangoes and grapes

Diz, Luís André da Costa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/05/2008 PT
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37.13%
Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar a competitividade das exportações brasileiras de manga e de uva no mercado internacional no período de 1989 a 2005. Para tanto, utilizou-se o modelo de Constant Market Share (CMS) e o modelo de Vantagem Comparativa Revelada (VCR) para evidenciar os principais fatores responsáveis pela rápida expansão das exportações nacionais para esses dois produtos, além de realizar uma análise comparativa entre as duas culturas selecionadas. O primeiro modelo busca analisar as causas de variação da quantidade (ou valor) exportada de um produto pelo país em questão em relação ao tempo, gerando três dimensões explicativas para a variação das exportações: o efeito dimensão, o efeito distribuição e o efeito competitividade. O efeito dimensão mostra como o crescimento das exportações mundiais afetou o crescimento das exportações do país analisado. O efeito distribuição refere-se às exportações para países de maior ou menor dinamismo. Por resíduo, descontando-se os demais efeitos temos o termo competitividade.Para a geração dos resultados foi necessária a sub-divisão do período de análise em três grupos trienais: 1989/1990/1991, 1994/1995/1996 e 2003/2004/2005.O modelo de Vantagem Comparativa Revelada parte do pressuposto de que o país em questão tende a se especializar nas exportações de produtos que ofereçam vantagens competitivas. Para tanto...

Análise da competitividade das exportações brasileiras de frutas selecionadas no mercado internacional; Analysis of Brazilian exports competitiveness of selected fruits in the international market

Vitti, Aline
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/04/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
A participação do Brasil no mercado externo de frutas tem aumentado nos últimos anos e, apesar de o Brasil não apresentar participação relevante no mercado internacional, sabe-se que pode crescer ainda mais, visto o potencial do País. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho é analisar a competitividade das exportações brasileiras de frutas no mercado internacional, possibilitando identificar os fatores que têm sido responsáveis pelos ganhos de competitividade das exportações brasileiras de frutas entre os anos de 1989 a 2006. Para a realização deste estudo foram selecionadas as sete principais frutas frescas exportadas pelo Brasil em 2007: banana, lima/limão, maçã, mamão, manga, melão e uva. A base teórica utilizada foi o conceito de competitividade e os modelos Constant Market Share - CMS e Vantagem Comparativa Revelada - VCR. Quanto aos efeitos que mais contribuíram para o desempenho das exportações de frutas brasileiras, o efeito competitividade foi o mais importante, principalmente no segundo período analisado (1997/98/99 a 2004/05/06). O mamão foi a única fruta para qual os efeitos crescimento de mercado e destino das exportações foram mais representativos do que a competitividade. Apesar de o modelo CMS distinguir os efeitos explicativos da evolução das exportações...

Exports, productivity and innovation : evidence from Portugal using microdata

Faustino, Horácio; Lima, Joana C.; Matos, Pedro V.
Fonte: ISEG - Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG - Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This study examines the evolution of Portuguese exports to Spain and its determinants in the period 2004-2008, based on a sample of the 97 largest exporters to Spain. The econometric study, using panel data and a static and dynamic analysis, considers as theoretically relevant explanatory variables productivity, equity capital, remuneration and innovation measured by the expenditure on research and development (R&D). The static results of the estimated models confirm the positive influence of productivity and equity capital on the variation of exports, and the negative effect of the labour costs. The variable R&D is statistically significant, with a positive effect on Portuguese exports in the dynamic model. The dynamic estimations also suggest that the exports in the previous period have a positive effect on contemporaneous exports.

Serbia - Country Economic Memorandum : The Road to Prosperity - Productivity and Exports, Volume 2. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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37%
This report looks beyond the current global financial crisis to the restoration of dynamic long-run growth in Serbia. The answer in this report is that Serbia will need to fundamentally alter its growth model to compete effectively in world markets. The past model relying on excessive inflows of capital and credit that, in part, fuelled a consumption boom has run its course in all European countries. Serbia must shift to a greater export orientation so that it can attain the major gains in productivity and competitiveness necessary to propel economic growth to a much higher trajectory. This cannot happen without an explicit export strategy, and a set of concomitant structural reforms, driven by commitment and coordination at the highest political level. This report tries to pinpoint policy actions that would be most effective in raising the rate of productivity growth of Serbia s enterprises so that better export performance and sustained growth could be achieved. The report has three parts. Part I reviews Serbia s macroeconomic situation and its progress on structural reforms. Part II starts with a review of the current status of Serbia s exports and trade policy and regional trade arrangements. It then uses product space (PS) analysis to examine areas where Serbia has a revealed or potential comparative advantage. The report then moves on to two such areas...

Large Devaluations, Foreign Direct Investment and Exports : A Speculative Note

Lederman, Daniel
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
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One side-effect of the Global Financial Crisis of 2008-09 was the resurgence of a debate over exchange rates. The conventional wisdom dictates that real-exchange rate adjustments are needed in order to bring about changes in trade balances across countries. However, the literature on the effect of exchange rate fluctuations and currency under-valuations on exports is surprisingly ambiguous. This note explores for the first time the potential role of foreign direct investment as an intermediate variable in the process of trade adjustment after large real-exchange rate changes. Real-exchange rate devaluations might result in increases in foreign direct investment inflows, as investors can take advantage of changes in the foreign-currency value of domestic assets. If so, the response of exports will depend to some extent on the nature of such foreign direct investment inflows, with inflows motivated by "horizontal" foreign direct investment associated with negligible changes in export growth after devaluation. The author utilizes quarterly data on real effective exchange rates...

Exports and Productivity – Comparable Evidence for 14 Countries

The International Study Group on Exports and Productivity
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The authors use comparable micro level panel data for 14 countries and a set of identically specified empirical models to investigate the relationship between exports and productivity. The overall results are in line with the big picture that is by now familiar from the literature: Exporters are more productive than non-exporters when observed and unobserved heterogeneity are controlled for, and these exporter productivity premia tend to increase with the share of exports in total sales; there is strong evidence in favour of self-selection of more productive firms into export markets, but nearly no evidence in favour of the learning-by-exporting hypothesis. The authors document that the exporter premia differ considerably across countries in identically specified empirical models. In a meta-analysis of their results the authors find that countries that are more open and have more effective government report higher productivity premia. However, the level of development per se does not appear to be an explanation for the observed cross-country differences.

Dirty Exports and Environmental Regulation: Do Standards Matter to Trade?

Wilson, John S.; Tsunehiro Otsuki; Sewadeh, Mirvat
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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How to address the link between environmental regulation and trade was an important part of discussions at the World Trade Organization Ministerial in Doha, Qatar in November 2001. Trade ministers agreed to launch negotiations on trade and the environment, specifically clarification of WTO rules. The authors address an important part of the background context for deciding whether or how to link trade agreements to the environment from a developing country perspective. The authors ask whether environmental regulations affect exports of pollution-intensive or "dirty" goods in 24 countries between 1994 and 1998. Based on a Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek (HOV) model, net exports in five pollution-intensive industries are regressed on factor endowments and measures of environmental standards (legislation in force). The results suggest that, if country heterogeneity such as enforcement of environmental regulations is controlled for, more stringent environmental standards imply lower net exports of metal mining, nonferrous metals...

Brazilian Exports : Climbing Down a Competitiveness Cliff

Canuto, Otaviano; Cavallari, Matheus; Guilherme Reis, José
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
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36.96%
This note examines in detail Brazil s export performance over the past 15 years, focusing not only on growth and composition, but also on different performance dimensions, including diversification, sophistication, and firm dynamics. The analysis uses international comparisons to better situate the Brazilian performance, and explores different databases, including firm-level data recently published by the World Bank. The note uses a recent diagnostic toolkit developed by the World Bank in order to suggest some hypotheses about the factors that have been inhibiting exports and industrial production expansion. Among the latter, it is noted how service sectors, as the largest beneficiaries from favorable terms of trade, accommodated larger wage increases and "exported" cost pressures to other sectors of the economy. Furthermore, although a stronger currency can be appointed as one of the elements behind the lower competitiveness in Brazilian exports, sluggish productivity performance and a real wage uptrend explain a significant part of the overall loss of competitiveness. This diagnostic reinforces the importance of resuming the agenda of microeconomic reforms, increasing the investment-to-gross domestic product ratio, and advancing toward better-skilled human capital.

Eliminating Excessive Tariffs on Exports of Least Developed Countries

Hoekman, Bernard; Ng, Francis; Olarreaga, Marcelo
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Although average Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) tariffs on imports from the least developed countries are very low; tariffs above 15 percent have a disproportional effect on their exports. Products subject to tariff peaks tend to be heavily concentrated in agriculture and food products and labor intensive sectors, such as apparel and footwear. Although the least developed countries benefit from preferential access, preferences tend to be smallest for tariff peak products. A major exception is the European Union, so that the recent European initiative to grant full duty free and quota free access for the least developed countries will result in only a small increase in their exports of tariff peak items. However, as preferences are less significant in other major OECD countries, a more general emulation of the European Union initiative would increase the least developed countries total exports of peak products by US dollar 2.5 billion. Although almost half of this increase is at the expense of other developing country exports...

Market Access for Developing Countries Exports

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
Integration into the world economy has proven a powerful instrument for countries to promote economic growth, development, and poverty reduction. Trade has been an engine of growth for the past fifty years, owing in part to eight successive rounds of multilateral trade liberalization, as well as unilateral and regional trade liberalization. The growing integration of the world economy has raised living standards and brought increased opportunity to many parts of the globe. Many developing countries have shared in this prosperity. As a group, developing countries have become much more important in world trade, and their trade relationships have changed markedly from the traditional north-south pattern. Developing countries now account for one-third of world trade, up from about a quarter in the early 1970s, and many have substantially increased their exports of manufactures and services relative to traditional commodity exports. The share of manufactures in developing country exports has risen to 80 percent; moreover...

Depreciations without Exports?

Ahmed, Swarnali; Appendino, Maximiliano; Ruta, Michele
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper analyzes how the exchange rate elasticity of exports has changed over time and across countries and sectors, and how the formation of global value chains has affected this relationship. The analysis uses a panel framework covering 46 countries over the period 1996-2012, and first finds evidence that the elasticity of manufacturing export volumes to the real effective exchange rate has decreased over time. The paper then examines whether the formation of supply chains has affected this elasticity using different measures of global value chain integration. Intuitively, as countries are more integrated in global production processes, a currency depreciation only improves the competitiveness of a fraction of the value of final goods exports. In line with this intuition, the analysis finds evidence that the rise of participation in global value chains explains on average 40 percent of the fall in the elasticity, and that corrections of the real effective exchange rate for participation in global value chains do not present the same decreasing pattern in elasticity.

Processed food products exports from India: an exploration with SPS regime

Mehta, Rajesh; George, J
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 447819 bytes; 369 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
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[Conclusion]: This exploration into the application of the SPS regime in the processed food products in India was focussed on five processed product lines, each from a different segment of the wide spectrum of available products. It was observed that all selected processed food products were assisted by the policy liberalisation regime of the early 1990s. But, in the post-WTO period, particularly since 1996/97, the complexity of the SPS regime seems to have significantly constrained market access in developed countries for Indian processed food products. The poultry product (e.g., egg powder) and marine (Shrimps) product exports to EU and USA reveal contrasting scenarios. Egg powder plants in India that were dedicated to produce exports to the EU markets closed down because of the imposition of stricter food safety standards. On the other hand, the EU approved plants for processing marine products, many exporters could not understand or cope with the shifting safety standards, and they explored alternative markets. As a result, the realized unit value of these exports declined. The hiatus between scientific merit and trade economics is further brought home, when the application of SPS measures to Peanuts/Groundnuts, Mango Pulp and Mushrooms export lines are examined. The case studies confirm the untenability of higher and stricter food safety standards in EU and USA...

The impact of the Asian Crisis on Australia's primary exports: why it has not been so bad

Duncan, Ron; Yang, Yongzheng
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 75292 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Apart from a substantial exchange rate depreciation, the impact of the Asian Crisis on the Australian economy has been surprisingly mild. An exploration of the reasons for the modest impact to date on Australia’s primary commodity exports, using a global general equilibrium model, shows the following: (i) as capital flees Asia, investment in Australia increases and the trade deficit enlarges, (ii) while Australian exports to the region generally decline, imports from the region become cheaper as the crisis countries recover in the medium run, and the favourable terms of trade effect leads to an expansion of domestic consumption, (iii) primary commodities that are used as raw materials in manufactured exports in crisis countries expand s these countries try to export their way our of trouble with depreciated currencies. Diversification also helps alleviate the impact of the Asian Crisis in the short run, (iv) the more income-inelastic primary commodities used for direct consumption fare less well than the income-inelastic foodstuffs as incomes decline in the crisis countries, and (v) Australia’s relatively low dependence on manufactured exports is a buffer as manufactured exports come under heavy pressure from exports from the crisis countries.

Big Dragon, Little Dragons : China's Challenge to the Machinery Exports of Southeast Asia

Rahardja, Sjamsu
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
This paper investigates the extent of China's export boom in machinery and analyzes trade in components and finished machinery between China and Southeast Asia. China has increased its world market share in machinery exports. The median relative unit value of its finished machinery exports has also risen. Yet the author finds no evidence that China's expansion in the world machinery market has squeezed the market shares of Southeast Asian machinery exports. Instead, components made by Southeast Asian countries are increasing in unit value and gaining market share in China.

Market Access, Supplier Access, and Africa's Manufactured Exports : An Analysis of the Role of Geography and Institutions

Elbadawi, Ibrahim; Mengistae, Taye; Zeufack, Albert
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
In a large cross-country sample of manufacturing establishments drawn from 188 cities, average exports per establishment are smaller for African firms than for businesses in other regions. The authors show that this is mainly because, on average, African firms face more adverse economic geography and operate in poorer institutional settings. Once they control for the quality of institutions and economic geography, what in effect is a negative African dummy disappears from the firm level exports equation they estimate. One part of the effect of geography operates through Africa's lower "foreign market access:" African firms are located further away from wealthier or denser potential export markets. A second occurs through the region's lower "supplier access:" African firms face steeper input prices, partly because of their physical distance from cheaper foreign suppliers, and partly because domestic substitutes for importable inputs are more expensive. Africa's poorer institutions reduce its manufactured exports directly, as well as indirectly, by lowering foreign market access and supplier access. Both geography and institutions influence average firm level exports significantly more through their effect on the number of exporters than through their impact on how much each exporter sells in foreign markets.

How Sensitive Are Latin American Exports to Chinese Competition in the U.S. Market?

López-Córdova, J. Ernesto; Micco, Alejandro; Molina, Danielken
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
This paper estimates the elasticity of substitution of U.S. imports using detailed trade data over the 1990-2003 period. The authors use a two-stage least squares framework in order to identify the elasticity parameter of interest. The authors use the elasticity estimates to assess the extent to which Latin American and Chinese goods compete in the U.S. market by providing forecasts of how alternative policy scenarios may affect exports to the United States. The analysis considers the following scenarios: (i) currency revaluation in China; (ii) elimination of U.S. tariffs on Latin American exports under a hemispheric free trade agreement; and (iii) the elimination of quotas on apparel and textile exports under the Multi-Fiber Agreement. The findings show that a 20-percent appreciation of the renminbi reduces Chinese exports to the United States by a fifth, although since other regions increase sales to that market (0.5 percent for Latin America), U.S. imports decline by only 1.7 percent. Hemispheric free trade would increase Latin America's exports to the United States by around 3 percent. The removal of the quotas would lead to a sharp increase in Chinese sales to the United States (40 percent)...

Domestic Constraints, Firm Characteristics, and Geographical Diversification of Firm-Level Manufacturing Exports in Africa

Yoshino, Yutaka
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.1%
Using firm-level data on manufacturing sectors in Africa, this paper addresses how domestic supply constraints and other firm characteristics explain the geographical orientation of firms' exports and the overall market diversification of African manufacturing exports. The degree of market diversification, measured by the number of export destinations, is highly correlated with export intensity at the firm level, and both embody strong scale effects. Technological factors, such as new vintage capital and Internet access, which improve production efficiency and lower export costs, show strong effects on the firm-level export intensity. Some qualitative differences exist between Africa's regional exports and exports to the global markets. Foreign ownership is a significant factor in characterizing the intensity of global exports but not regional exports. The technological factors are significant in both cases, but more so in global exports. Public infrastructure constraints, such as inferior power services and customs delays...

An analysis of the performance of chilean aquacultural exports. (1995-2005)

Morales,Cristian; Lacayo,Ramón; Sfeir,Rodrigo
Fonte: ASOCIACIÓN INTERCIENCIA Publicador: ASOCIACIÓN INTERCIENCIA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Exchange rate and market liberalization policies put in place by recent Chilean administrations with the stated goal of promoting exports in both traditional and non-traditional sectors have resulted in a relative boom for the aquacultural activities in particular. The farming of salmon is well known, and less traditional exports in this area are beginning to play a larger role in the performance of the Chilean economy as a whole. This paper’s objective is the analysis of the performance of the Chilean aquacultural exports for the period 1995-2005, as a complement of a previous work on agricultural exports. The performance of several indicators of specialization (revealed comparative advantage and contribution to the trade balance), commerce structure (share of exports of the selected items to the total of exports) and competitiveness (indices of sector participation and market share) of each export category was analyzed. Eleven categories of the Harmonized System were reduced to six: salmon, fish fillets, seaweed, scallops, mussels and aquatic invertebrates. The performance of the world’s top exporter in each category was also included in the analysis. A relatively high level of specialization of aquacultural exports for Chile and its main competitors in almost all categories...

An analysis of the performance of chilean agricultural exports (1994-2004)

Lacayo,Ramón; Morales,Cristian
Fonte: ASOCIACIÓN INTERCIENCIA Publicador: ASOCIACIÓN INTERCIENCIA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
The relative success of the Chilean economy is due in a large measure to the application by the government of exchange rate and market liberalization policies oriented towards the promotion of exports in both traditional and non-traditional sectors, in order to turn them into an engine of growth. Farming in general has become a key component of the country’s economy. In this paper, the performance of the agricultural sector exports for the period 1994-2004 is analyzed on the basis of indicators that account for specialization, commerce structure and competitiveness of exports. Altogether, seven tariff categories of the Harmonized System (2002) were covered. In the analysis of export specialization three indices were employed, namely, the revealed comparative advantage, the contribution to trade balance, and the intraindustry commerce. The commerce structure was analyzed on the basis of the share of exports of the selected items to the total of exports. Competitiveness was analyzed with the use of indices of sector participation and market share. The results show a high level of specialization of agricultural exports and an increase in comparative advantage for products such as avocados, grapes and wine. Concerning competitiveness...