Página 1 dos resultados de 10745 itens digitais encontrados em 0.038 segundos

An empirical study on the estimation of software development effort with use case points

Alves, Luís M.; Sousa, André; Ribeiro, Pedro; Machado, Ricardo J.
Fonte: IEEE Computer Society Press Publicador: IEEE Computer Society Press
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.96%
Empirical studies are important in software engineering to evaluate new tools, techniques, methods and technologies in a structured way before they are introduced in the industrial (real) software process. Perform empirical studies in a real context is very difficult due to various obstacles, so, we intend to create a stable environment that allows us to perform reliably empirical studies with students. This paper describes a case study with 104 students grouped in seven teams that developed a software system (Web application) for a real costumer. In this study we used a model based on Use Case Points (UCP) to estimate the resources needed to develop a software system.

An empirical study on the estimation of size and complexity of software applications with function points analysis

Alves, Luís M.; Oliveira, Sérgio; Ribeiro, Pedro; Machado, Ricardo J.
Fonte: IEEE Computer Society Press Publicador: IEEE Computer Society Press
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.96%
Empirical studies are important in software engineering to evaluate new tools, techniques, methods and technologies in a structured way before they are introduced in the industrial (real) software process. Perform empirical studies in a real context is very difficult due to various obstacles. An interesting alternative is perform empirical studies in an educational context using students as subjects and share the results with the academia and the industry. This paper describes a case study with two teams that developed a software system (Web application) for a real customer. In this study we used a model based on Function Points Analysis (FPA) to estimate the size and complexity of software system.

How fast is fisheries-induced evolution? Quantitative analysis of modelling and empirical studies

Audzijonyte, Asta; Kuparinen, Anna; Fulton, Elizabeth A
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
A number of theoretical models, experimental studies and time-series studies of wild fish have explored the presence and magnitude of fisheries-induced evolution (FIE). While most studies agree that FIE is likely to be happening in many fished stocks, there are disagreements about its rates and implications for stock viability. To address these disagreements in a quantitative manner, we conducted a meta-analysis of FIE rates reported in theoretical and empirical studies. We discovered that rates of phenotypic change observed in wild fish are about four times higher than the evolutionary rates reported in modelling studies, but correlation between the rate of change and instantaneous fishing mortality (F) was very similar in the two types of studies. Mixed-model analyses showed that in the modelling studies traits associated with reproductive investment and growth evolved slower than rates related to maturation. In empirical observations age-at-maturation was changing faster than other life-history traits. We also found that, despite different assumption and modelling approaches, rates of evolution for a given F value reported in 10 of 13 modelling studies were not significantly different.

Reporting empirical research in open source software: the state of practice.

Stol, Klaas-Jan; Ali Babar, Muhammad
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Conference item; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; none
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
non-peer-reviewed; Background: The number of reported empirical studies of Open Source Software (OSS) has continuously been increasing. However, there has been no effort to systematically review the state of the practice of reporting empirical studies of OSS with respect to the recommended standards of performing and reporting empirical studies in software engineering. It is important to understand, how to report empirical studies of OSS in order to make them useful for practitioners and researchers. Research aim: The aim of our research is to gain insights in the state of the practice of reporting empirical studies of OSS in order to identify the gaps to be filled for improving the quality of evidence being provided for OSS. Method: To that end, we decided to systematically review the empirical studies of OSS. A total of 63 papers reporting empirical studies were selected from the four editions of the Proceedings of the International Conference on Open Source Systems. The data were extracted and synthesised from the selected papers for analysis. Results and conclusions: We have found that the quality of the reported OSSrelated empirical studies needs to be significantly improved. Based on the results of our systematic review and general principles of reporting good empirical research...

How Can Public Spending Help You Grow? An Empirical Analysis for Developing Countries

Bayraktar, Nihal; Moreno-Dodson, Blanca
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
Although many studies indicate that both the level and composition of public spending are significant for economic growth, the results in the empirical literature are still mixed. This paper studies the importance of country sample selection and expenditure classification in explaining these conflicting results. It investigates a set of fast-growing countries versus a mix of countries with different growth patterns. The regression specifications include different components of public expenditure and total fiscal revenues, always considering the overall government budget constraint. Total public spending is first disaggregated using a definition that classifies public spending as productive versus unproductive components, an a priori criterion that is based on the expected impact of public spending items on the private sector production function. After empirically confirming the validity of this definition in the panel analysis, the authors suggest and test an alternative definition of "core" public spending that may be more appropriate for developing countries. The empirical analysis shows that the link between growth and public spending...

Assessing the Impact of Public Spending on Growth : An Empirical Analysis for Seven Fast Growing Countries

Moreno-Dodson, Blanca
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.95%
The goal of this paper is to understand better, at the empirical level, how public spending contributes to growth by focusing on both the level and composition of public spending, in connection to the dynamics of GDP per capita growth. It attempts to answer two specific questions: (a) What are the policy conditions under which public spending contributes positively to growth? and (b) What are the public spending components that have a stronger and longer-lasting impact on growth? The analysis is applied to a sample of seven fast-growing developing countries: Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Botswana, and Mauritius, which have been among the top performers in the world in terms of GDP per capita growth during the period (1960-2006). The rationale for this country sample selection is twofold. The first hypothesis is that, given their positive growth achievements over a relatively long time period, perhaps it is more straightforward to establish a link to public spending in those countries. Second...

Which Inequality Matters? Growth Evidence Based on Small Area Welfare Estimates in Uganda

Schipper, Youdi; Hoogeveen, Johannes G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
Existing empirical studies on the relation between inequality and growth have been criticized for their focus on income inequality and their use of cross-country data sets. Schipper and Hoogeveen use two sets of small area welfare estimates-often referred to as poverty maps-to estimate a model of rural per capita expenditure growth for Uganda between 1992 and 1999. They estimate the growth effects of expenditure and education inequality while controlling for other factors, such as initial levels of expenditure and human capital, family characteristics, and unobserved spatial heterogeneity. The authors correct standard errors to reflect the uncertainty due to the fact that they use estimates rather than observations. They find that per capita expenditure growth in rural Uganda is affected positively by the level of education as well as by the degree of education inequality. Expenditure inequality does not have a significant impact on growth.

Cross-Country Empirical Studies of Systemic Bank Distress : A Survey

Demirgüç-Kunt, Aslı; Detragiache, Enrica
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
A rapidly growing empirical literature is studying the causes and consequences of bank fragility in contemporary economies. The authors reviews the two basic methodologies adopted in cross-country empirical studies-the signals approach and the multivariate probability model-and their application to study the determinants of banking crises. The use of these models to provide early warnings for crises is also reviewed, as are studies of the economic effects of banking crises and of the policies to forestall them. The paper concludes by identifying directions for future research.

Trade, Environmental Regulations and the World Trade Organization: New Empirical Evidence

Busse, Matthias
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.92%
The paper empirically explores the linkages between environmental regulations and international trade flows. So far, empirical studies either have failed to find any close statistical relationship or have delivered questionable results due to data limitations. Using a comprehensive new database for environmental regulations across countries, a thorough empirical investigation of that linkage for 119 countries and five high-polluting industries is performed. No evidence is found to support the pollution hypothesis that industries facing above-average abatement costs with environmental regulations would prefer pollution havens and relocate their activities. The exception is iron and steel products, where a negative and statistically significant link is established, implying that higher compliance with international treaties and conventions and more stringent regulations are associated with reduced net exports. High-income countries, where environmental regulations are usually more stringent in comparison to middle or low income countries...

Has Private Participation in Water and Sewerage Improved Coverage? Empirical Evidence from Latin America

Wallsten, Scott; Kosec, Katrina; Clarke, George R. G.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.96%
Introducing private sector participation (PSP) into the water and sewerage sectors in developing countries is difficult and controversial. Empirical studies on its effects are scant and generally inconclusive. Case studies tend to find improvements in the sector following privatization, but they suffer from selection bias, and it is difficult to generalize from their results. To explore empirically the effects of PSP on coverage, we assemble a new dataset of connections to water and sewerage services at the city, and province level, based on household surveys in Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil. The household surveys, conducted over a number of years, allow us to compile data, before and after the introduction of PSP, as well as from similar (control) regions that never privatized at all. Our analysis reveals that, in general, connection rates to piped water and sewerage, improved following the introduction of PSP, consistent with the case study literature. We also find, however, that connection rates similarly improved in the control regions...

The Relative Income and Relative Deprivation Hypotheses : A Review of the Empirical Literature

Verme, Paolo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.08%
The paper provides a review of the empirical literature in economics that has attempted to test the relative income hypothesis as put forward by Duesemberry (1949) and the relative deprivation hypothesis as formalized by Runciman (1966). It is argued that these two hypotheses and the empirical models used to test them are essentially similar and make use of the same relative income concept. The review covers the main intellectual contributions that led to the formulation and tests of these hypotheses, the main formulations of the utility and econometric equations used in empirical studies, the main econometric issues that complicate tests of the hypotheses, and the empirical results found in the literature. The majority of studies uses absolute and relative income together as explanatory factors in utility models and finds absolute income to have a positive and significant effect on utility (happiness). The majority of studies also finds relative income to be a significant factor in explaining utility but the sign of this relation varies across studies. The source of this variation is complex to detect given that few results are directly comparable across studies because of differences in model specifications.

The Effects on Growth of Commodity Price Uncertainty and Shocks

Dehn, Jan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
The author estimates the effects on growth of commodity price shocks, and uncertainty within an established empirical growth model. Ex-post shocks, and ex-ante uncertainty have been treated in the empirical literature as if they were synonymous. But they are distinct concepts, and it is both theoretically, and empirically inappropriate to treat them as synonymous. He shows that the interaction between policy, and aid is robust to the inclusion of variables capturing commodity price movements. More important, his approach departs in three ways from earlier empirical studies of the subject: 1) It deals with issues of endogeneity, without incurring an excessive loss of efficiency. 2) It defines the dependent variable to allow an assessment of the longer-term implications of temporary trade shocks. 3) It imposes no priors on how commodity price movements affect growth, but compares and contrasts a range of competing shock, and uncertainty specifications. The author resolves the disagreement about the long-run effect of positive shocks on growth...

Semiparametric models with endogeneity and their application to an empirical demand analysis.

Kim, Nam-Hyun
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
During the past few decades, nonparametric models have been extensively applied to empirical studies in various fields of economics due to its flexibility for depicting any type of relationship among key economic variables. However, one of the most well-known shortfalls of the model is the curse of dimensionality. It can be conveniently overcome with semiparametric modelling such as partially linear (PL) models and/or single-index (SI) models. Nonetheless, the practicality of these models in the empirical studies has been hampered by the lack of appropriate estimation procedures and a method to address endogeneity. Hence the ultimate goal of this thesis is to establish a novel econometric method for estimating semiparametrics, specifically a PL model and an extended generalised partially linear single-index (EGPLSI) model, with the presence of endogeneity. Furthermore, semiparametric analysis is an important tool for analysing empirical Engel curves, which often involve endogeneity in total expenditure. We show that, our newly developed estimation procedures and methods are able to address the endogeneity problem in the semiparametric analysis of empirical Engel curves. These goals can be broken down into a few research objectives. (1) Firstly...

Target costing: review of empirical studies in the automotive sector

Mendes, H.; Machado, M.
Fonte: UALg ESGHT Publicador: UALg ESGHT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
This aim of this study is to compare the existing theory on the subject of targetcosting with practices reportedby empirical studies already performed in the automotive sector. We canidentify the following specific purpose: to analyze whether the characteristics of target costing,identified by the theory, are in line with what was reported by the empirical studies already performed in the automotive sector.Data collection was executed usinga review of empirical studies regardingthis topic in automotivecompanies. The data collected allowus to conclude that none of the companiessurveyed reports the use of thetarget costing model with the six characteristicsthe theory associates with it: price leads to cost, customer focus, product design focus, multidisciplinary teams;focus on the costs incurred during the product’slifecycle; involvement of the entire value chain.

Conducting empirical studies in industry: balancing rigor and relevance

Jain, S.; Babar, M.A.; Fernandez, J.
Fonte: IEEE Computer Society Publicador: IEEE Computer Society
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
Empirical Software Engineering research has achieved considerable results in building our knowledge about selecting and applying appropriate empirical methods for technology evaluation. Empirical studies in general and empirical studies in industrial settings in particular have played an important role in successful transition of many Software Engineering technologies to industry, for example, defect detection techniques and automated test cases. However, conducting empirical research in industrial settings remains a challenging undertaking for a variety of reasons. There is no substantial literature reporting on the challenges and complexities involved in conducting empirical studies in an industry in general and in settings whose business models are built around global sourcing. This paper reports some of our experiences and lessons learned from conducting empirical research in industry. Some of the observed challenges include short time horizon for research, high expectations, limited research skills, and the 'acceptable' research rigor. The paper discusses some of these issues with relevant examples and provides some strategies for overcoming these issues. We also stress that researchers and practitioners should share their experiences of conducting empirical research in order to help build a body of knowledge to guide the future efforts.; Shilpi Jain...

How Public Spending Can Help You Grow : An Empirical Analysis for Developing Countries

Moreno-Dodson, Blanca; Bayraktar, Nihal
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.98%
Although many studies indicate that both the level and composition of public spending are significant for economic growth, the results in the empirical literature are still mixed. This note is based on a paper of the same title (Bayraktar and Moreno-Dodson 2010) that compares a set of fast-growing developing countries to a mix of developing countries with different growth patterns. Considering the full government budget constraint, the empirical analysis shows that public spending, especially its 'core' components, contributes to economic growth only in countries that are capable of using funds for productive purposes. In addition, those countries must have an adequate economic policy environment with macroeconomic stability, openness, and private sector investments that are conducive to growth.

EPR and semi-empirical studies as tools to assign the geometric structures of FeIII isomer models for transferrins

Scarpellini,Marciela; Casellato,Annelise; Bortoluzzi,Adailton J.; Vencato,Ivo; Mangrich,Antonio S.; Neves,Ademir; Machado,Sérgio P.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.88%
The reaction of Fe(ClO4)3.nH2O with N,N'-bis[(2-hydroxybenzyl)-N,N' -bis(1-methylimidazole-2-yl-methyl)]ethylenediamine (H2bbimen) affords two geometric isomers, A and B, of the complex cation [Fe(bbimen)]+, which were fully characterized by IR and UV-visible spectroscopies, ESI mass spectrometry, molar conductivity measurements, cyclic voltammetry, spectroelectrochemistry and EPR spectroscopy. The geometry of one of these isomers has been clearly demonstrated through X-ray crystallographic analysis. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P2(1)/c, a = 14.104 (3), b = 15.626 (3), c = 13.291 (3) Å, beta = 98.07 (3)º, Z = 4, R1 = 6.35% and wR2 = 20.57%. The electrochemical properties of [Fe(bbimen)]+ (-0.58 V versus NHE) are quite similar to those of transferrins (-0.52 V versus NHE) and indicate that it is a good model for the redox potential of these metalloenzymes. EPR spectroscopy was the only spectroscopic technique able to differentiate the isolated isomers A and B. EPR studies revealed that isomer A is better described as a rhombically distorted (E/D @ 0.33) high-spin FeIII complex (g1 @ 4.1 with a shoulder at g2 @ 9.0), while the spectrum of B has a set of lines at g1 @ 3.0...

The limits of empirical studies of software engineering

Parnas, David Lorge
Fonte: IEEE Computer Society Publicador: IEEE Computer Society
Tipo: Conference item; all_ul_research; none
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
non-peer-reviewed; Some advocates of empirical studies of software engineeringappear to be claiming that empirical studies alone cantellus how we should do software development.This paperargues that what can be learned from empirical studies,while important, is very limited.Mathematical studies andempirical studies must be seen as mutually supportiveways to increase our knowledge of software developmentmethods.The role of empirical studies should be limited toconfirming that what works in theory can actually be used(and useful) in practice.

Weak Instruments in Growth Regressions; Implications for Recent Cross-Country Evidence on Inequality and Growth

Kraay, Aart
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
This paper revisits four recent cross-country empirical studies on the effects of inequality on growth. All four studies report strongly significant negative effects, using the popular system generalized method of moments estimator that is frequently used in cross-country growth empirics. This paper shows that the internal instruments relied on by this estimator in these inequality-and-growth regressions are weak, and that weak instrument-consistent confidence sets for the effect of inequality on growth include a wide range of positive and negative values. This suggests that strong conclusions about the effect of inequality on growth— in either direction—cannot be drawn from these studies. This paper also systematically explores a wide range of alternative sets of internal instruments, and finds that problems of weak instruments are pervasive across these alternatives. More generally, the paper illustrates the importance of documenting instrument strength, basing inferences on procedures that are robust to weak instruments...

Performance Financeira Corporativa e Performance Social Corporativa: desenvolvimento metodológico e contribuição teórica dos estudos empíricos; Corporate Financial Performance and Corporate Social Performance: methodological development and the theoretical contribution of empirical studies

Boaventura, João Maurício Gama; Silva, Ralph Santos da; Bandeira-de-Mello, Rodrigo
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2012 POR; ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
Um dos papéis da contabilidade é prover informações sobre o desempenho empresarial, quer seja por indicadores contábil-financeiros ou não. Dentro deste escopo do interesse da contabilidade, observa-se que a publicação de estudos teórico-empíricos sobre as relações entre Performance Corporativa Financeira (CFP) e a Performance Social Corporativa (CSP) vem crescendo nos últimos anos, sintoma do desenvolvimento deste campo de pesquisa. Entretanto, a contribuição à teoria pelos trabalhos empíricos se faz de forma pontual, uma vez que normalmente cada estudo foca um aspecto particular da teoria. Periodicamente, portanto, é necessária uma análise que avalie como, de forma agregada, os estudos empíricos contribuíram para a evolução da teoria, e elaborar essa análise constituiu o objetivo do presente estudo. O referencial teórico abrangeu: teoria dos stakeholders, relação entre CSP e CFP, good management theory e slack resource theory. Esta pesquisa abrangeu um período de 15 anos (1996 a 2010) e a coleta de dados empregou a ferramenta de busca das bases de dados: Ebsco, Proquest e ISI. O processo de amostragem obteve um conjunto de 58 artigos exclusivamente teórico-empíricos quantitativos que testam a relação CSP-CFP. Os principais resultados no campo teórico demonstram um reforço da proposição de relação positiva entre CSP e CFP e da good management theory...