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Sanitation and health: Empirical evidence for Brazilian municipalities

MATTOS, Enlinson; PINTO, Cristine; TEIXEIRA, Lucas
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
The relationship between sanitation policies (access and quality) and health in Brazilian municipalities was estimated from 2003 to 2010 using a panel data model with corrections for missing data. The results suggest a limited effect of sanitation policy on health. Compared with results from the literature, we found that the worsening quality of water appears to be associated with increased rates of mortality and hospitalization for children up to one month of age. Improvements in sewage sanitation have reduced the mortality and morbidity rates in children aged one to four. Improved access to piped water is associated with decreased hospitalization related to dysentery and acute respiratory infections (ARI) and does not have an effect on child mortality. Finally, epidemiological transition is only supported by weak evidence, including a more intense effect of reduced access to sanitation in municipalities with the worst mortality and morbidity indicators. In most models, this theory has been rejected

Unintentional injury mortality in children: a priority for middle income countries in the advanced stage of epidemiological transition

Plitponkarnpim, A.; Andersson, R.; Jansson, B.; Svanstrom, L.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
Objectives—To examine the relationship between the magnitude, and the relative importance of unintentional child injury mortality with socioeconomic development, and to conceptualise the dynamic changes in injury mortality within the framework of epidemiological transition.

The Changing Disease-Scape in the Third Epidemiological Transition

Harper, Kristin; Armelagos, George
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
The epidemiological transition model describes the changing relationship between humans and their diseases. The first transition occurred with the shift to agriculture about 10,000 YBP, resulting in a pattern of infectious and nutritional diseases still evident today. In the last two centuries, some populations have undergone a second transition, characterized by a decline in infectious disease and rise in degenerative disease. We are now in the throes of a third epidemiological transition, in which a resurgence of familiar infections is accompanied by an array of novel diseases, all of which have the potential to spread rapidly due to globalization.

Epidemiological Transition and the Double Burden of Disease in Accra, Ghana

Agyei-Mensah, Samuel; de-Graft Aikins, Ama
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
It has long been recognized that as societies modernize, they experience significant changes in their patterns of health and disease. Despite rapid modernization across the globe, there are relatively few detailed case studies of changes in health and disease within specific countries especially for sub-Saharan African countries. This paper presents evidence to illustrate the nature and speed of the epidemiological transition in Accra, Ghana’s capital city. As the most urbanized and modernized Ghanaian city, and as the national center of multidisciplinary research since becoming state capital in 1877, Accra constitutes an important case study for understanding the epidemiological transition in African cities. We review multidisciplinary research on culture, development, health, and disease in Accra since the late nineteenth century, as well as relevant work on Ghana’s socio-economic and demographic changes and burden of chronic disease. Our review indicates that the epidemiological transition in Accra reflects a protracted polarized model. A “protracted” double burden of infectious and chronic disease constitutes major causes of morbidity and mortality. This double burden is polarized across social class. While wealthy communities experience higher risk of chronic diseases...

Epidemiological transition of colorectal cancer in developing countries: Environmental factors, molecular pathways, and opportunities for prevention

Bishehsari, Faraz; Mahdavinia, Mahboobeh; Vacca, Michele; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mariani-Costantini, Renato
Fonte: Baishideng Publishing Group Inc Publicador: Baishideng Publishing Group Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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45.97%
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer and cancer-related mortality worldwide. The disease has been traditionally a major health problem in industrial countries, however the CRC rates are increasing in the developing countries that are undergoing economic growth. Several environmental risk factors, mainly changes in diet and life style, have been suggested to underlie the rise of CRC in these populations. Diet and lifestyle impinge on nuclear receptors, on the intestinal microbiota and on crucial molecular pathways that are implicated in intestinal carcinogenesis. In this respect, the epidemiological transition in several regions of the world offers a unique opportunity to better understand CRC carcinogenesis by studying the disease phenotypes and their environmental and molecular associations in different populations. The data from these studies may have important implications for the global prevention and treatment of CRC.

Characterizing the Epidemiological Transition in Mexico: National and Subnational Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors

Stevens, Gretchen; Dias, Rodrigo H; Rivera, Juan A; Barquera, Simón; Tobias, Martin; Thomas, Kevin J. A.; Carvalho, Natalie; Hill, Kenneth H.; Ezzati, Majid
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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46.25%
Background: Rates of diseases and injuries and the effects of their risk factors can have substantial subnational heterogeneity, especially in middle-income countries like Mexico. Subnational analysis of the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors can improve characterization of the epidemiological transition and identify policy priorities. Methods and Findings: We estimated deaths and loss of healthy life years (measured in disability-adjusted life years [DALYs]) in 2004 from a comprehensive list of diseases and injuries, and 16 major risk factors, by sex and age for Mexico and its states. Data sources included the vital statistics, national censuses, health examination surveys, and published epidemiological studies. Mortality statistics were adjusted for underreporting, misreporting of age at death, and for misclassification and incomparability of cause-of-death assignment. Nationally, noncommunicable diseases caused 75% of total deaths and 68% of total DALYs, with another 14% of deaths and 18% of DALYs caused by undernutrition and communicable, maternal, and perinatal diseases. The leading causes of death were ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, liver cirrhosis, and road traffic injuries. High body mass index...

Health and Poverty in Guatemala

Gragnolati, Michele; Marini, Alessandra
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
Unlike many other countries in Latin America, Guatemala is only at the beginning of the demographic, and epidemiological transition. The population is young, is growing rapidly, and is still primarily rural. Guatemala is among the worst performers in terms of health outcomes in Latin America, with one of the highest infant mortality rates, and one of the lowest life expectancies at birth. Major causes of death in Guatemala still include treatable, and communicable diseases, such as diarrhea, pneumonia, cholera, malnutrition, and tuberculosis. A significant share of Guatemalans lack access to health care services. A combination of both supply- and demand-side constraints limit the ability of households to seek health care services in Guatemala, with supply-side constraints playing a more dominant role in rural areas than urban. Some progress has been made in reforming the health sector. Important steps have been taken on the institutional side, with health being one of the pilot ministries to decentralize financial management under the Integrated System for Health Care (SIAS program). Public spending has shifted toward preventive care...

The Nurse Labor and Education Markets in the English-Speaking CARICOM : Issues and Options for Reform

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Health Sector Review
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
The present report concludes the second phase of the cooperation between Caribbean Community (CARICOM) countries and the World Bank to build skills for a competitive regional economy. It focuses on the nurse labor and education markets of the English-speaking (ES) CARICOM. The topic was suggested by ministers of health concerned with chronic staffing shortages in local health facilities and anecdotal evidence of high migratory outflows. The chronic staff shortages are likely to hamper the quality and efficiency of health services, both of which are critical factors in attracting international businesses and retirement locales. The rationale for focusing on nurses was that they compose the largest group of health care professionals in the ES CARICOM and play a critical role in strengthening health services in the face of the demographic and epidemiological transition in the region. Moreover, major achievements in improving and harmonizing curricula, degrees, and licensing procedures among the ES countries of CARICOM facilitate the international competition for this globally scarce human resource. If the ES CARICOM is to address current and future nurse shortages...

World Bank study : A Health Sector in Transition to Universal Coverage in Ghana

Saleh, Karima
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Health Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
Ghana has come a long way in improving health outcomes and it performs reasonably well when compared to the other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, when its health outcomes are compared to other countries globally with similar incomes and health spending levels, its performance is more mixed. Ghana's health outcome performances, in terms of child health and maternal health, are worse than the levels found in other comparable lower middle income and health spending countries, but life expectancy is better. Ghana's demographic profile is changing, and demographic, epidemiological, and nutrition transitions are well underway. The dependency ratio is expected to be favorably affected by the expanding large numbers of individuals entering the labor force, while fertility albeit still high continues to decline. It is the right time for Ghana to take advantage of this potential demographic dividend. Taking appropriate steps to improve employment opportunities is critical or else the country will face economic pressures as well as political unrest. There is a funding shortage for public health goods. Many public health goods...

Epidemiological Transition in Rural Bangladesh, 1986-2006; Glob Health Action

Ahsan Karar, Z.; Alam, N.; Kim Streatfield, P.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
EN
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45.97%
BACKGROUND: For understanding epidemiological transition, Health and Demographic Surveillance System plays an important role in developing and resource-constraint setup where accurate information on vital events (e.g. births, deaths) and cause of death is not available. METHODS: This study aimed to assess existing level and trend of causes of 18,917 deaths in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh, during 1986-2006 and to project future scenarios for selected major causes of death. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that Matlab experienced a massive change in the mortality profile from acute, infectious, and parasitic diseases to non-communicable, degenerative, and chronic diseases during the last 20 years. It also showed that over the period 1986-2006, age-standardized mortality rate (for both sexes) due to diarrhea and dysentery reduced by 86%, respiratory infections by 79%, except for tuberculosis which increased by 173%. On the other hand, during the same period, mortality due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases increased by a massive 3,527% and malignant neoplasms by 495%, whereas mortality due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and injury remained in the similar level (12-13% increase). CONCLUSION: The trend of selected causes of death demonstrates that in next two decades...

Croatia Program-for-Results : Improving Quality and Efficiency of Health Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Health Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
This technical assessment has been carried out as part of the preparation of the Health Program-for-Results (PforR) operation in Croatia. The primary focus of the assessment is on the Government's Program, and the National Health Care Strategy 2012-2020, and serves as the policy framework for this operation. The needs that Croatia's health system must address have changed as a consequence of the demographic and epidemiological transition in the country. The disease burden in Croatia has shifted from being dominated by maternal and child health and communicable diseases to being dominated by chronic and non-communicable conditions. The Government of Croatia's National Health Care Strategy sets out development directions for the health sector and is the framework for making policy and operational decisions, including the distribution of budgetary resources. The development of emergency medical services and investment planning project supported technical assistance to develop a hospital rationalization master plan...

Brazil is getting older: demographic changes and epidemiological challenges

Veras,Renato P.
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/1991 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
Population ageing is currently a phenomenon not only in developed countries but also in third world countries. In this paper the features of a population's ageing and the process of epidemiological transition are discussed along with the worldwide changes in age-structure. Population statistics in Brazil and the characteristics of the elderly population are presented and analysed in the light of recent changes. The Brazilian elderly population is also discussed, particularly the issues relating to the social cost of the aged population, its urban and rural distribution, the elderly by sex, marital status and level of schooling, and emphasis is given to the imbalance of the sexes and the consequences of it for women.

Climate change, human health, and epidemiological transition

Barrett, Bruce; Charles, Joel W.; Temte, Jonathan L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
The health of populations depends on the availability of clean air, water, food, and sanitation, exposure to pathogens, toxins and environmental hazards, and numerous genetic, behavioral and social factors. For many thousands of years, human life expectancy was low, and population growth was slow. The development of technology-based civilizations facilitated what Abdel Omran called “epidemiological transition,” with increasing life expectancy and rapid population growth. To a large extent, the spectacular growth of human populations during the past two centuries was made possible by the energy extracted from fossil fuels. We have now learned, however, that greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion are warming the planet's surface, causing changes in oceanic and atmospheric systems, and disrupting weather and hydrological patterns. Climate change poses unprecedented threats to human health by impacts on food and water security, heat waves and droughts, violent storms, infectious disease, and rising sea levels. Whether or not humanity can reduce greenhouse gas emissions quickly enough to slow climate change to a rate that will allow societies to successfully adapt is not yet known. This essay reviews the current state of relevant knowledge...

Cambios del patrón de enfermedad en la postransición epidemiológica en salud en Chile, 1950-2003; Changes in the patterns of disease after the epidemiological transition in health in Chile, 1950-2003

Cisternas, Felipe A.; Araya, Magdalena; Luque, Cecilia
Fonte: Universidade do Chile Publicador: Universidade do Chile
Tipo: Artículo de revista
ES
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
Background: During the twentieth century there was a change in the pattern of diseases in Europe, with an increase in the incidence of allergies and autoimmune disorders, that paralleled a decrease of infectious conditions. The Hygiene hypothesis proposes that these phenomena are causally related. Aim: To evaluate the epidemiological changes of allergic, autoimmune, and infectious diseases in Chile between 1950 and 2003. Material and methods: Search for the incidence and prevalence of these diseases in the national records published by the Ministry of Health, as well as through a systematic search of national literature using PubMed and Scielo as search engines. Results: The annual incidence of tuberculosis, rheumatic fever, measles, and typhoid fever has progressively diminished in Chile since 1970. Figures for the national prevalence for asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and type I diabetes are scarce and difficult to compare, but clearly show an increasing epidemiological trend in the last 20 years. Conclusions: The national figures suggest that, although the country has only recently gone through an epidemiological transition in health problems, there are detectable changes that show the same trends described in Europe.; Financiamiento: INTA...

Supervivència i patrons de mortalitat de la població catalana, 1960-2007

Blanes, Amand; Spijker, Jeroen
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 CAT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
En aquest article es descriuen i s’analitzen les tendències de la mortalitat a Catalunya des de principis dels anys seixanta del segle XX, quan l’esperança de vida en néixer era ja similar a la mitjana dels països de l’Europa Occidental, fins a l’actualitat, quan se situa entre les més elevades del món. El marc conceptual emprat per analitzar l’evolució del patró de mortalitat de la població catalana és la Teoria de la Transició Epidemiològica, amb l’objectiu de constatar com les tendències recents de la mortalitat a Catalunya s’adeqüen als trets que defineixen i caracteritzen les darreres fases d’aquesta transició. Per assolir aquest objectiu s’han reconstruït les sèries de mortalitat per sexe i edat, s’han elaborat les corresponents taules de mortalitat i s’ha quantificat l’efecte dels canvis en els riscos de morir sobre les expectatives de vida dels catalans. A més, a partir de l’any 1980, s’ha introduït en l’anàlisi la variable causa de mort, cosa que ha permès aprofundir en les transformacions de l’estructura de la mortalitat i en el seu impacte sobre les millores en la supervivència de la població catalana.; En este artículo se describen y se analizan las tendencias de la mortalidad en Cataluña desde principios de los años sesenta del siglo XX...

?A confession of ignorance?: deaths from old age and deciphering cause-of-death statistics in Scotland, 1855 ? 1949

Reid, Alice; Garrett, Eilidh; Dibben, Chris; Williamson, Lee
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
This is the final published version. The article was originally published in The History of the Family Volume 20, Issue 3, 320-344. DOI:10.1080/1081602X.2014.1001768; A large amount of the research undertaken in an attempt to discover the reasons underlying the late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century mortality decline in Britain has relied on the statistics published by the Registrars General. The processes by which individual causes of death are recorded and then processed in order to create the statistics are not, however, well understood. In this article, the authors build on previous work to piece together a time series of causes of death for Scotland, which removes many of the discontinuities encountered in the published statistics that result from the Registrar General deciding to update the nosology, or classification system, which was being used to compile his figures. Having regrouped individual causes of death to ?smooth? the time series, the authors use the new groups to examine the changing causes of death in Scotland for selected age groups, before turning to undertake a detailed examination of mortality amongst those aged 55 or more. The authors find that when deaths from ?old age? in the latter age group are separated from other ?ill-defined? causes...

Envelhecimento populacional do Brasil: mudanças demográficas e desafios epidemiológicos; Brazil is getting older: demographic changes and epidemiological challenges

Veras, Renato P.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/1991 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
O crescimento da população idosa é um fenômeno que ocorre nos países centrais, mas também, de modo crescente, nos países do Terceiro Mundo. Este artigo apresenta os motivos deste crescimento, discute o processo de transição epidemiológica, as mudanças na estrutura etária da população idosa em todo o mundo, e em particular no Brasil. Estatísticas da população brasileira e as características do idoso brasileiro são apresentadas e analisadas em função das mudanças ocorridas recentemente. O artigo aborda vários tópicos relacionados com o idoso brasileiro: o custo financeiro para a sociedade manter uma população idosa, a distribuição urbana e rural, a diferença numérica entre sexos, o estado conjugal, a escolaridade, entre outros. Ênfase é conferida a algumas características e particularidades da mulher idosa.; Population ageing is currently a phenomenon not only in developed countries but also in third world countries. In this paper the features of a population's ageing and the process of epidemiological transition are discussed along with the worldwide changes in age-structure. Population statistics in Brazil and the characteristics of the elderly population are presented and analysed in the light of recent changes. The Brazilian elderly population is also discussed...

Modernização rural: transformações econômicas e suas implicações demográficas, epidemiológicas e nutricionais nos municípios de Monteiro Lobato e Santo Antônio do Pinhal; Rural modernization: economic transformations and their demographic, epidemiologic and nutritional implications in Monteiro Lobato and Santo Antonio do Pinhal

Perestrelo, José Paulo Pires; Martins, Ignez Salas
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2003 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
Aborda-se a questão da modernidade agrícola que, apesar de promover ganhos substanciais na produtividade, não conseguiu afastar o espectro da fome para grandes contingentes populacionais, com impactos na saúde. Procura-se verificar se no estudo de populações, pauperizadas no processo de modernização na agricultura, se aplicariam os modelos explicativos baseados nos paradigmas das transições epidemiológicas e nutricionais. O estudo foi realizado nos municípios de Monteiro Lobato e Santo Antônio do Pinhal. Verificou-se a inserção dos municípios na chamada modernização agrícola através do uso de insumos agropecuários. A transição epidemiológica foi verificada por meio dos coeficientes de mortalidade geral e curva de mortalidade proporcional e a transição nutricional pela Tendência Secular de Crescimento, prevalência da obesidade e hábitos alimentares. Verificou-se que apesar da queda significativa da mortalidade infantil, que a tendência secular de crescimento naqueles que nasceram ou passaram a primeira infância nos municípios efetivou-se, de forma discreta, somente para as mulheres, indicando deficiência no consumo energético. Por outro lado, é alta a prevalência de obesidade, principalmente entre as mulheres. A dieta da população é monótona...

Brazil is getting older: demographic changes and epidemiological challenges

Veras,Renato P.
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/1991 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
Population ageing is currently a phenomenon not only in developed countries but also in third world countries. In this paper the features of a population's ageing and the process of epidemiological transition are discussed along with the worldwide changes in age-structure. Population statistics in Brazil and the characteristics of the elderly population are presented and analysed in the light of recent changes. The Brazilian elderly population is also discussed, particularly the issues relating to the social cost of the aged population, its urban and rural distribution, the elderly by sex, marital status and level of schooling, and emphasis is given to the imbalance of the sexes and the consequences of it for women.

Coronary heart disease mortality in China: age, gender, and urban-rural gaps during epidemiological transition

Jiang,Guohong; Wang,Dezheng; Li,Wei; Pan,Yi; Zheng,Wenlong; Zhang,Hui; Sun,Yan V.
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.03%
OBJECTIVE: To examine and describe coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and its pattern of change (trend) by sex, age, and area of residence (urban versus rural) in Tianjin, China, within the context of epidemiological transition, and compare it with current trends in the Americas and Europe. METHODS: A total of 104 393 cases of CHD death in Tianjin occurring between 1999 and 2008 were monitored. Death due to CHD was coded using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) standards (ninth and tenth revisions). Standardized CHD mortality rates and their trends were analyzed by age, sex, and urban versus rural residence. RESULTS: During the 10-year study period, the proportion of total deaths due to CHD in Tianjin increased significantly (from 16% to 24%) and age-standardized CHD mortality increased slightly (with no statistical differences), in contrast to CHD mortality trends in various countries in the Americas and Europe, which are declining. No difference was found in Tianjin's CHD mortality trend by sex. Overall CHD mortality was consistently higher among older age groups, males, and residents of urban areas. The proportion of CHD deaths occurring outside hospitals was 55.81%, with a declining trend over the study period. Rural areas had a higher proportion of outside-hospital CHD mortality than urban areas...