Página 1 dos resultados de 481 itens digitais encontrados em 0.003 segundos

Coordinating Tax Reforms in the Poorest Countries : Can Lost Tariffs be Recouped?

Wagle, Swarnim
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
A revenue-neutral switch from trade taxes to domestic consumption taxes is fraught with implementation challenges in countries with a large informal sector. It is shown for a sample of low-income countries over 25 years that they have had a mixed record of offsetting reductions in trade tax revenue. The paper then analyzes the specific case of Nepal, using a unique data set compiled from unpublished customs records of imports, tariffs and all other taxes levied at the border. It estimates changes to revenue and domestic production associated with two sets of reforms: i) proportional tariff cuts coordinated with a strictly enforced value-added tax; and ii) proposed tariff cuts under a regional free trade agreement. It is shown that a revenue-neutral tax reform is conditional on the effectiveness with which domestic taxes are enforced. Furthermore, loss of revenue as a result of intra-regional free trade can be minimized through judicious use of Sensitive Lists that still cover substantially all the trade as required by Article XXIV of the GATT.

Changing Contributions of Different Agricultural Policy Instruments to Global Reductions in Trade and Welfare

Croser, Johanna; Anderson, Kym
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.88%
Trade negotiators and policy advisors are keen to know the relative contribution of different farm policy instruments to international trade and economic welfare. Nominal rates of assistance or producer support estimates are incomplete indicators, especially when (especially in developing countries) some commodities are taxed and others are subsidized, in which case positive contributions can offset negative contributions. This paper develops and estimates a new set of more-satisfactory indicators to examine the relative contribution of different farm policy instruments to reductions in agricultural trade and welfare, drawing on recent literature on trade restrictiveness indexes and a recently compiled database on distortions to agricultural prices for 75 developing and high-income countries over the period 1960 to 2004. Results confirm earlier findings that border taxes are the dominant instrument affecting global trade and welfare, but they also suggest declines in export taxes contributed nearly as much as cuts in import protection to global welfare gains from agricultural policy reforms since the 1980s.

Informal Export Barriers and Poverty

Porto, Guido G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.65%
The author investigates the poverty impacts of informal export barriers like transport costs, cumbersome customs practices, costly regulations, and bribes. He models these informal barriers as export taxes that distort the efficient allocation of resources. In low-income agricultural economies, this distortion lowers wages and household agricultural income, thereby leading to higher poverty. The author investigates the poverty impacts of improving export procedures in Moldova. This is a unique case study: poverty is widespread (half of the Moldovan population lives in poverty), the country is very open and relies on agricultural exports for growth, formal trade barriers are fairly liberalized, and informal export barriers are common and widespread. The author finds that improving export practices would benefit the average Moldovan household across the whole income distribution. For example, halving informal export barriers would cause poverty to decline from 48.3 percent of the population to between 43.3 and 45.5 percent...

Regional, Multilateral, and Unilateral Trade Policies on MERCOSUR for Growth and Poverty Reduction in Brazil

Harrison, Glenn W.; Rutherford, Thomas F.; Tarr, David; Gurgel, Angelo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.77%
The authors estimate that the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas (FTAA), the EU-MERCOSUR agreement, and multilateral trade policy changes will all be beneficial for Brazil. The Brazilian government strategy of simultaneously negotiating the FTAA and the EU-MERCOSUR agreement, while supporting multilateral liberalization through the Doha Agenda, will increase the benefits of each of these policies. The authors estimate that the poorest households typically gain roughly three to four times the average for Brazil from any of the policies considerethe United States protects its most highly protected markets. Both the FTAA and the EU-MERCOSUR agreements are net trade-creating for the countries involved, but excluded countries almost always lose from the agreements. The authors estimate that multilateral trade liberalization of 50 percent in tariffs and export subsidies results in gains to the world more than four times greater than either the FTAA or the EU-MERCOSUR agreement. This shows the continued importance to the world trading community of the multilateral negotiations.

Export Restraints on Russian Natural Gas and Raw Timber : What Are the Economic Impacts?

Tarr, David G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.69%
Export restraints by the Russian Federation on natural gas and timber have been the source of major controversy between the European Union and the Russian Federation. The analysis of this paper suggests that the export restraints in natural gas very substantially benefit Russia. On the other hand, in raw timber the analysis suggests that a substantial reduction of Russian export taxes would increase Russian welfare. The paper explains that Gazprom has failed to invest adequately, resulting in little development of new gas supplies. The result has been progressively increasing use by Gazprom of Central Asian gas supplies, at progressively higher prices for Russia. The increased prices of gas for Russian consumers have shown that it is crucial for Russia to allow new entrants and to introduce competition in the Russian domestic market. Without export restraints, however, competition among multiple gas suppliers from Russia would erode or eliminate the monopoly profits of the Russian Federation on gas exports. Thus...

Building Export Competitiveness in Laos : Summary Report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Foreign Trade, FDI, and Capital Flows Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
The basic framework for the background study on building export competitiveness in Laos is based on the National Growth and Poverty Eradication Strategy (NGPES), which appropriately stresses the need to: (i) improve the business climate by creating a predictable and transparent policy environment; (ii) streamline administrative procedures and regulations that are an obstacle to domestic and foreign private investment; and (iii) strengthen market institutions, including most notably those related to dispute resolution and contract enforcement. This paper focuses on three key priority areas: (a) Strengthening fiscal management is a first priority area. Progress in strengthening fiscal management is likely to require reforms to the broader framework of center-province fiscal relations; (b) Establishing a functioning banking system is a second priority area. Laos needs an efficient banking system to achieve the government's development goals and meet the competitive challenges of regional integration; and (3) Improving competitiveness is a third priority area. Conventional macroeconomic assessments of competitiveness using real effective exchange rates do not suggest any major competitiveness concerns. Other approaches, involving a more detailed assessment of the various elements that make up the investment climate...

Agricultural Exports from Latin America and the Caribbean : Harnessing Trade to Feed the World and Promote Development

Chaherli, Nabil; Nash, John
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Commodities Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.62%
The United Nations estimates that global food demand will double by 2050, with much of that growth in developing countries. The world will have 2.3 billion more people, and given the deep transformation of growth trajectories in low-income countries, they will be increasingly affluent, with demands for more, different, and better food. While countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) are quite heterogeneous in their production potential, overall they are well equipped to contribute to meeting this challenge. LAC has always maintained a strong comparative advantage in agricultural production, as indicated not only by its position as a net food exporter but also by its high comparative advantage. LAC is also well endowed in renewable water resources, with about a third of the 42,000 cubic kilometers worldwide. Per capita, LAC has the highest endowment of renewable water among developing regions, though some sub regions in LAC face higher than average scarcity. This report's in-depth look at Argentina and Brazil identifies looming logistics and policy issues that threaten to derail these locomotives of agricultural growth and some policy choices that have contributed to their success and that might be worth emulating. While LAC countries have substantially reduced the anti-export and anti-agricultural biases in their trade regimes...

The Political Economy of Commodity Export Policy : A Case Study of India

Kondo, Masanori
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
Many developing country governments discriminate against sectors that export primary commodities. India, for example, discriminates against cotton production. Exports of cotton have been restricted by quotas, and the mill industry has been subject to such regulations as the obligation to supply hank yarn for Indian handlooms. These interventions have led to stagnating cotton yields, rent-seeking activities, manipulation of cotton statistics, and low profitability in cotton mills' offsetting the short-run benefits of inexpensive cotton in India. The author develops a numerical model to measure the impact of liberalizing cotton exports. This is the first simulation model of its type, and the first multimarket model that computes price elasticities endogenously, based on the ratios between product prices and input costs. The model distinguishes short-run from long-run effects by drawing on the principle that the cost of capital varies only in the long run. Results of the simulation under complete liberalization indicate heavy (16 percent) net losses in income in the handloom sector. The government subsidies needed to compensate for those losses amount to US$423 million...

Trade Policy Reform and Poverty Alleviation

Hoekman, Bernard; Michalopoulos, Constantine; Schiff, Maurice; Tarr, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.67%
In this paper, developed as part of the World Bank's Poverty Reduction Strategy Sourcebook, the authors examine how to implement trade liberalization as part of a strategy for alleviating poverty in developing countries. They discuss trade policy instruments, institutions, complementary policies, sector issues, adjustment policies, and safety nets in an integrated approach to trade policy as a tool for poverty alleviation. The authors examine the patterns or models of trade policy that have been successful in alleviating poverty. They discuss the role of tariffs, nontariff barriers, contingent protection (such as safeguards and antidumping), special import regimes (such as duty drawback), export taxes, export subsidies, and trade-related institutions (such as standards, marketing, export finance, customs clearance, and regional trade arrangements). The authors also discuss policies that complement successful trade reform, including macroeconomic stability, a competitive exchange rate, flexible labor markets...

Revenue and the Fiscal Impact of Liberalization : The Case of Niger

Zafar, Ali
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
Using data collected during several missions, the author finds that the principal reasons for low revenue mobilization are (1) the adverse fiscal impact of trade liberalization, (2) the defiscalization of agriculture in the 1970s, (3) the collapse of the uranium boom in the 1980s, and (4) the poor record of the VAT in mobilizing revenue. The large reduction in tariffs during the 1980s and 1990s in the context of structural adjustment programs and West African regional integration initiatives had adverse effects on trade tax revenue during the period 1980 2003. But higher import levels after 1994 succeeded in partially mitigating the revenue losses. The experience of Niger shows that without accompanying macroeconomic policies, parallel improvements in tax and customs administration, and success in mobilizing domestic taxes, most notably the VAT, trade reform can have adverse fiscal consequences. Using a SMART model partial equilibrium analysis developed by UNCTAD for researchers and negotiators at multilateral trade rounds, the author simulated three different tariff shocks to test the fiscal and trade implications of additional trade liberalization in Niger. First, the preferred tariff regime in terms of overall fiscal and job creation impact was the harmonized Swiss formula in contrast to a 10 and 15 percent uniform tariff. Second...

Strengthening Bolivian Competitiveness : Export Diversification and Inclusive Growth

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.7%
Bolivia's trade liberalization, launched in the mid-1980s, has resulted in a relatively open trade regime; but the results have been mixed. Bolivia's export to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) ratio and export entrepreneurship index rating are among the highest in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region and the country has achieved great success in making soya the major export crop in less than 10 years. At the same time, the country's share in world trade has stagnated and exports are increasingly dominated by gas and minerals. Reinvigorating the nontraditional export sector is important for the government of Bolivia as it implements its national development plan. As a resource-rich country, the Bolivian government's emphasis on export diversification is well-placed but the optimal nontraditional export strategy should build on successes in the traditional sector. This study investigates: (a) the role trade should play in Bolivia's development strategy considering the country's natural resource endowment; (b) the lessons of Bolivia's integration to the world economy; (c) the linkages between Bolivia's past trade and economy and a forward-looking analysis of the impact of different scenarios on growth...

What is the Cost of a Bowl of Rice? : The Impact of Sri Lanka's Current Trade and Price Policies on the Incentive Framework for Agriculture

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.83%
Since 2004, Sri Lanka has pursued inward looking policies that have encouraged import substitution, especially with respect to agricultural commodities. This report provides empirical evidence to inform the policy dialogue over the impact of current trade and price policies on the incentive framework for agriculture in Sri Lanka. This analysis provides a quantitative assessments of: (1) the level of support to farmers producing import-competing products; (2) the degree to which final consumers are indirectly taxed by those policies; (3) the extent to which agricultural exports are taxed; (4) the contribution of trade policy to government revenue through tariffs on imports and taxes on exports; (5) an evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of the current fertilizer subsidy scheme; and (6) a better understanding of the web of income transfers between producers, consumers, and government accounts. The report is structured as follows: section one gives introduction. Section two gives overview of the current (2009-11) import and export policy framework and a brief analysis of government revenues and expenditures for agriculture. Section three reviews the data sources and methods used in calculating the degree of protection...

Vietnam : Export Performance in 1999 and Beyond

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.8%
Changes in trade policies have been an essential component of the "doi moi" policy implemented by the Government of Vietnam since 1986. Over the years, most export quotas have been lifted and export taxes have been reduced to generally low levels. In addition, export activities by the private sector (both domestic and foreign) have been increasingly encouraged, thus breaking the trade monopoly of a small number of state-owned enterprises. These reforms -together with sound macroeconomic management- have led to a rapid export and import growth. The structure of exports also changed. During the 1990s, Vietnam started to exploit its comparative advantage in labor-intensive manufactures. Export growth was led by light manufactures, dominated by the garment and footwear sectors. Also remarkable, despite the shrinking share of agricultural goods in total exports, was the strong rise in the volume of rice exports. In only few years Vietnam turned from being a net rice importer into the world's second largest exporter. The Asian crisis has interrupted Vietnam's trade expansion. In 1998...

Dominican Republic : Social and Structural Policy Review, Volume 2

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.55%
The report outlines the macroeconomic stability in the Dominican Republic during the 1990s, suggesting its strong economic growth, and poverty reduction, will contribute to the gradual transformation the country is undergoing towards policy reform. It analyzes poverty, especially severe in rural areas, where misdirected agriculture policies, and insufficient public investments, such as education, limit opportunities. But, the advancing trade liberalization, is expected to reduce export taxes, and although displaced industrial, and agricultural activities will be subjected to adjustment costs, there will nonetheless be improvements in consumers' welfare, and real wages. However, public resources for education remain very low, particularly for secondary education, and this should be considered as key element of the government's poverty reduction strategy, in addition to the establishment of safety nets to curtail malnutrition, and expand health, and sanitation programs, to tackle the extreme poverty. Recommendations suggest...

Dominican Republic : Social and Structural Policy Review, Volume 1

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
The report outlines the macroeconomic stability in the Dominican Republic during the 1990s, suggesting its strong economic growth, and poverty reduction, will contribute to the gradual transformation the country is undergoing towards policy reform. It analyzes poverty, especially severe in rural areas, where misdirected agriculture policies, and insufficient public investments, such as education, limit opportunities. But, the advancing trade liberalization, is expected to reduce export taxes, and although displaced industrial, and agricultural activities will be subjected to adjustment costs, there will nonetheless be improvements in consumers' welfare, and real wages. However, public resources for education remain very low, particularly for secondary education, and this should be considered as key element of the government's poverty reduction strategy, in addition to the establishment of safety nets to curtail malnutrition, and expand health, and sanitation programs, to tackle the extreme poverty. Recommendations suggest...

Beyond Tariffs and Quotas : Why Don't African Manufacturers Export More?

Clarke, George R.G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
There has been much concern about Africa's recent export performance. Even though tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade have been falling, Africa's share of world exports has declined and most African countries remain highly dependent on a narrow range of primary commodities for export earnings. The author looks at factors that affect the export performance of manufacturing enterprises in eight African countries. In addition to enterprise characteristics (such as size, ownership, and education of the manager), policy-related variables also affect export performance. Manufacturing enterprises are less likely to export in countries with restrictive trade and customs regulation and poor customs administration. In contrast, there is less evidence that the quality of domestic transportation infrastructure has a large impact on export performance. Although the coefficient on this variable is negative, it is statistically insignificant in most model specifications.

Detecting Illegal Trade Practices by Analyzing Discrepancies in Forest Products Trade Statistics: An Application to Europe, With a Focus on Romania

Vincent, Jeffrey R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
Discrepancies in bilateral trade statistics for forest products have recently attracted attention as potential indicators of illegal trade practices. For example, if exporters understate quantities to evade export taxes or quotas, then one might expect reported exports to be less than reported imports. Discrepancies in trade statistics can exist for reasons that have nothing to do with illegal activities, however, such as measurement error and shipment lags. Any attempt to infer evidence of illegal activities from statistical discrepancies must control for these other explanations. The author estimates the discrepancies between reported imports and exports for bilateral flows of sawnwood traded by Romania and other European countries. The author also examines whether these discrepancies reflect illegal activities by the traders. The mean discrepancy for sawnwood exported by Romania during 1982-97 was significantly different from zero for coniferous sawnwood but not for nonconiferous sawnwood. Yet the sign of the discrepancy for coniferous sawnwood-reported exports tended to be greater than reported imports-implies that illegal trade activities were more likely occurring in Romania's trading partners than in Romania. An econometric analysis of bilateral trade statistics for Romania and other European countries finds evidence that measurement error...

Export Taxation: The Case of Argentina

Dowd, William N.
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Undergraduate Thesis
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
Jeffrey B. Miller; This paper uses a partial equilibrium method to determine the welfareenhancing export tax level for Argentine soybeans, which is determined to be 25.29 percent. The actual export tax level on soybeans of 35 percent significantly exceeds the welfare-enhancing level, and the progressive export tax system that was in effect between March and July of 2008, due to a Presidential decree, set the rate even higher, at 44.1 percent. After examining the political and economic atmosphere in Argentina, I contend that the deviation between the optimal and actual tax rates can be explained by the government???s desire to generate additional revenue and protect domestic industry. Furthermore, the current administration???s policies clearly favor the industrial sector over the agricultural sector ??? two sectors of the economy that have historically been at odds with one another. The election of October 2007 showed the administration that they could win handily without the support of the farmers. This realization prompted the Kirchner administration to increase export taxes on soy twice, from 27.5 percent in November to 44.1 percent by March. N??stor and Cristina Kirchner, each of which has held the presidency, are focused on staying in power through electoral politics. N??stor Kirchner???s willingness to increase public expenditures at an abnormal rate during the election year to ensure his wife???s victory is obvious evidence of that. Export taxation is just another tool the Kirchners use to maintain the favor of their constituents in the industrial sector of the economy.; Economics

Implications for Indonesia of Asia’s rise in the global economy

Anderson, K.; Strutt, A.
Fonte: Taylor and Francis Publicador: Taylor and Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
This article projects Indonesia’s production and trade patterns to 2020 and 2030 in the course of global economic development under various growth and policy scenarios. We support our projections of the global economy by employing the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model and version 8.1 of the GTAP database, along with supplementary data from a range of sources. Our baseline projection assumes that trade-related policies do not change in each region, but that endowments and real GDP do change, at exogenously selected rates. We use this baseline and its assumptions to analyse how potential global changes may affect the Indonesian economy over this and the next decade. We then consider the potential impacts of three policy reforms by 2020: an increase in global rice exports, associated with the opening of Myanmar; the recently imposed export taxes in Indonesia on unprocessed primary products; and the implementation of Indonesia’s new food law.; Kym Anderson, Anna Strutt

Export taxes and income distribution: The Philippines coconut levy

Warr, Peter
Fonte: J.C.B. Mohr Publicador: J.C.B. Mohr
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.66%
Export Taxes and Income Distribution: The Philippines Coconut Levy. - A large, empirically based general equilibrium model of the Philippine economy is used to analyze the implications of a tax on coconut oil exports. The analysis shows how general equilibrium models can be used to derive optimal tax rates and to show the detailed relationship between the rates at which these taxes are applied and their economic effects. The analysis explores in particular the effects such taxes have on economic welfare and on income distribution within the country. The distributional effects of this export tax are shown to be highly regressive, revealing more clearly the policy trade-offs such taxes involve. JEL no. C68, F13, O53.