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Housing Finance Policy in Emerging Markets

Chiquier, Loic; Lea, Michael
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.48%
This report documented the importance of housing in the economy while at the same time providing governments with guidelines on how best to design policy to create efficient housing markets. The purpose of this book is to provide fact-based information and guidance to policy makers concerned with housing finance in emerging markets. An overarching goal is to improve the understanding of the importance of housing finance to the economy. This includes covering the prerequisites for an effective housing finance system together with the main characteristics of such a system. The book continues by laying out some of the policy alternatives and models of housing finance (products, infrastructure, risk management, regulations, and funding). In line with the priorities of many governments, the book is focused on solutions; in particular the role of government in contributing to the growth of housing finance and in increasing access to housing finance for lower and informal income households. The way taken to achieve these objectives is of the essence: they cannot be achieved...

The Sub Prime Crisis : Implications for Emerging Markets

Gwinner, William B.; Sanders, Anthony
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.51%
This paper discusses some of the key characteristics of the U.S. subprime mortgage boom and bust, contrasts them with characteristics of emerging mortgage markets, and makes recommendations for emerging market policy makers. The crisis has raised questions in the minds of many as to the wisdom of extending mortgage lending to low and moderate income households. It is important to note, however, that prior to the growth of subprime lending in the 1990s, U.S. mortgage markets already reached low and moderate-income households without taking large risks or suffering large losses. In contrast, in most emerging markets, mortgage finance is a luxury good, restricted to upper income households. As policy makers in emerging market seek to move lenders down market, they should adopt policies that include a variety of financing methods and should allow for rental or purchase as a function of the financial capacity of the household. Securitization remains a useful tool when developed in the context of well-aligned incentives and oversight. It is possible to extend mortgage lending down market without repeating the mistakes of the subprime boom and bust.

Portfolio Investment Funds : Assessing the Impact on Emerging Markets

Barger, Teresa; Carter, Laurence; Kuczynski, Irving
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.51%
Although portfolio funds account for only about 5 percent of the capitalization of emerging stock markets, these small infusions of capital, particularly foreign portfolio investment funds, have been responsible for jump starting the development of many of these markets. The main beneficiaries of this growth have been the local firms and investors who hold about 90 percent of emerging market stocks. This Note examines the key role played by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) in creating the portfolio funds industry and helping to put countries on the map for emerging market investors. By improving the price-earnings ratio, liquidity, and pricing efficiency of domestic markets, portfolio funds improve firms access to all equity capital in emerging markets, a factor critical for business growth in developing countries. The Note also outlines the benefits that flow to developing country entrepreneurs and investors as a result of this increased liquidity the stock market provides.

Emerging Markets and Financial Volatility-Beyond Mexico

Perlin, Gary L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.46%
In the wake of the Mexican financial crisis, too much attention has been given to what was happening in emerging economies and too little to what was changing in financial markets. What are these changes? First, much of the capital flow to emerging markets is now in the form of bonds and portfolio equity investment. Second, investors managing these flows are attracted to high-risk, high-return opportunities and are less patient than the foreign direct investors or banks that emerging market governments may have been more used to dealing with. Third, these investors have no way of communicating their patience level to policymakers other than by exiting. And fourth, high information costs tend to concentrate these flows in "hot" countries and lead investors to rely on a few knowledgeable observers to signal when their returns are at risk, adding to the potential volatility. This Note attempts to explain the origins of volatility, how volatility affects emerging market investors, and the economic management implications behind the changes. In the wake of volatile global capital flows...

Housekeeping and Plumbing: The Investability of Emerging Markets

Ladekarl, Jeppe; Zervos, Sara
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
The authors look at the investment allocation process employed by portfolio investors in emerging markets. In particular, they examine the first of a two-stage decision process: first, investors create a subset of countries with investments potential, to be analyzed later in further detail; second, they weigh expected returns versus risk and subsequently allocate their funds. The authors hypothesize that the determination of whether a country has potential investment opportunities, or not is influenced by a number of factors, especially related to size, quality of "housekeeping," (macroeconomic policies, political economy, local financial markets, corporate governance, and so on), and efficiency of "plumbing" (legal and regulatory framework, custody, clearing and settlement, taxes, and so on). By interviewing many types of these investors in both the United States and the United Kingdom, the authors delve into their decision-making processes, as well as attempt to uncover the factors they indicate, matter most in defining the "investment opportunities" universe. They determine the relative importance of such housekeeping...

Mortgage Securities in Emerging Markets

Chiquier, Loïc; Hassler, Olivier; Lea, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.55%
Despite its recognized economic and social importance, housing finance often remains underdeveloped in emerging economies. Residential lending remains small, poorly accessible, and depository-based. Lenders remain vulnerable to significant credit, liquidity, and interest rate risks. As a result, housing finance is relatively expensive and often rationed. The importance of developing robust systems of housing finance is paramount as emerging economy governments struggle to cope with population growth, rapid urbanization, and rising expectations from a growing middle class. The capital markets in many economies can provide an attractive and potentially large source of long-term funding for housing, and solutions to better allocate part of the risks. The advent of institutional investors is creating large and rapidly growing pools of funds that may facilitate the development of mortgage-related securities. Despite such a strong appeal, there are significant barriers to the development of mortgage securities in emerging markets. Their success is dependent on many factors...

Dealing with the Challenges of Macro Financial Linkages in Emerging Markets

Canuto, Otaviano; Ghosh, Swati R.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.57%
The 2008 financial crisis has highlighted the challenges associated with global financial integration and emphasized the importance of macro financial linkages. In the financial sector, attention is being directed toward macro prudential regulations that are geared toward the stability of the financial system as a whole. The Third Basel Accord (Basel III) aims to dampen the pro-cyclicality of the financial sector and to reduce cross sectional systemic risks partly by introducing measures to address liquidity and issues of banks being too big to fail. In the macro arena, the facts that price stability was not sufficient to guarantee macroeconomic stability and that financial imbalances developed despite low inflation and small output gaps have highlighted the need for additional tools (macro prudential policies) to complement monetary policy in countercyclical management. Emerging markets face different conditions and have key structural features that can have a bearing on the relevance and efficacy of the measures. The chapters in this volume discuss the challenges of dealing with macro financial linkages and explore the policy toolkit available for dealing with systemic risks with particular reference to emerging markets. This report is organized as follows: chapter one is adapting macro prudential approaches to emerging and developing economies; chapter two is adapting micro prudential regulation for emerging markets; chapter three presents capital flow volatility and systemic risk in emerging markets: the policy toolkit; chapter four presents monetary policy and macro prudential regulation: whither emerging markets; chapter five deals with macro prudential policies to mitigate financial vulnerabilities in emerging markets; chapter six presents sailing through the global financial storm; and chapter seven presents operation of macro prudential policy measures.

Banking and Regulation in Emerging Markets : The Role of External Discipline

Vives, Xavier
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.47%
This article reviews the main issues of regulating and supervising banks in emerging markets with a view toward evaluating the long-run options. Particular attention is paid to Latin America and East Asia. These economies face a severe policy commitment problem that leads to excessive bailouts and potential devaluation of claims of foreign investors. This exacerbates moral hazard and makes a case for importing external discipline (for example, acquiring foreign short-term debt). However, external discipline may come at the cost of excessive liquidation of entrepreneurial projects. The article reviews the tradeoffs imposed by external discipline and examines various arrangements, such as narrow banking, foreign banks and foreign regulation, and the potential role for an international agency or international lender of last resort.

Responsible Debt Collection in Emerging Markets

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.5%
Emerging market economies have been experiencing high credit growth and high delinquency rates amongst retail banking customers in recent years. However, collections practices have not always kept pace with this rapid growth; many collectors still rely on relatively unstructured processes and weak oversight frameworks. It is therefore important to consider how fair and ethical treatment of borrowers can be better promoted in these markets. To this end, International Finance Corporation (IFC) commissioned a study in 2009 to examine the question of what guiding principles should financial institutions follow to raise their responsible and ethical standards in collections. IFC has subsequently commissioned Oliver Wyman to study existing global retail debt collections practices and recommend tangible actions that lenders and collectors can take to promote responsible and ethical standards in the field. The conclusions of this study are based on field research conducted by IFC and Oliver Wyman, industry experts analysis and opinion...

Infrastructure Investment Demands in Emerging Markets and Developing Economies

Ruiz-Nuñez, Fernanda; Wei, Zichao
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.47%
The authors have assembled 1960–2012 infrastructure stock data from 145 countries to estimate the demand for infrastructure services in emerging markets and developing economies. This paper identifies that the required resource flows to satisfy new demand while maintaining service for existing infrastructure amounts to $836 billion or 6.1 percent of current gross domestic product per year over the period 2014–20. The annual infrastructure investment gap for emerging markets and developing economies is $452 billion per year, which implies that emerging markets and developing economies should almost double their current spending. The paper also estimates that half of the spending should be allocated to maintenance of existing assets. Acknowledging the challenges to compare infrastructure investment estimates across different methodologies, the authors recognize this result as a lower bound estimate and compare the results with others available in the literature.

When markets fall down: are emerging markets all the same?

Ramos, S.; Vermunt, J. K.; Dias, J. G.
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
WOS:000295286200002 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science); This paper studies the dynamics of stock market regimes in emerging markets. Using a mixture version of the standard regime-switching model, we find that the 18 analysed emerging markets can be clustered into three groups. Whereas each of these three groups is characterized by the same two regimes-a bull state with positive returns and low volatility and a bear state with negative returns and high volatility-they clearly differ with respect to their regime-switching dynamics. The first group contains stock markets which swing frequently between the two regimes, the second group shows more regime persistence, and the third group consists of stock markets that are less likely than the others to move to a bear regime period. Standard practice among stock market analysts is to group emerging markets by geographical region. The fact that our model-based clustering is only weakly related to such a regional classification demonstrates the limited validity of the latter. Moreover, a detailed analysis of regime synchronicities across the 18 studied emerging markets shows that there is evidence of regime synchronicity for certain pairs of markets, but this does not rule out that two synchronized markets have different regime dynamics and thus belong to different regime-switching clusters. Hence...

Globalization and Innovation in Emerging Markets

Gorodnichenko, Yuriy; Svejnar, Jan; Terrell, Katherine
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.39%
Globalization brings opportunities and pressures for domestic firms in emerging markets to innovate and improve their competitive position. Using data on firms in 27 transition economies, the authors test for the effects of globalization through the impact of increased competition and foreign direct investment on domestic firms' efforts to innovate (raise their capability) by upgrading their technology, improving the quality of their product or service, or acquiring certification. They find that competition has a negative effect on innovation, especially for firms further from the efficiency frontier, and we do not find support for an inverted U effect of competition on innovation. The authors show that the supply chain of multinational enterprises and international trade are important channels for domestic firms' innovation. They detect no evidence that firms in a more pro-business environment are more likely to display a positive or inverted U relationship between competition and innovation, or that they are more sensitive to foreign presence.

Mutual Fund Investment in Emerging Markets : An Overview

Kaminsky, Graciela L.; Lyons, Richard K.; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.59%
International mutual funds are key contributors to the globalization of financial markets and one of the main sources of capital flows to emerging economies. Despite their importance in emerging markets, little is known about their investment allocation and strategies. This article provides an overview of mutual fund activity in emerging markets. It describes their size, asset allocation, and country allocation and then focuses on their behavior during crises in emerging markets in the 1990s. It analyzes data at both the fund-manager and fund-investor levels. Due to large redemptions and injections, funds' flows are not stable. Withdrawals from emerging markets during recent crises were large, which is consistent with the evidence on financial contagion.

Bank Flows and Basel III—Determinants and Regional Differences in Emerging Markets

Ghosh, Swati; Sugawara, Naotaka; Zalduendo, Juan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.44%
The global financial crisis has led to a range of reform proposals concerning the regulatory framework governing the banking sector collectively referred to as 'Basel III.' Although the proposed reforms are expected to generate substantial benefits by reducing the frequency and intensity of banking crises, concerns have been raised that, in the short term, the costs of moving to higher capital ratios may lead banks to raise their lending rates and reduce lending. This note explores the near-term implications of Basel III capital regulations on bank flows to emerging markets, based on an analysis of the key determinants of these flows.

Implementing Consumer Protection in Emerging Markets and Developing Economies; Mise en oeuvre de la protection des consommateurs dans les pays emergents et en developpement : manuel technique pour les autorites bancaires Aplicacion de la proteccion del consumidor en las economias de mercados emergentes y en desarrollo : guia tecnica para supervisores bancarios; A Technical Guide for Bank Supervisors

Dias, Denise
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.39%
Financial consumer protection regulation reflects the regulator's and policy makers' concerns with the relationship between financial institutions and their clients. Most emerging markets and developing economies (EMDEs) researched for this guide have regulated at least one financial consumer protection topic. Each detail in the regulatory requirements impacts how the supervisor enforces them in practice and which tools and techniques will work best. For example, a rule simply requiring disclosure of an item will be checked by the field supervisor differently than a rule requiring the item to be disclosed at a specific moment and in a specified format. Ignoring the time dimension of this rule can jeopardize its core goal. This guide is an attempt to help bank supervisors enforce such regulations. It is divided into following sections: section one gives introduction. Section two details guidance points in eight areas of interest for supervisory staff and agencies, while section three suggests a prioritization framework for supervisors - particularly those in low-income countries with resource and capacity constraints - that adopt a gradual approach when implementing the guidance.

Tapering Talk : The Impact of Expectations of Reduced Federal Reserve Security Purchases on Emerging Markets

Eichengreen, Barry; Gupta, Poonam
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.48%
In May 2013, Federal Reserve officials first began to talk of the possibility of tapering their security purchases. This tapering talk had a sharp negative impact on emerging markets. Different countries, however, were affected very differently. This paper uses data on exchange rates, foreign reserves and equity prices between April and August 2013 to analyze who was hit and why. It finds that emerging markets that allowed the real exchange rate to appreciate and the current account deficit to widen during the prior period of quantitative easing saw the sharpest impact. Better fundamentals (the budget deficit, the public debt, the level of reserves, or the rate of economic growth) did not provide insulation. A more important determinant of the differential impact was the size of the country's financial market: countries with larger markets experienced more pressure on the exchange rate, foreign reserves, and equity prices. This is interpreted as showing that investors are better able to rebalance their portfolios when the target country has a relatively large and liquid financial market.

Corporate Governance in Emerging Markets : Why It Matters to Investors—and What They Can Do About It

Ararat, Melsa; Dallas, George
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.56%
What should investors do when scholarly research on corporate governance in emerging markets does not provide conclusive evidence on which aspects of governance matter most across all the emerging markets and how they affect firm performance? A researcher and a practitioner team up to offer guidelines and recommendations that focus on board independence and business group affiliation. Every day, institutional investors in emerging markets must make practical decisions on the basis of incomplete and at times conflicting information. So, it is critically important that they make the best use of this imperfect knowledge. Moreover, investors too often enter emerging markets with misguided perceptions of the underlying realities. And worse, they may cling to a conceptual framework of governance that does not allow them even to consider the searching questions they should be asking. This Private Sector Opinion, by the authors, explicitly highlights this problem. The authors identify a serious gap in research on emerging markets between high-level cross-country studies...

Does Information Asymmetry matter in emerging markets?. Evidence from six Latin American stock markets

Agudelo, Diego A.; Villaraga, Edwin; Giraldo, Santiago
Fonte: Universidad EAFIT; Escuela de Economía y Finanzas Publicador: Universidad EAFIT; Escuela de Economía y Finanzas
Tipo: workingPaper; Documento de trabajo de investigación; draf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.36%
Does informed trading affect emerging stock markets? Market microstructure literature establishes that information asymmetry reduces liquidity and moves prices in the direction of the trade. We test for this theoretical implication by running the dynamic PIN model of Easley, Engle, O’Hara y Wu (2008), for stocks of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. We use panel data models to test for the relation between PIN, as a measure of information asymmetry, bid-ask spreads, as a measure of liquidity, and returns. The reported results confirm the mentioned theoretical implications, the empirical validity dynamic PIN model, and contribute to a better understanding of price formation in emerging markets.

Developing new products for emerging markets: a competency based approach

Seyler, Donna; Kang, Kiat Chyai; Place, Matthew
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Capstone Project
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
Emerging markets as represented by BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) countries signify an enormous growth opportunity and a "must win" market for MNCs (multinational companies). It is estimated that by 2013, the middle class in BRIC countries will be larger than the population of Western Europe, USA and Japan combined. For companies focusing on developing new products, emerging markets represent a large and potentially attractive new customer base. Unfortunately, MNCs are strategically disadvantaged in developing new products for the emerging markets. Compared to developed markets, emerging markets have significant geographical, economic, social, culture, infrastructure and governmental differences. The problem is exacerbated as MNCs continue to rely on predictable business models that have been built on years of experience in developed markets. To become a market leader, MNCs must seriously challenge their existing business model and strategic framework to address the nuances of emerging markets. BRIC should be viewed through a different lens and the deeply embedded values, processes and resources modified to win in emerging markets.

Volatility forecasting and value-at-risk estimation in emerging markets: The case of the stock market index portfolio in South Africa

Bonga-Bonga,Lumengo; Mutema,George
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Publicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.36%
Accurate modelling of volatility is important as it relates to the forecasting of Value-at-Risk (VaR). The RiskMetrics model to forecast volatility is the benchmark in the financial sector. In an important regulatory innovation, the Basel Committee has proposed the use of an internal method for modelling VaR instead of the strict use of the benchmark model. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of RiskMetrics in comparison to other models of volatility forecasting, such as some family classes of the Generalised Auto Regressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity models, in forecasting the VaR in emerging markets. This paper makes use of the stock market index portfolio, the All-Share Index, as a case study to evaluate the market risk in emerging markets. The paper underlines the importance of asymmetric behaviour for VaR forecasting in emerging markets' economies.