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Quantification of the environmental impacts of road conditions in Brazil

BARTHOLOMEU, Daniela Bacchi; CAIXETA FILHO, Jose Vicente
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
This study evaluates the impacts of Brazilian highway conditions on fuel consumption and, consequently, on carbon dioxide (COO emissions. For the purpose of this study, highway conditions refer to the level of highway maintenance: the incidence of large potholes, large surface cracks, uneven sections, and debris. Primary computer collected data related to the fuel consumption of three types of trucks were analyzed. The data were derived from 88 trips taken over six routes, each route representative of one of two highway conditions: better or worse. Study results are initially presented for each type of truck being monitored. The results are then aggregated to approximate the entire Brazilian highway network. In all cases, results confirmed environmental benefits resulting from travel over the better routes. There was found to be an increase in energy efficiency from traveling better roads, which resulted in lower fuel consumption and lower CO(2) emissions. Statistical analysis of the results suggests that, in general, fuel consumption data were significant at *P < 0.05, rejecting the null hypothesis that average fuel consumption from traveling the better routes is statistically equal to average fuel consumption from traveling the worse routes. Improved Brazilian road conditions would generate economic benefits...

Quantificação dos impactos econômicos e ambientais decorrentes do estado de conservação das rodovias brasileiras; Quantifying of the economic and environmental impacts deriving from Brazilian's highways state of conservation

Bartholomeu, Daniela Bacchi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/11/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.23%
Devido à importância do modal rodoviário para a economia brasileira no que diz respeito à sua participação na matriz de transporte de cargas, à elevada participação no consumo de combustíveis fósseis (óleo diesel) e nas emissões de CO2, esta Tese avaliou se rodovias em melhores estados de conservação implicam benefícios econômicos e ambientais. Os benefícios econômicos disseram respeito à avaliação dos seguintes parâmetros: consumo de combustível, tempo de viagem e gasto com manutenção do veículo. Já os benefícios ambientais referiram-se às reduções das externalidades negativas resultantes da diminuição nas emissões de CO2. Foram realizadas coletas de dados primários relacionados ao desempenho observado em caminhões em rodovias com diferentes condições de infra-estrutura. Nesse sentido, foram conduzidos dois conjuntos de experimentos, envolvendo rotas e tipos diferentes de caminhões, aos quais foram acoplados computadores de bordo para auxiliar na coleta dos dados. O primeiro conjunto de experimentos envolveu quatro rotas, as quais foram percorridas por um caminhão Volvo FH12, fabricado em 2004. Num total de 48 viagens, foram observados o consumo de combustível, e o perfil das velocidades em cada trajeto. Os resultados indicaram a existência de benefícios econômicos e ambientais para as rotas em melhor estado de conservação. No segundo conjunto de experimentos...

Modelling environmental benefits of silvoarable agroforestry in Europe

Palma, J.H.N.; Graves, A.R.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Burgess, P.J.; Filippi, R.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.07%
Increased adoption of silvoarable agroforestry (SAF) systems in Europe, by integrating trees and arable crops on the same land, could offer a range of environmental benefits compared with conventional agricultural systems. Soil erosion, nitrogen leaching, carbon sequestration and landscape biodiversity were chosen as indicators to assess a stratified random sample of 19 landscape test sites in the Mediterranean and Atlantic regions of Europe. At each site, the effect of introducing agroforestry was examined at plot-scale by simulating the growth of one of five tree species (hybrid walnut Juglans spp., wild cherry Prunus avium L., poplar Populus spp., holm oak Quercus ilex L. subsp. ilex and stone pine Pinus pinea L.) at two tree densities (50 and 113 trees ha 1) in combination with up to five crops (wheat Triticum spp., sunflower Helianthus annuus L., oilseed rape Brassica napus L., grain maize and silage maize Zea mays L.). At landscape-scale, the effect of introducing agroforestry on 10 or 50% of the agricultural area, on either the best or worst quality land, was examined. Across the 19 landscape test sites, SAF had a positive impact on the four indicators with the strongest effects when introduced on the best quality land. The computer simulations showed that SAF could significantly reduce erosion by up to 65% when combined with contouring practices at medium (>0.5 and <3 t ha 1 a 1) and high (>3 t ha 1 a 1) erosion sites. Nitrogen leaching could be reduced by up to 28% in areas where leaching is currently estimated high (>100 kg N h 1 a 1)...

From Growth to Green Growth : A Framework

Hallegatte, Stephane; Heal, Geoffrey; Fay, Marianne; Treguer, David
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
Green growth is about making growth processes resource-efficient, cleaner and more resilient without necessarily slowing them. This paper aims at clarifying these concepts in an analytical framework and at proposing foundations for green growth. The green growth approach proposed here is based on (1) focusing on what needs to happen over the next 5-10 years before the world gets locked into patterns that would be prohibitively expensive and complex to modify and (2) reconciling the short and the long term, by offsetting short-term costs and maximizing synergies and economic co-benefits. This, in turn, increases the social and political acceptability of environmental policies. This framework identifies channels through which green policies can potentially contribute to economic growth. However, only detailed country- and context-specific analyses for each of these channels could reach firm conclusion regarding their actual impact on growth. Finally, the paper discusses the policies that can be implemented to capture these co-benefits and environmental benefits. Since green growth policies pursue a variety of goals...

India’s Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability : What Are the Tradeoffs?

Mani, Muthukumara; Markandya, Anil; Sagar, Aarsi; Sahin, Sebnem
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
One of the key environmental problems facing India is that of particle pollution from the combustion of fossil fuels. This has serious health consequences and with the rapid growth in the economy these impacts are increasing. At the same time, economic growth is an imperative and policy makers are concerned about the possibility that pollution reduction measures could reduce growth significantly. This paper addresses the tradeoffs involved in controlling local pollutants such as particles. Using an established Computable General Equilibrium model, it evaluates the impacts of a tax on coal or on emissions of particles such that these instruments result in emission levels that are respectively 10 percent and 30 percent lower than they otherwise would be in 2030. The main findings are as follows: (i) A 10 percent particulate emission reduction results in a lower gross domestic product but the size of the reduction is modest; (ii) losses in gross domestic proudct from the tax are partly offset by the health gains from lower particle emissions; (iii) the taxes reduce emissions of carbon dioxide by about 590 million tons in 2030 in the case of the 10 percent reduction and 830 million tons in the case of the 30 percent reduction; and (iv) taken together...

Tools for Assessing the Costs and Benefits of Green Growth : The U.S. and Mexico

Harrington, Winston; Morgenstern, Richard; Velez-Lopez, Daniel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
This paper examines the processes used in the United States and Mexico to assess the economic costs and benefits of environmental improvement, the kinds of information obtained from these procedures, and the additional knowledge that is needed about both elements to improve understanding of the problems and prospects of advancing a green growth agenda. Because environmental and other development needs are large and resources are limited, it is important to choose the best projects, those with the highest returns on both public investments and private resources harnessed by regulation. The United States is well-established as a world leader in the use of quantitative methods to evaluate options for environmental regulation and policy. Mexico represents a case where a developing country has made clear advances in reforming its economy and in introducing transparency in its regulatory processes for environmental and other policy areas.

The Environmental Implications of Privatization : Lessons for Developing Countries

Lovei, Magda; Gentry, Bradford S.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.13%
Governments worldwide have increasingly recognized the economic potential and fiscal advantages of privatization. What is less well recognized is that, under the right conditions, privatization can also yield environmental benefits and contribute to sustainable development. This report reviews a number of case studies to draw lessons about the environmental implications of privatization. It emphasizes that privatization offers an opportunity for making strategic decisions with longer-term impacts; streses that integrating environmental and social considerations into the privatization process leads to better, more sustainable outcomes; and recommends approaches to building on the positive linkages between privatization and environmental protection.

Green Industrial Policies : When and How

Hallegatte, Stephane; Fay, Marianne; Vogt-Schilb, Adrien
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
Green industrial policies can be defined as industrial policies with an environmental goal -- or more precisely, as sector-targeted policies that affect the economic production structure with the aim of generating environmental benefits. This paper provides a framework to assess their desirability depending on the effectiveness and political acceptability of price instruments. The main messages are the following. (i) Greening growth processes to the extent and with the speed needed cannot be done without industrial policies, even if prices can be adjusted to reflect environmental objectives. (ii) "Sunrise" green industrial policies are needed because they support the development of critical new technologies and sectors, bring down costs, and allow for reduced emissions in the short term even in the absence of carbon pricing. (iii) "Sunset" green industrial policies and trade policies may be needed in conjunction with safety nets to make carbon pricing politically or socially acceptable. They can help mitigate the impact of a carbon price on competitiveness and unemployment and smooth the transition by helping industries adjust to the new conditions. (iv) Green or not...

Towards the Mainstreaming of an Approach to Include Social Benefits Within Road Appraisal : A Case Study from Uganda

Odoki, Jennaro B.; Ahmed, Farhad; Taylor, Gary; Okello, Sunday A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
Developing countries dedicate a considerable share of total infrastructure investment to roads. The adoption in 2000 of the Millennium Development Goals and an increasing emphasis on justifying road investments in terms of their contribution to poverty reduction have directed considerable attention to low volume rural roads. Often the poorest of the poor live in remote rural areas and improved access to social and economic services is a key factor in raising their living standards. The traditional road appraisal frameworks do not fit well with this trend as they generally ignore the impact of social benefit and poverty reduction. Past attempts to overcome these problems have lacked consistency. Therefore, there is a need to develop a consistent framework to address the poverty and social benefit aspects in a systematic manner. A study into the identification and treatment of social benefits in road transport project appraisal was conducted in 2003-04. The study highlighted the problems of identification...

Environmental Issues in the Power Sector : Long-Term Impacts and Policy Options for Rajasthan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.16%
Recognizing the links between electricity development, and the environment, the Bank, in cooperation with the Government of India and the State governments of Karnataka and Rajasthan, implemented assessments of environmental policies in the Power Sector in the Indian states of Karnataka and Rajasthan. This work for the State of Rajasthan is designed to examine, and quantify a broad number of options for reducing the environmental impacts of power development in general, and power reform in particular. The strategic objective is to provide the analytical basis for assisting these states develop power sector policies, and strategies that are environmentally sustainable. The study begins by evaluating the impacts of the baseline reform scenario, and then perturbs this scenario for the options examined, including a scenario of "stalled reform," to enable assessment of the costs, and benefits of reform. Because Rajasthan has already implemented significant reform measures, "no reform" (as used in the original 1998 EIPS study) is not a useful scenario. The major findings of this study may be summarized as follows: 1) Power sector reform is the single most important step that may be taken to mitigate the environmental impacts of the power sector. The difference in emissions (and damage costs) between reform...

Climate-Smart Development : Adding Up the Benefits of Actions that Help Build Prosperity, End Poverty and Combat Climate Change

ClimateWorks Foundation; World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC and ClimateWorks Foundation, San Francisco Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC and ClimateWorks Foundation, San Francisco
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.27%
This report describes efforts by the ClimateWorks Foundation and the World Bank to quantify the multiple economic, social, and environmental benefits associated with policies and projects to reduce emissions in select sectors and regions. The report has three objectives: 1) to develop a holistic, adaptable framework to capture and measure the multiple benefits of reducing emissions of several pollutants; 2) to demonstrate how local and national policymakers, members of the international development community, and others can use this framework to design and analyze policies and projects; and 3) to contribute a compelling rationale for effectively combining climate action with sustainable development and green growth worldwide. By using a systems approach to analyze policies and projects, this work illustrates ways to capitalize on synergies between efforts to reduce emissions and spur development, minimize costs, and maximize societal benefits. This report uses several case studies to demonstrate how to apply the analytical framework. Three simulated case studies analyzed the effects of key sector policies to determine the benefits realized in the United States...

Evaluation of the Permanence of Land Use Change Induced by Payments for Environmental Services in Quindío, Colombia

Pagiola, Stefano; Honey-Rosés, Jordi; Freire-González, Jaume
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
The effectiveness of conservation interventions such as Payments for Environmental Services (PES) is often evaluated, if it is evaluated at all, only at the completion of the intervention. Since gains achieved by the intervention may be lost after it ends, even apparently successful interventions may not result in long-term conservation benefits, a problem known as that of permanence. This paper uses a unique dataset to examine the permanence of land use change induced by a short-term PES program implemented in Quindío, Colombia, between 2003 and 2008. This the first PES program to have a control group for comparison. Under this program, PES had been found to have a positive and highly significant impact on land use. To assess the long-term permanence of these changes, both PES recipients and control households were re-surveyed in 2011, four years after the last payment was made. We find that the land use changes that had been induced by PES were broadly sustained in intervening years, with minor differences across specific practices and sub-groups of participants. The patterns of change in the period after the PES program was completed also help better understand the reasons for the program s success. These results suggest that...

Consumer willingness to pay premiums for the benefits of organic wine and the expert service of wine retailers.

Ogbeide, Osadebamwen Anthony
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
This thesis investigates two major topics independently with outcomes that stand alone but can have influence on each other. Australian consumers’ interest in the consumption of organic products is increasing as they are receptive to the perceived health and environmental benefits that are linked to them. However, producers and consumers face challenges understanding the value of the health and environmental attributes. While consumers and producers express interest in organics, gaps exist in their common interest. Producers require premiums for their products to compensate for potential higher production costs or lower yields. Understanding how much consumers are willing to pay (WTP) for the benefits related to organic products is a challenge. The role of expert service in wine retailing is important. Many studies document the value information provision creates in purchase situations. This service provision to consumers is a key factor encouraging purchase decisions and gaining interest and engagement. It can be important for retailers to provide an environment that extends this service to consumers. Training employees in wine knowledge is vital as they form the frontline between the wine purchase and the consumers. This service comes with a cost that is usually passed on to consumers and it is of interest to determine consumer willingness to absorb this cost. The primary objectives of the study are twofold: (1) to determine which factors affect consumers’ willingness to pay an additional ‘premium’ price for organic wines benefits...

The World Bank's GEF Program in the Middle East and North Africa Region : Global Environmental Benefits Contributing to National Development Goals

World Bank; Global Environment Facility
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.18%
The report focuses on the two decades of the World Bank - Global Environment Facility (GEF) partnership with the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries. This partnership has had a global environmental impact by working both at the local and national level and engaging all relevant partners and stakeholders. In addition, many GEF financed operations stand as examples of what a more holistic approach can achieve in terms of innovation and catalyzing greater investment. These operations have also delivered important social benefits such as job creation, enhanced economic and social inclusion, and strengthened governance capabilities. Presently the region s most pressing environmental challenges stem from rapid urbanization and its resulting infrastructure needs, industrial pollution, overexploitation of scarce water resources, the unsustainable management of fragile ecosystem resources and vulnerability to climate variability and climate change. Decision makers working to address these problems also face many tightly linked and urgent social issues. These issues include meeting the aspirations of a quickly growing urban youth population; giving voice to gender and women s issues; finding ways to spur job growth; and reversing the poor provision of basic services. This publication also points to opportunities for further World Bank - GEF cooperation in support of green growth.

Incorporating Energy Cycle Externality Costs and Benefits in India's Power System Planning Mechanisms

Powell, Stephen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
The power sector in India plays a fundamental role in the economic development process. The country faces formidable challenges in meeting its energy needs in an environmentally sustainable manner and at reasonable costs. The planning and operation of the sector has hitherto been conducted without due regard to the environmental consequences. As a result, additions to capacity in recent years have been sub-optimal. Moreover different types of capacity are treated differently. Hydropower is required directly to bear more of its external environmental costs than other sources. The recent Supreme Court ruling has reinforced this tendency. Looking forward, much of the large capacity additions required over the next few years are likely to be coal-fired, with concomitant effects on the country's environment. Against that background, the paper looks at India's power generation planning process; whether and how it might adapt in the light of increased attention to environmental costs and benefits; and if there are other...

Environmental Perspective of Russia's Accession to the World Trade Organization

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
Russia's exports, imports, and ability to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) continue to grow. In December 2011, after eighteen years of negotiations, the World Trade Organization (WTO) invited Russia to join WTO on the basis of the negotiated protocol of Russian accession. Russia ratified the agreement in July 2012. As part of its accession to the WTO, Russia agreed to a series of important commitments to further open its trade and foreign investment regimes. Russia will apply international standards on sanitary measures and technical barriers to trade. Policies which promote energy efficiency, technology innovation, clean production in supply chains, and addressing climate change are receiving increasing attention in Russian society, and nowadays, shape the economic modernization agenda of the Russian political leadership. This report is designed to provide senior Russian policy makers with recommendations on certain areas where national environmental protection policies can be complemented by the benefits of trade liberalization. Industrial leaders may also benefit from many of the report's conclusions and recommendation. The report has several objectives. The first is to draw attention to the local impacts of air pollution impacting human health which has been previously estimated to be between 12 and 17 percent of all-cause mortality in Russia and costing the economy upwards of 14 billion dollars annually. Correcting for this "external cost" to society is not trivial and has serious implications for sector reform. The second objective is about reducing global warming...

Estimating Non-market environmental benefits of the Conversion of Cropland to Forest and Grassland Program: A choice modeling approach

Wang, Xuehong; Bennett, Jeffrey; Xie, Chen; Zhang, Zhitao; Liang, Dan
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
The non-market values of the environmental benefits derived from the Conversion of Cropland to Forest and Grassland Program (also known as the Grain for Green Program and the Sloped Land Conversion Program) in the Loess Plateau region of North West China

Environmental, social and economic benefits of tree plantations for urban societies

Priego González de Canales, Carlos
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Documento de trabajo Formato: 330160 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
Numerous studies have been conducted on urban trees, analysing such topics as composition, thickness, height and health status for purposes of tree management. Through a review of the literature, we not only focus on the aesthetic aspects of urban trees, but also analyse their environmental, social and economic benefits. The review is divided into three sections. First, studies on the environmental benefits of urban trees were reviewed, including the biotic and abiotic factors that are closely related to the quality of life in urban areas. These benefits include air, temperature, air pollution, water conservation and increased biodiversity. Secondly, the social benefits of urban trees for the community were analysed, stressing the importance of trees for citizens’ physical and psychological well-being. It has been shown that urban areas that are well provided with trees usually have lower levels of violence and crime. Thirdly, the review shows that urban trees can provide direct economic benefits such as increased property values. The review clearly demonstrates that urban trees not only contribute to the aesthetic quality of open urban spaces, but are strategic to improving the quality of life and sustainability of urban areas.; Peer reviewed

Australian forest plantations: an overview of industry, environmental and community issues and benefits.

Gaztanaga, Enrique; Keenan, Rodney; Kanowski, Peter; Stanton, Richard
Fonte: Institute of Foresters of Australia Publicador: Institute of Foresters of Australia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
Australia has over 1.5 million ha of plantation forests. Governments and industry share a goal of doubling this area by 2020, with most new plantations to be established on previously-cleared agricultural land. Plantations currently supply over half of the raw material required by the forest products industry and also provide a range of environmental and social services. The ownership and management structure of Australian forest plantations and plantation-based forest industries has changed considerably over the past decade, and plantation growing, processing and marketing sectors are becoming increasingly globalised. This paper reviews the major forces driving development of forest plantations in Australia and the key policy and management issues to be considered if plantations are to meet varied expectations of the Australian community. Our assessment is based on papers and discussion at the 'Prospects for Australian Forest Plantations 2002' conference. The wide-ranging papers to the conference considered opportunities for Australia's forest plantations and plantation-based industries in changing global wood markets. They discussed alternative and emerging markets for wood and other plantation products and environmental services...

Valoração econômica ambiental em unidades de conservação: um panorama do contexto brasileiro ; Environmental economic valuation of protected areas: a panorama of the Brazilian context

Silva, Anelise Gomes da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/08/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
É possível identificar os benefícios socioeconômicos promovidos pela conservação da biodiversidade através dos serviços ambientais que uma Unidade de Conservação pode prover. É exequível traduzi-los em valores econômicos e assim demonstrar, quantitativamente, o papel significativo dessas áreas naturais protegidas. A literatura especializada em Economia do Meio Ambiente aponta a contribuição da valoração econômica ambiental para a formulação de políticas públicas responsivas à essas áreas naturais protegidas, quando os atores envolvidos em um processo decisório detêm informações sobre os bens e serviços ambientais que essas áreas oferecem à sociedade. Neste âmbito, as Unidades de Conservação podem ser consideradas peças-chaves para promover os estudos de valoração econômica ambiental, tais estudos podem contribuir com aportes a uma percepção social sobre a prioridade de criar medidas relacionadas à conservação dos benefícios ambientais contidos nessas áreas. Desse modo, o presente trabalho objetivou apresentar um panorama das iniciativas voltadas para a valoração econômica ambiental em Unidades de Conservação no contexto brasileiro, com ênfase para o Estado de São Paulo. A fim de alcançar este objetivo foram analisadas: i) a inserção da valoração econômica ambiental na agenda de pesquisa sobre as Unidades de Conservação brasileiras e ii) a inserção da valoração econômica ambiental nos Planos de Manejo das Unidades de Conservação estaduais de São Paulo. Para tanto...