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Electropolymerization mechanism in aqueous solution of the oxo-manganese complex biomimicking of the enzymatic center present on the photosystem II

Martin, C. S.; Teixeira, M. F S
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 159-165
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.95%
The [Mn4 IVO5(terpy)4(H 2O)2]6+ complex, show great potential for electrode modification by electropolymerization using cyclic voltammetry. The electropolymerization mechanism was based on the electronic transfer between dx2-y2 orbitals of the center metallic and pπ orbital of the ligand, which show great complexity of the system due to orbitals overlap present in octahedral complex of the metal-μ-oxo. The voltammetric behavior both in and after electropolymerization process were also discussed, where the best condition of electropolymerization was observed for low scan rate and 50 potential cycles. A study in ITO/glass electrode for better characterization of polymer was also performed. ©The Electrochemical Society.

Technologies applied to the transport sector: electronic fare collection systems

Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
Electronic transactions are becoming increasingly commonplace in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, despite the collapse of many dotcom firms and the failure of e-commerce to make inroads in the region. In the transport sphere, the gradual incorporation of technology in support of processes and the exchange of money flows between players has brought greater versatility, security and flexibility. In public transport, such initiatives take the form of automatic ticket machines and prepaid card dispensing machines. In urban transit, electronic purses used for the supervision and payment of parking time, and in road pricing, electronic toll systems streamline the process of collecting money; this is especially the case with motorways and urban concessions. And in shipping, electronic transfers are increasingly being used for the payment of customs dues and port charges.In view of the importance of the topic and the interest expressed in it, the Transport Unit has begun a study of these issues, and recently published a paper entitled Sistemas de cobro electrónico de pasajes en el transporte público, ("Electronic systems for payment of tickets in public transport") LC/L.1752-P/E, July 2002, on which this issue of the Bulletin is based.For further information on the study or on technologies applied to the transport sector...

Remittance Markets in Africa

Mohapatra, Sanket; Ratha, Dilip
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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26.36%
A substantive literature suggests that migration generates benefits for migrants, the host societies, and the countries of origin. The economic benefits for the countries of origin are realized primarily through the receipt of remittances. These large and stable resource flows remained relatively resilient during the global financial crisis compared to steep declines in private capital flows, and they have quickly recovered to the pre crisis levels. African countries are estimated to have received $40 billion in officially recorded flows in 2010, but the true size is believed to be far larger. Remittances are associated with reduction in poverty, improved education and health outcomes, and increased availability of funds for small business investments. Remittances represent a positive and relatively noncontroversial outcome of migration. This volume brings together studies of remittance markets in eight Sub-Saharan African countries and two key destinations for African migrants outside the African continent. It provides an overview of the remittance markets...

The Malaysia-Indonesia Remittance Corridor : Making Formal Transfers the Best Option for Women and Undocumented Migrants

Hernández-Coss, Raúl; Brown, Gillian; Buchori, Chitrawati; Endo, Isaku; Todoroki, Emiko; Naovalitha, Tita; Noor, Wameek; Mar, Cynthia
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
EN_US
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36.38%
The corridor between Malaysia and Indonesia is the second largest remittance outflow for Malaysia and the largest remittance inflow for Indonesia. In the East Asia and Pacific Region, Indonesia is the second largest supplier of labor migration with 680,000 overseas worker contracts concluded in 2006 alone. Since 2003, the number of contracts has more than doubled. Malaysia, in general, is a destination for foreign workers because of its economic performance and government recruitment policies aimed to alleviate labor shortages. In addition to these factors, the cultural and geographical proximity of Indonesia makes Malaysia a destination for both documented and undocumented Indonesian migrant workers. This report is a combined effort between the Financial and Private Sector Development and the East Asia and Pacific Social Development units of the World Bank. It is part of a series of studies under both the global Bilateral Remittance Corridor Analysis program and the Indonesia Female Migrant Worker Program. The report analyzes the transfer of remittances by Indonesian migrant workers known as Tenaga Kerja Indonesia (TKI). The main objective of this report is to contribute to policymaking efforts to increase the impact that remittances have on economic growth and poverty reduction in Indonesia...

The UK-Nigeria Remittance Corridor : Challenges of Embracing Formal Transfer Systems in a Dual Financial Environment

Hernández-Coss, Raúl; Bun, Chinyere Egwuagu
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.43%
The UK-Nigeria remittance corridor has an equal dominance of formal and informal remittance intermediaries. Although several formal financial institutions for transferring money exist in the UK, many people choose to send money informally. More collaboration between the UK and Nigeria is necessary to develop the remittance market, to encourage the use of formal channels, and to enhance the development potential. Among its benefits, the remittance country partnership (RCP) between UK and Nigeria aims to reduce the cost of remittance transfers. The Nigerian government is engaging its diaspora to help spur economic growth. This report recommends that each government focus on improving data collection at its end of the corridor and do more research to provide its policymakers and its private sector with accurate information.

The Germany-Serbia Remittance Corridor : Challenges of Establishing a Formal Money Transfer System

De Luna Martinez, José; Endo, Isaku; Barberis, Corrado
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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36.29%
This report provides an overview of remittance flows from Germany to Serbia and analyzes why a large part of remittance transfers take place outside financial institutions. The study presents a series of recommendations on needed policy changes to facilitate the transfer of remittance flows from the informal channels to licensed or registered financial institutions, thereby maximizing the developmental impact of remittances, reducing remittances fees, improving data collection practices, and strengthening the regulation and supervision of the money transfer industry.

The U.S.-Guatemala Remittance Corridor : Understanding Better the Drivers of Remittances Intermediation

Cheikhrouhou, Hela; Jarque, Rodrigo; Hernández-Coss, Raúl; El-Swaify, Radwa
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
This study reports on recent development and future potential for U.S.-based Guatemalan workers cross-border retail transfers to be more formal, cheaper, and disposed to the cross-sale of financial products and services. It also presents the key features of remittances senders, recipients, instruments, and intermediaries involved. The paper focuses on three areas: (a) the main characteristics of the Guatemalan migrants in the United States and the key drivers behind their decision to remit money and to choose an intermediary; (b) financial infrastructure supporting U.S.-Guatemala remittances processing, especially the role of technology, payment systems and innovations going forward, as avenues to help lower transaction costs, among others; and (c) the landscape of workers remittances distribution in Guatemala, examines the characteristics of recipients and the evidence of remittances impact, and analyzes the indications of potential for cross-sale of financial services to recipients.

Electronic Safety and Soundness : Securing Finance in a New Age

Glaessner, Thomas C.; Kellermann, Tom; McNevin, Valerie
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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36.15%
This monograph and its technical annexes identify and discuss four key pillars that are necessary to foster a secure electronic environment and the safety and soundness of financial systems worldwide. Hence, it is intended for those formulating policies in the area of electronic security and those working with financial services providers (such as executives and management). The detailed annexes of this monograph are relevant for chief information and security officers and others who are responsible for securing network systems. First, the monograph defines electronic finance (e-finance) and electronic security (e-security) and explains why these areas require attention. Next, it presents a picture of the emerging global security industry. Then, it develops a risk management framework to assist policymakers and practitioners in understanding the tradeoffs and risks inherent in using an open network infrastructure. It also provides examples of tradeoffs that may arise with respect to technological innovations...

Financial Sector Assessment Program : Saudi Arabia - CPSS Core Principles for Systematically Important Payment Systems

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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26.3%
The present document is the assessment of the systemically important payment systems in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) based on the CPSS Core Principles for Systemically Important Payment Systems (CPSIPS). The document also contains an analysis of some developmental issues related to the reform of the payments system as a whole. The assessment was conducted in the context of the field mission of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) Update to the KSA (April 2011). The assessor of the CPSIPS was Massimo Cirasino. The national payments system (NPS) in Saudi Arabia efficiently serves the needs of a broad set of users. In particular, SAMA has implemented a comprehensive and robust infrastructure to support the provision of payment services and products by commercial banks. The infrastructure is primarily concentrated on payments in riyals and comprises the following systems: (i) the Saudi Arabian Riyal Interbank Express (SARIE) real time gross settlement (RTGS) system, which processes a wide range of large-value and small-value payments and provides settlement facilities for a number of clearing systems...

Mexico : New Technology-Enabled Channels to Scale Up Financial Access

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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26.32%
This is a technical note for the 2011 the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) carried out in Mexico. The focus of this document is the new technology-enabled channels to scale up financial access being employed. Key issues such as a pro-inclusion policy environment and harnessing technology for financial inclusion are discussed. Issues relevant to enabling policy framework, such as new banking regulations for branchless banking, types of licenses, types of accounts, electronic transaction mechanisms, use of banking correspondents outsourcing of operations/IT platforms, as well as other regulations affecting branchless banking propositions, are also elaborated on. Segments are devoted to the market, mobile banking schemes and the consequent recommendations as well.

Electronic Security : Risk Mitigation in Financial Transactions - Public Policy Issues

Glaessner, Thomas; Kellermann, Tom; McNevin, Valerie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.18%
This paper builds on a previous series of papers (see Claessens, Glaessner, and Klingebiel, 2001, 2002) that identified electronic security as a key component to the delivery of electronic finance benefits. This paper and its technical annexes (available separately at http://www1.worldbank.org/finance/) identify and discuss seven key pillars necessary to fostering a secure electronic environment. Hence, it is intended for those formulating broad policies in the area of electronic security and those working with financial services providers (for example, executives and management). The detailed annexes of this paper are especially relevant for chief information and security officers responsible for establishing layered security. First, this paper provides definitions of electronic finance and electronic security and explains why these issues deserve attention. Next, it presents a picture of the burgeoning global electronic security industry. Then it develops a risk-management framework for understanding the risks and tradeoffs inherent in the electronic security infrastructure. It also provides examples of tradeoffs that may arise with respect to technological innovation...

The Opportunities of Digitizing Payments

Klapper, Leora; Singer, Dorothe
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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26.34%
The G20 s focus on financial inclusion directly contributes to its core goal of achieving strong, sustainable, and balanced growth. Studies show that broader access to and participation in the financial system can reduce income inequality, boost job creation, accelerate consumption, increase investments in human capital, and directly help poor people manage risk and absorb financial shocks.

The Global Findex Database 2014

Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Klapper, Leora; Singer, Dorothe; Van Oudheusden, Peter
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
The Global Financial Inclusion (Global Findex) database, launched by the World Bank in 2011, provides comparable indicators showing how people around the world save, borrow, make payments, and manage risk. The 2014 edition of the database reveals that 62 percent of adults worldwide have an account at a bank or another type of financial institution or with a mobile money provider. Between 2011 and 2014, 700 million adults became account holders while the number of those without an account—the unbanked—dropped by 20 percent to 2 billion. What drove this increase in account ownership? A growth in account penetration of 13 percentage points in developing economies and innovations in technology—particularly mobile money, which is helping to rapidly expand access to financial services in Sub-Saharan Africa. Along with these gains, the data also show that big opportunities remain to increase financial inclusion, especially among women and poor people. Governments and the private sector can play a pivotal role by shifting the payment of wages and government transfers from cash into accounts. There are also large opportunities to spur greater use of accounts...

Developing Scalable and Transparent Benefit Payment Systems in Myanmar

Stokkel, Inge
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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36.41%
Similar to other low-income countries, in Myanmar social protection benefits are usually provided through direct cash or food distribution. With the rapid development of the financial and telecommunications market in the country, there is the potential for a gradual transition to electronic payment systems for current and future social protection transfers, once adequate legal and regulatory frameworks are in place. This will make the delivery of payments cheaper, quicker, safer, and more transparent. In addition, increasing the connectivity of the people of Myanmar, especially the poor and vulnerable, to financial services will not only accelerate povertyreduction but also promote inclusive economic growth.

Malaysia : Sustainable Adoption of Innovative Channels for Financial Inclusion

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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26.31%
This note focuses on the regulatory and market environment relevant to the emergence and adoption of innovative delivery channels to promote greater financial inclusion in Malaysia. Financial inclusion is defined here not only as providing access to financial services, but also as enabling and promoting increased usage of those services. Achieving higher levels of access and usage requires an extensive and efficient retail payments infrastructure, affordable financial products that meet the needs of customers, and actions to address cultural and social factors that influence customers' choices. This note therefore considers the implications for financial inclusion of Malaysia's evolving retail payments landscape and the country's potential to go beyond providing physical access to services. Malaysia has achieved remarkable progress in providing access to basic bank accounts to the majority of the population and credit to small and medium enterprises. Increasing access and usage will depend, to a large extent...

Turkey : Rural Finance Study, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.1%
Over the past five years in Turkey, the agricultural and rural sector has seen substantial change in transfer policies which now place greater emphasis on improved equity and investment. These have been summarized in the earlier World Bank "Review of the Impact of the Reform of Agricultural Sector Subsidization (2004), and "Policy and Investment Priorities for Agricultural and Rural Development" (2005). Currently, the structural changes in the agricultural sector and rural employment generation in response to labor shedding in the agricultural sector are key challenges to which Turkey is responding in the design of and agricultural and rural development strategy. However, the impact of government transfers and public investment policies in the rural sector will be limited unless the supply of, access to, and demand for rural financial services is significantly increased. For these reasons, the Turkey Rural Finance study (RFS) seeks to establish a policy agenda for the Government of Turkey (GOT) in order to contribute to the effort of renewed growth of the rural financial system after a period of prolonged decline. In order to inform this policy agenda...

The Qatar-Nepal Remittance Corridor : Enhancing the Impact and Integrity of Remittance Flows by Reducing Inefficiencies in the Migration Process

Endo, Isaku; Afram, Gabi G.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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36.46%
Remittance inflows play a crucial role in Nepal's economy. Officially recorded remittances already amounted to almost a quarter of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2009. The 2008-09 global economic crises resulted in slower growth of remittance inflows in Nepal, leading directly to lower disposable income. This is a telling reminder of the importance of promoting a supportive environment for remittances. Nepali migration continues to increase as workers seek greater economic opportunities abroad. In this quest, Qatar is one of the important migration destinations for Nepali migrant workers. This report analyzes the migration and remittance transfer processes in the Qatar-Nepal Corridor in order to provide policy recommendations that would help improve the scale and impact of remittance transfers from Qatar to Nepal, and enhance the efficiency and integrity of migration and remittances in the corridor. The report identifies challenges in the migration process from Nepal to Qatar (related to high migration costs and their financing) and constraints in the remittance transfer process from Qatar to Nepal...

Migrant Remittance Flows : Findings from a Global Survey of Central Banks

Irving, Jacqueline; Mohapatra, Sanket; Ratha, Dilip
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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36.44%
Drawing on the findings from responses to a survey conducted in 2008-09 from 114 central banks worldwide (of which 33 are in Africa), this paper aims to better understand how central banks and other national institutions regulate and collect data and other information on cross-border remittance flows. Findings indicate that, although the vast majority of countries, in both sending and receiving countries, collect data on remittances, and 43 percent of receiving countries estimate informal remittances, there is a need for more frequent and better coordinated data collection, both across national institutions and among different divisions within the same national institution, as well as between countries. Survey results also indicate that many new market entrants' transfer activities are unregulated. Countries must take into account new channels and technologies, such as mobile phone service providers, in monitoring remittance flows. It will be important for national regulatory authorities to work closely with mobile telecoms network operators to strike the right regulatory balance...

Bitcoin Versus Electronic Money; El bitcoin versus el dinero electronico

Rotman, Sarah
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.06%
Bitcoin has had a volatile journey since it was launched in 2009, attracting attention among conventional investors as well as the black market. Regulators and policy makers are also following Bitcoin, raising the occasional eyebrow as they evaluate Bitcoin's risks and benefits and how to regulate this little understood virtual currency. Some media reports have confused Bitcoin with more popular electronic money (e-money) schemes used in many low-income countries to reach the unbanked. But the two are markedly different and should not be conflated. This brief provides information about Bitcoin and contrasts Bitcoin with e-money to avoid alarm about the former to the detriment of the latter.

Increasing Revenues for India Post through Expanding Channeling of Financial Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.34%
This report analyzes possibilities for increasing revenues for India Post through expanding channeling of financial services. The Indian postal network is among the largest networks in the world in terms of area covered and population served, and constitutes an important mechanism of achieving transportation and communication. Within India Post, the Post Office Savings Bank (POSB) is one of the oldest and largest financial institutions (with largest deposit base) in the country. The key objective of POSB is to provide people living in rural, semi-urban, remote and inaccessible areas of the country with an easy and reliable means of making investments, making remittances and operating savings accounts. It is of strategic importance for POSB to increase market-based revenues so as to gain better control of its market orientation and revenue structure. In addition, though POSB still retains competitive advantages over commercial banks, it will not be long before the competition replicates these advantages. Hence...