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Rehabilitation of executive dysfunction: A controlled trial of an attention and problem solving treatment group

MIOTTO, Eliane C.; EVANS, Jonathan J.; LUCIA, Mara C. Souza de; SCAFF, Milberto
Fonte: PSYCHOLOGY PRESS Publicador: PSYCHOLOGY PRESS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.18%
In this study, the effectiveness of a group-based attention and problem solving (APS) treatment approach to executive impairments in patients with frontal lobe lesions was investigated. Thirty participants with lesions in the frontal lobes, 16 with left frontal (LF) and 14 with right frontal (RF) lesions, were allocated into three groups, each with 10 participants. The APS treatment was initially compared to two other control conditions, an information/education (IE) approach and treatment-as-usual or traditional rehabilitation (TR), with each of the control groups subsequently receiving the APS intervention in a crossover design. This design allowed for an evaluation of the treatment through assessment before and after treatment and on follow up, six months later. There was an improvement on some executive and functional measures after the implementation of the APS programme in the three groups. Size, and to a lesser extent laterality, of lesion affected baseline performance on measures of executive function, but there was no apparent relationship between size, laterality or site of lesion and level of benefit from the treatment intervention. The results were discussed in terms of models of executive functioning and the effectiveness of domain specific interventions in the rehabilitation of executive dysfunction.

Memory in children with temporal lobe epilepsy is at least partially explained by executive dysfunction

Tencer, Patricia Rzezak; Guimaraes, Catarina A.; Fuentes, Daniel; Guerreiro, Marilisa M.; Valente, Kette D.
Fonte: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE; SAN DIEGO Publicador: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE; SAN DIEGO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.17%
An association between memory and executive dysfunction (ED) has been demonstrated in patients with mixed neurological disorders. We aimed to investigate the impact of ED in memory tasks of children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We evaluated 36 children with TLE and 28 controls with tests for memory, learning, attention, mental flexibility, and mental tracking. Data analysis was composed of comparison between patients and controls in memory and executive function; correlation between memory and executive function tests; and comparison between patients with mild and severe ED in memory tests. Children with TLE had worse performance in focused attention, immediate and delayed recall, phonological memory, mental tracking, planning, and abstraction. Planning, abstraction, and mental tracking were correlated with visual and verbal memory. Children with severe ED had worse performance in verbal and visual memory and learning tests. This study showed that ED was related to memory performance in children with TLE. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP, Foundation for the Support of Research in the State of Sao Paulo) [03/06025-3, 05/03489-4]; Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES...

Funções executivas e funcionalidade no envelhecimento normal, comprometimento cognitivo leve e doença de Alzheimer; Executive function and functional status in normal elderly, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease

Pereira, Fernanda Speggiorin
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/03/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.18%
Introdução: O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a relação entre funções executivas e funcionalidade em uma amostra de idosos com diferentes graus de comprometimento cognitivo e caracterizar sua funcionalidade. O segundo objetivo deste estudo foi traduzir e adaptar culturalmente o instrumento Direct Assessment of Functional Status- revised (DAFS-R) para língua portuguesa (Brasil), avaliar as propriedades psicométricas do instrumento e caracterizar o perfil funcional de cada grupo diagnóstico. Estudos anteriores mostraram diferentes resultados entre avaliação objetiva e avaliação baseada em relatos de informantes sobre funcionalidade de um indivíduo. Neste estudo, foi comparada a avaliação funcional realizada através de medidas objetivas (teste de desempenho) e de julgamentos subjetivos (relatados por cuidadores). Métodos: 89 idosos (idade média de 73,8 anos) foram submetidos a avaliações clínica e neuropsicológica, e foram alocados em três grupos diagnósticos de acordo com nível cognitivo: controles (CO, n = 32), comprometimento cognitivo leve (CCL, n = 31) e doença de Alzheimer (DA, n = 26). As funções executivas foram avaliadas com o instrumento Executive Interview (EXIT25) e a funcionalidade foi medida objetivamente através da DAFS-BR. Resultados: Foi encontrada forte correlação negativa entre os escores da DAFS-BR e os escores da EXIT25 (r=- 0...

Apatia e funções executivas em pacientes com doença de Alzheimer leve e em indivíduos com comprometimento cognitivo leve amnéstico; Apathy and executive functions in patients with Alzheimer disease and subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment

Guimarães, Henrique Cerqueira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/02/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.16%
INTRODUÇÃO: A apatia constitui o transtorno neuropsiquiátrico mais prevalente na doença de Alzheimer (DA) e se relaciona com uma série de desfechos deletérios. Sua neurobiologia ainda é pouco compreendida, e alguns autores postulam sua associação com disfunção de circuitos fronto-estriatais. A maior parte da evidência disponível sobre essa relação provém de estudos em que foram avaliados pacientes com DA leve a moderada. OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação entre apatia e disfunção executiva em estágios bastante iniciais do processo de declínio cognitivo no contexto da DA. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 87 indivíduos, sendo 28 deles com DA leve, 26 com Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve de subtipo amnéstico (CCLa) e 33 controles. Os participantes foram submetidos a uma bateria de avaliações da qual constavam a Bateria Breve de Rastreio Cognitivo (BBRC-Edu), o Mini-Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM), a Entrevisa Executiva (EXIT-25), a Bateria de Avaliação Frontal (BAF), a Escala de Avaliação de Demência (DRS), o Teste de Aprendizagem Auditivo Verbal de Rey (RAVLT), a Escala de Avaliação de Incapacidade na Demência (DAD) e a Escala de Apatia (EA). Explorou-se correlações entre o desempenho nos testes empregados e os escores aferidos pela EA...

Associação entre função executiva e sintomas depressivos em pacientes com acidente  vascular cerebral isquêmico; Association between depressive symptoms and executive functions in ischemic stroke patients: a cross-sectional study

Sobreiro, Matildes de Freitas Menezes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/05/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26%
INTRODUÇÃO: Associação entre sintomas depressivos e prejuízos cognitivos após o acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico tem sido descrito em vários estudos. Estudos recentes tem focado a associação de sintomas depressivos com a função executiva. A hipótese Depression Executive dysfunction tem sido investigada em pacientes com AVC e não se sabe se essa associação ocorre com algum grupo de sintomas depressivos específico. Portanto, o principal objetivo desse estudo, foi o de investigar a associação entre função executiva e grupos de sintomas depressivos no primeiro mês após o acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico e como objetivo secundário investigar a associação entre função executiva e grupos de sintomas depressivos em adultos jovens. MÉTODOS: Foram triados consecutivamente 343 pacientes admitidos na enfermaria da neuroclínica do Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. Fizeram parte o estudo 87 pacientes que preencheram os critérios de inclusão e exclusão e foram incluídos no estudo. Eles foram submetidos aos testes neuropsicológicos que consistiu em: teste Fluência verbal fonêmica para as letras (F.A.S.), Dígitos Ordem Direta e Ordem Inversa, subteste da Escala Weschler de Inteligência para Adultos (WAIS-III-R) e as 03 partes do Stroop Teste. A avaliação psiquiátrica consistiu na entrevista estruturada para o diagnóstico pelo DSM-IV...

Estudo da função executiva em crianças com epilepsia focal benigna da infância com pontas centrotemporais; Study of the executive function in children with benign focal epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes

Banaskiwitz, Natalie Helene Van Cleef
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/06/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
INTRODUÇÃO: Diversas alterações cognitivas têm sido associadas à epilepsia focal benigna da infância com pontas centrotemporais (EFCT), incluindo distintos aspectos das funções executivas. Neste trabalho, estudamos o perfil do desempenho de crianças com EFCT em testes de funções atencionais e executivas. Calculamos o QI estimado que foi utlizado como critério de exclusão e também para verificar a influência da inteligência no desempenho dos testes. MÉTODOS: Cinqüenta e oito crianças com idade entre 8 e 13 anos participaram deste estudo, sendo 30 crianças diagnosticadas com EFTC e 28 crianças hígidas. Foram usados os seguintes instrumentos: subtestes Vocabulário e Cubos da Escala de Inteligência Wechsler para Crianças 3ª Ed (WISC-III), Teste Stroop versão Victoria, Teste Wisconsin de Classificação de Cartas versão modificada (MCST), Fluência Verbal Fonêmica, Subteste Dígitos da WISC-III, Subteste Códigos da WISC-III, Teste Atenção Concentrada e Torre de Londres. O grupo de estudo foi ainda subdividido em relação à lateralidade da atividade epileptiforme e ao uso de medicação antiepiléptica e comparado ao grupo controle. RESULTADOS: A análise da correlação entre o QI estimado e o desempenho dos testes foi considerada estatisticamente fraca. Os grupos se mostraram homogêneos quanto às variáveis sociodemográficas e também quanto à lateralidade da crise e ao uso de medicação. As crianças com EFCT...

A função executiva de atualização de informações na memória de trabalho para a ordem serial de eventos visuais e espaciais; The executive function of updating information in working memory for the serial order of visual and spatial events

Santana, Jeanny Joana Rodrigues Alves de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/09/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.33%
No modelo dos multicomponentes da memória de trabalho o problema do armazenamento da ordem serial de eventos visuais e espaciais ainda é muito discutido. A literatura sugere que recursos do executivo central (o sistema de controle atencional da memória de trabalho) são utilizados para manter a representação da posição serial dos estímulos visuais e espaciais na memória. Mais precisamente, é proposto que a função executiva de atualização de informações esteja envolvida com este processo. Esta função promoveria a modificação contínua da representação mental conforme a entrada de novas informações no sistema cognitivo. Entretanto, não está esclarecido se ocorre uma dissociação visual e espacial no uso de recursos da função executiva de atualização de informações para o registro da ordem serial. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar o envolvimento da função executiva de atualização da informação na memória para a ordem de eventos visuais e espaciais. Os participantes foram estudantes universitários (n = 71) que realizaram as tarefas de memória delineadas segundo o paradigma de tarefas duplas. Neste procedimento as tarefas primárias de memória visual e espacial foram combinadas a tarefas secundárias executivas de tempo de reação de escolha (CRT) e tarefas que exigiam recursos de atualização da informação (tarefa de tempo de reação de escolha para um item anterior CRT-1). Na tarefa CRT o participante deveria julgar dois tons auditivos como sendo de alta ou baixa frequência. Na tarefa CRT-1 esta resposta deveria ser atrasada em um item...

Xadrez motivacional: uma nova abordagem de estimulação das funções executivas em dependentes de cocaína/crack; Motivational Chess: a new approach of executive function stimulation in crack/cocaine dependence

Gonçalves, Priscila Dib
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/11/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
INTRODUÇÃO: A dependência de cocaína/crack está associada a prejuízos neuropsicológicos, principalmente nas funções executivas, estas gerenciadas predominantemente pelo córtex préfrontal do cérebro. O jogo de xadrez é uma atividade que recruta funções executivas e tem sido empregado na reabilitação de pacientes com outros transtornos psiquiátricos; porém, nenhum estudo, até hoje, avaliou o impacto deste jogo em pacientes com dependência química. OBJETIVO: Investigar a viabilidade e o impacto de uma abordagem inovadora, o Xadrez Motivacional, com foco na estimulação das funções executivas, especialmente em memória de trabalho, planejamento e tomada de decisões. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 72 pacientes entre 18 e 45 anos que estavam internados na Enfermaria do Comportamento Impulsivo (ECIM) do IPq-HC-FMUSP com diagnóstico de dependência de cocaína/crack. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, o Grupo Intervenção (n=42), submetido ao Xadrez Motivacional (intervenções por meio de estratégias de Entrevista Motivacional e jogo de xadrez) e o Grupo Controle, (n=30) submetido a atividades recreativas. Os pacientes foram avaliados pré e pós intervenção (aproximadamente um mês de abstinência) através de testes neuropsicológicos e escalas de autopreenchimento. RESULTADOS: Foi observada melhoria significativa na maioria das funções avaliadas...

Memory in children with temporal lobe epilepsy is at least partially explained by executive dysfunction

Rzezak, Patricia; Guimaraes, Catarina A.; Fuentes, Daniel; Guerreiro, Marilisa M.; Valente, Kette D.
Fonte: Elsevier; San Diego Publicador: Elsevier; San Diego
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.17%
An association between memory and executive dysfunction (ED) has been demonstrated in patients with mixed neurological disorders. We aimed to investigate the impact of ED in memory tasks of children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We evaluated 36 children with TLE and 28 controls with tests for memory, learning, attention, mental flexibility, and mental tracking. Data analysis was composed of comparison between patients and controls in memory and executive function; correlation between memory and executive function tests; and comparison between patients with mild and severe ED in memory tests. Children with TLE had worse performance in focused attention, immediate and delayed recall, phonological memory, mental tracking, planning, and abstraction. Planning, abstraction, and mental tracking were correlated with visual and verbal memory. Children with severe ED had worse performance in verbal and visual memory and learning tests. This study showed that ED was related to memory performance in children with TLE. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

Clinical and neuropsychological assessment of executive function in a sample of children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy

Lima,Andrea Bandeira de; Moreira,Fernanda; Gomes,Marleide da Mota; Maia-Filho,Heber
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
Objective To compare the executive functions of children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy with a control group and to correlate with clinical data, intelligence and academic performance. Method Cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study. Thirty-one cases and thirty-five controls were evaluated by the WCST (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test).The results were compared with clinical data (seizure type and frequency, disease duration and number of antiepileptic drugs used), IQ (WISC-III) and academic performance (APT). Results Patients with epilepsy had poorer executive function scores. There was no positive linear correlation between test scores and epilepsy variables. There was a positive association between academic performance and some executive function results. Conclusion Children with well controlled idiopathic epilepsy may show deficits in executive functions in spite of clinical variables. Those deficits may influence academic performance.

Hayling Test - adult version: applicability in the assessment of executive functions in children

Siqueira,Larissa de Sousa; Scherer,Lilian Cristine; Reppold,Caroline Tozzi; Fonseca,Rochele Paz
Fonte: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade de Brasília; Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade de Brasília; Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.13%
Childhood neuropsychology is a growing scientific area in Brazil. Regarding cognitive function in infancy, executive function (EF) has been the main focus of several studies because of its importance for and complexity in human cognition and behavior. Executive functions can be considered a set of cognitive processes related to control and integration devoted to the execution of goal-directed behaviors. Research has shown that these abilities begin in infancy and progressively develop until adulthood. Although some studies on EF development in children have already been conducted, our knowledge on this topic is still incipient. Because of the relevant role of age in cognition and EF development, the present study investigated whether differences exist between children aged 6 to 12 years concerning their performance on the Hayling test-adult version, an instrument that assesses the EF components of initiation and inhibition. Pilot data are presented that verify the applicability of this test to children. Significant differences were found between comparable age groups only in three of the seven main Hayling test scores, suggesting that the adult version may not be appropriate for children, and an adaptation of the test for child assessment is necessary. The study may lead to an initial reflection on the development of these components and thus contribute to improvements in the field of child neuropsychology.

The depression-executive dysfunction (DED) syndrome and response to antidepressants: a meta-analytic review

McLennan, S.; Mathias, J.
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons Ltd Publicador: John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.22%
BACKGROUND: The depression-executive dysfunction (DED) model predicts that cognitive impairment, particularly executive dysfunction, is associated with poor response to antidepressant medication. A meta-analysis was undertaken to assess the evidence for this hypothesis. METHODS: The PsycInfo and PubMed databases were searched to identify studies that examined response to antidepressant treatment in relation to pre-treatment cognitive performance. Systematic screening yielded 17 eligible publications, providing data for 1269 individuals. Ninety cognitive tests and subtests were used by these studies; 30 were used by more than one study. Weighted mean Cohen's d effect sizes, 95% confidence intervals and Fail Safe Ns were calculated for these 30 tests. RESULTS: Five cognitive tests provided good discrimination (d(w) > 0.5) between patients who ultimately responded to antidepressant medication and those who failed to respond. One was a test of executive function but the remainder assessed other cognitive domains. Due to the small number of studies the influence of methodological factors, such as participant age and treatment duration, could not be statistically examined. However, a supplementary analysis restricted to nine studies where SSRIs were the only class of antidepressant revealed a similar pattern of results. CONCLUSIONS: Performance on selected tests of executive function and non-executive cognitive functions is associated with response to anti-depressant medication in some populations. The available evidence does not provide strong support for the DED model.; Skye N. McLennan and Jane L. Mathias

Muscle strength and executive function as complementary parameters for the assessment of impairment in Parkinson's disease

Barbirato,Dannyel; Carvalho,Alessandro; Araujo,Narahyana Bom de; Martins,Jose Vicente; Deslandes,Andrea
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
Objective To evaluate the relationship between the quantitative results of functional and cognitive performance of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and disease severity; and to study the relationship between patients' functional and cognitive capacity and motor impairment (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale - UPDRS III). Method Twenty-nine subjects clinically diagnosed with PD were classified into three groups according to disease severity using the modified Hoehn and Yahr Scale (H&Y). They were submitted to functional (Senior Fitness Test) and neuropsychological tests. Stepwise regression analysis showed a significant association between H&Y and upper limb strength (r 2 =0.30; p=0.005) and executive function (r 2 =0.37; p=0.004). In relation to UPDRS III, there was a significant association between lower limb strength (r 2 =0.27; p=0.010) and global cognitive status (r 2 =0.24; p=0.024). Conclusion The implementation of simple tests of functional capacity associated with neuropsychological testing can help to assess disease severity and motor impairment, and can be used to monitor the response to treatment in PD.

Executive demands of the Tower of London task in Brazilian teenagers

Dias,Natália Martins; Seabra,Alessandra Gotuzo
Fonte: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade de Brasília; Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade de Brasília; Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.13%
Some executive tasks may require diverse abilities to solve, having implications for the comprehension of an individual's performance. This study investigated the processes involved in the resolution of a complex test of executive function (EF): the Tower of London (ToL) task. One hundred twenty-four healthy teenagers, 11-14 years old (M = 12.5, SD = 1.14) participated in the study. They were tested using the Auditory Working Memory Test, Visual Working Memory Test, Computerized Stroop Test, Semantic Generation Test, Cancellation Attention Test, and Trail Making Test B, in addition to the ToL. Multivariate analysis showed significant effects of age on visual and auditory working memory, interference control, and planning, with a marginal effect on selective attention. A gender effect was found only on visual working memory where boys scored higher than girls. Significant correlations were found between EF measures despite their low and moderate magnitudes. Performance on the ToL task was correlated with some executive ability measures. The most difficult problems that required four and five moves were more correlated with EF measures than the easier problems that required two and three moves. Regression analyses revealed that only auditory working memory integrated the ToL explanation model after controlling for age. However...

Executive function deficits and symptoms of disruptive behaviour disorders in preschool children

Araujo Jiménez, Eva Angelina; Jané i Ballabriga, Maria del Claustre; Bonillo Martín, Albert; Capdevila i Brophy, Connie
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.32%
The Executive Function is a set of cognitive processes that are developed from the earliest ages. Recent studies in children with disruptive behaviour disorders suggest the presence of effects on the executive functioning. The aim of this study is to know the association among symptoms of Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder, and Executive Function in children from 3 to 6 years old. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. An assessment was performed on a sample of 444 subjects from Spain; it was made through an inventory for parents and teachers to estimate the capacity of Executive Function. Results: a relation between the symptoms of Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and the Executive Function deficit was found. The presence of symptoms of Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder inattentive type is associated with deficiencies in all areas of Executive Function, which does not occur with other symptoms. Conclusion: It is important to know the specific characteristics of each symptomatology by taking into account their executive functioning, in order to achieve accurate diagnoses in the clinical setting...

Executive function associated to symptoms of attention deficit with hyperactivity disorder and paediatric bipolar disorder

Araujo Jiménez, Eva Angelina; Jané i Ballabriga, Maria del Claustre; Bonillo Martín, Albert; Arrufat Nebot, Francisco Javier
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
Very little is known about the differences of the neurocognitive functioning of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Paediatric Bipolar Disorder (PBD), since current studies do not agree on a differentiation of Executive Function (EF) between the two disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the EF deficits associated with symptomatology of ADHD and the PBD phenotype. Participants were 76 children/adolescents aged 6-17 years and their parents, submitted to a diagnostic interview and a tool for assessing EF, Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine associations between symptoms of ADHD and the PBD phenotype, and the EF. A model for parents and a model for children/adolescents were performed. The model indexes showed a satisfactory fit. ADHD was found to be associated with deficits in all areas of EF, especially when the predominant symptom is inattention. The presence of symptoms of PBD phenotype was associated only with difficulties in finding new strategies to solve problems and inhibiting new behaviour. The article concluded that the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with cognitive deficits different from those that may occur with PBD symptoms. It is advisable that professionals consider patients' neurocognitive profiles in order to achieve an appropriate differential diagnosis; Ainda é pouco o que se sabe do funcionamento do Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção/Hiperatividade (TDAH) e do Transtorno Bipolar Pediátrico (TBP)...

Does executive function mediate the path from mothers? depressive symptoms to young children?s problem behaviors?

Roman, Gabriela D.; Ensor, Rosie; Hughes, Claire
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2015.09.022; Background: This study investigates the mediation role played by children?s executive function in the relationship between exposure to mild maternal depressive symptoms and problem behaviors. Method: At ages 2, 3 and 6, 143 children completed executive function tasks and a verbal ability test. Mothers completed the Beck Depression Inventory at each time-point and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at child age 6. Results: Longitudinal autoregressive mediation models showed a mediation effect that was significant and quite specific: executive function (and not verbal ability) at age 3 mediated the path between mothers? depressive symptoms (but not general social disadvantage) at the first time-point and children?s externalizing and internalizing problems at age 6. Conclusion: Improving children?s executive functioning might protect them against the adverse effects of exposure to maternal depressive symptoms.; This research was funded by a grant to Claire Hughes from the Economic and Social Research Council (ref: ES/D00554X/1). We thank the families who participated in the Toddlers Up study.

Theory of mind and executive function in middle childhood across cultures

Wang, Zhenlin; Devine, Rory T.; Wong, Keri K.; Hughes, Claire
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
This is the final version of the article. It was first available from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2015.09.028; Previous studies with preschoolers have reported ?East-West? contrasts in children?s executive function (East > West) and theory of mind (East < West). This cross-cultural study with two samples of older children from the UK and Hong Kong aimed to test competing accounts of these contrasts that focus on either global effects of culture or more specific effects of pedagogical experience. Both groups of children in Hong Kong outperformed the British children on executive function tasks. That is, with respect to executive function, general cultural influences appear salient. In contrast, compared with their UK counterparts, children attending local schools in Hong Kong (but not those attending British-based international schools in Hong Kong) performed poorly on age-appropriate tests of theory of mind. With respect to theory of mind, pedagogical experiences therefore appear more salient than factors related to the broad contrast between individualist and collectivist cultures. Our findings also contribute to the debate surrounding the relationship between theory of mind and executive function: while scores on these two sets of tasks were robustly correlated within each country...

The Beneficial Effects of Motivational Self-Talk on Endurance Performance and Cognitive Function in the Heat

Wallacep, Phillip Julian
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.14%
The role of psychological strategies on endurance performance and cognitive function in the heat is unclear. This thesis tested the effects of a two-week motivational self-talk (MST) intervention - specific to heat stress - on endurance capacity and cognitive function in the heat (35°C 50% RH). The study utilized a pre-test / post-test design testing endurance capacity using a time to exhaustion test (TTE) after exercise-induced hyperthermia. Cognitive function (e.g executive function) was tested at baseline in thermoneutral (22°C 30% RH), before (R1) and after the TTE (R2). MST led to a significant improvement (~30%) in TTE and significantly faster completion time with fewer errors made on executive function tasks at baseline and R2, but not in R1, while there were no differences in the control group. Overall, these results indicate that using a top-down regulation strategy consisting of self-contextualized MST can improve physical and cognitive performance in the heat.

Effects of assisted training with neurofeedback on EEG measures, executive function and mood in a healthy sample

Vasquez,Milena; Gadea,Marien; Garijo,Evelio; Aliño,Marta; Salvador,Alicia
Fonte: Anales de Psicología Publicador: Anales de Psicología
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2015 ENG
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The training in neurofeedback (NF) consists of teaching individuals to modify, adjust and enhance their brain activity pattern. The aim of our research was to evaluate the effect of training on cognitive processes, specifically executive function, and mood in a non-clinical sample. A sample of 30 female college students were assigned to three groups: RH: right hemisphere (n = 10), LH: left hemisphere (n = 10) and control (n = 10). The dominance pattern of beta and the inhibition of the theta pattern were trained in a single session. Measures of executive function (Iowa Gambling Test) and questionnaires of mood were taken pre and post training. We found that NF training produced significant positive changes in executive performance in the RH group. In the EEG a tendency to improve beta rhythm after the training emerged too. Additionally, significant correlations were found between executive performance and negative mood in relation to theta frequency band. We conclude that the protocol seems effective to enhance some aspects of executive function as well as to decrease theta power improves the negative mood.