Página 1 dos resultados de 8731 itens digitais encontrados em 0.010 segundos

Managing an Electricity Shortfall : A Guide for Policy Makers

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.06%
Economic growth in Central America has increased rapidly over the past 20 years. Currently, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita for the six Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama averages approximately US$3,600. However, masked behind this average figure is a Sub region of 40 million people with a wide variety of income, where more than half of the population lives in poverty. Energy in general and electricity specifically are critical for economic development. Electricity is needed to power the machinery that supports income-generating opportunities. Capital (both domestic and foreign) is attracted to countries that are able to offer an affordable, reliable source of electricity for businesses. Although the individual electricity markets of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama are not large, together the six countries collectively generated nearly 38 Terawatt-hours (TWh) of power, equivalent to around 70 percent of the annual electricity supply of a medium-sized country in Latin America. The World Bank has undertaken a series of studies to better understand the energy challenges facing these six Central American countries that are to be joined by Sistema de Interconexion Electrica para America Central (SIEPAC) and to identify actions to promote the sound development of the sector. These studies have been prepared by a team of policy experts...

The Impacts of Metering and Climate Conditions on Residential Electricity Demand : The Case of Albania

Iimi, Atsushi
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.05%
Albania is among the most vulnerable countries to external energy shocks and climatic conditions, because of its high dependency on hydropower for electricity. Given highly volatile international energy prices and expected global warming, it is becoming increasingly important to manage the demand for electricity. However, the country has long been faced with a significant problem of electricity metering. About one-third of total energy is lost for technical and nontechnical reasons. This paper estimates the residential demand function by applying a two-stage system equation method for an endogenous censored variable, because the lack of metering makes the electricity consumption partially observable for the econometrician. It is found that metering is important to curb non-essential electricity use by households. The electricity demand could also be reduced by raising the first block rate and lowering the second block rate and the threshold between the two blocks. In addition, weather conditions and home appliance ownership would affect the demand for electricity. But the latter looks more influential than the former.

Connection Charges and Electricity Access in Sub-Saharan Africa

Golumbeanu, Raluca; Barnes, Douglas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
Sub-Saharan Africa trails other regions in providing access to electricity for poor urban and rural residents. This poor performance can be linked to various factors, including political interference in utility policy, higher investment costs and lower profitability of extending service to rural areas. But a major obstacle to wider access is the high charges consumers must pay to connect to the electricity network. The connection charges in Sub-Saharan Africa are among the highest in the world, which has resulted in low rates of electrification in many countries. This paper reviews ways to improve electrification rates by addressing the issue of high connection charges. Essential to the success of such efforts is concurrent political commitment to identify, examine, and implement various low-cost electrification approaches and financing solutions as part of a broad plan to improve access. Electricity companies can lower their connection-related costs, and thus consumer charges, by using a variety of low-cost technologies and materials in distribution networks and household connections; making bulk purchases of materials; and adjusting technical standards to reflect the lower loads of households that use a minimum amount of electricity. Strategies for lowering connection charges may also include spreading charges over a reasonable period...

Shanghai : Developing a Green Electricity Scheme

Berrah, Noureddine; Heijndermans, Enno; Crowdis, Mark D.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
This report documents the experience of developing a green electricity scheme in Shanghai, China. It is intended to be a resource when replicating this effort in another city or country. The study consists of two parts. In Part 1, the general characteristics of both the framework for green electricity products and the market for green electricity products are presented. It also presents a summary of international experience, including a description of the green electricity concept and the market penetration in different countries, the characteristics of frameworks under which renewable electricity products are developed, and the characteristics of products developed under these frameworks. Different options for verifying and certifying frameworks are discussed on the basis of case studies. Finally, the required institutional framework and options for awareness creation and marketing are examined. In Part 2, the culminating framework and product characteristics for Shanghai are presented. The report provides a description of the scope of green electricity in Shanghai and it also describes the emerging Shanghai framework for green electricity products. At the end of Part 2...

Integration of Electricity Networks in the Arab World : Regional Market Structure and Design

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.09%
The Arab countries have enjoyed sustained economic growth in recent years, and the high economic growth has triggered a rapid increase in energy demand, particularly for electricity. Besides enabling energy imports, interconnected power networks impart a series of additional benefits such as improved system reliability, reduced reserve margins, reactive power support, and energy exchanges that take advantage of daily and seasonal demand diversity and disparities in marginal production costs. As a result, a world-class electricity supply system can be achieved with much lower capital expenditures and ongoing expenses than will otherwise be attainable on an individual-country basis. The regional power interconnection of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), allows electricity exchange among its six member states: Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Oman under an agreement signed in 2009. The interconnection is targeted at sharing capacity reserve and improving supply reliability...

Institutional Arrangements for the Promotion of Regional Integration of Electricity Markets : International Experience

Oseni, Musiliu O.; Pollitt, Michael G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.06%
This paper focuses on the institutional arrangements needed for facilitating regional electricity cooperation. The paper begins by discussing the theory of international trade cooperation in electricity, with a view to discussing what preconditions might be important in facilitating wide area trading across national borders. It then discusses two sets of case studies. The first set focuses on three regional developing country power pools -- the Southern African Power Pool, the West African Power Pool, and the Central American Power Market. The second set focuses on three regional power pools in more developed countries -- one in the United States, the Single Electricity Market in Ireland, and the South East Europe market. These cases highlight the potential and difficulty of having cross-jurisdictional power pools. In the light of the theory and evidence presented, key lessons are drawn in the areas of preconditions for trading, necessary institutional arrangements, practicalities of timetabling, reasons to be hopeful about future prospects...

Power for All : Electricity Access Challenge in India

Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh; Barnes, Douglas; Singh, Bipul; Mayer, Kristy; Samad, Hussain
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.09%
India has led the developing world in addressing rural energy problems. By late 2012, the national electricity grid had reached 92 percent of India s rural villages, about 880 million people. In more remote areas and those with geographically difficult terrain, where grid extension is not economically viable, off-grid solutions using renewable-energy sources for electricity generation and distribution have been promoted. The positive results of the country s rural energy policies and institutions have contributed greatly to reducing the number of people globally who remain without electricity access. Yet, owing mainly to its large population, India has by far the world s largest number of households without electricity. More than one-quarter of its population or about 311 million people, the vast majority of whom live in poorer rural areas, still lack an electricity connection; less than half of all households in the poorest income group have electricity. Among households with electricity service, hundreds of millions lack reliable power supply.

Sustainability of Solar Electricity : The Role of Endogenous Resource Substitution and Market Mediated Responses

Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Satija, Gaurav; Zhao, Fu
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.06%
This study seeks to understand how materials scarcity and competition from alternative uses affects the potential for widespread deployment of solar electricity in the long run, in light of related technology and policy uncertainties. Simulation results of a computable partial equilibrium model predict a considerable expansion of solar electricity generation worldwide in the near decades, as generation technologies improve and production costs fall. Increasing materials scarcity becomes a significant constraint for further expansion of solar generation, which grows considerably slower in the second half of the coming century. Solar generation capacity increases with higher energy demand, squeezing consumption in industries that compete for scarce minerals. Stringent climate policies hamper growth in intermittent solar photovoltaics backed by fossil fuel powered plants, but lead to a small increase in non-intermittent concentrated solar power technology. By the end of the coming century, solar electricity remains a marginal source of global electricity supply even in the world of higher energy demand...

Cross-Border Electricity Cooperation in South Asia

Singh, Anoop; Jamasb, Tooraj; Nepal, Rabindra; Toman, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.06%
South Asian countries, facing challenges in efficiently meeting growing electricity demand, can benefit from increased cross-border electricity cooperation and trade by harnessing complementarities in electricity demand patterns, diversity in resource endowments for power generation, and gains from larger market access. The region has witnessed slow progress in expanding regional electricity cooperation and trade, and undertaking needed domestic sector reforms. Although bilateral electricity sector cooperation in the region is increasing, broader regional cooperation and trade initiatives have lagged in the face of regional barriers and domestic sector inefficiencies. Deeper electricity market reforms are not a necessity for further development of cross-border electricity trade, but limited progress in overcoming regional and domestic barriers will limit the scope of the regional market and the benefits it can provide.

Tajikistan's Winter Energy Crisis : Electricity Supply and Demand Alternatives

Fields, Daryl; Kochnakyan, Artur; Mukhamedova, Takhmina; Stuggins, Gary; Besant-Jones, John
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
Tajikistan's electricity system is in a state of crisis. Approximately 70 percent of the Tajik people suffer from extensive shortages of electricity during the winter. These shortages, estimated at about 2,700 GWh, about a quarter of winter electricity demand, impose economic losses estimated at over United States (US) 200 million dollars per annum or 3 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The electricity shortages have not been addressed because investments have not been made in new electricity supply capacity and maintenance of existing assets has not improved. The financial incentive for electricity consumers to reduce their consumption is inadequate as electricity prices are among the lowest in the world. Without prompt action to remedy the causes of Tajikistan's electricity crisis and with growing demand, the shortages could increase to about 4,500 GWh by 2016 (over a third of winter electricity demand) or worse. The World Bank undertook this study to assist the Government of Tajikistan (GoT) in finding ways to overcome the current electricity shortages and establish a sound basis for meeting the growing electricity demand in Tajikistan. The study focuses on the investments and policy reforms needed between now and 2020 to strengthen the financial...

Meeting the Balance of Electricity Supply and Demand in Latin America and the Caribbean

Yepez-Garcia, Rigoberto Ariel; Johnson, Todd M.; Andres, Luis Alberto
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
Economic growth in the Latin America and the Caribbean region has picked up considerably during the past decade or so. This growth has been aided by widespread (earlier and more recent) investments in power generation, transmission, and distribution that increased the provision of electricity services to households, commerce, and industry. This report evaluates a number of critical issues for the power sector in the region in the coming two decades. These include the expected rates of increase in the demand for electricity, the required supply of new generating capacity, the technology and fuel mix of that generating capacity, and the carbon dioxide emissions of the sector. One of the key contributions of this study is the aggregation of individual country plans to the regional and sub regional levels, using a consistent set of data and a common methodology. The report also assesses the important roles of hydropower and natural gas, the way other clean and low-carbon resources can be expanded, the potential and benefits of greater electricity trade...

Current and Forthcoming Issues in the South African Electricity Sector

Kessides, Ioannis N.; Bogetic, Zeljko; Maurer, Luiz
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
One of the contentious issues in electricity reform is whether there are significant gains from restructuring systems that are moderately well run. South Africa's electricity system is a case in point. The sector's state-owned utility, Eskom, has been generating some of the lowest-priced electricity in the world, has largely achieved revenue adequacy, and has financed the bulk of the government's ambitious electrification program. Moreover, the key technical performance indicators of Eskom's generation plants have reached world-class levels. Yet the sector is confronted today with serious challenges. South Africa's electricity system is currently facing a tight demand/supply balance, and the distribution segment of the industry is in serious financial trouble. This paper provides a careful diagnostic assessment of the industry and identifies a range of policy and restructuring options to improve its performance. It suggests removing distribution from municipal control and privatizing it, calls for vertical and horizontal unbundling...

Tajikistan’s Winter Energy Crisis : Electricity Supply and Demand Alternatives

Fields, Daryl; Kochnakyan, Artur; Stuggins, Gary; Besant-Jones, John
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy-Environment Review; Economic & Sector Work
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.06%
Reliable power supply is critical for Tajikistan's economy and poverty reduction goals. Without reliable, affordable electricity throughout the year, Tajikistan's businesses cannot invest, operate and create jobs; hospitals and schools cannot function fully or safely with frequent power cuts during winter; citizens suffer indoor air pollution from burning wood for heating and cooking. Electricity also powers the country's two largest exports: aluminum and agricultural produce, which account for about 30 percent of Tajikistan's annual gross domestic product and almost 45 percent of export earnings. Currently, electricity is the cheapest available resource to heat homes so the residential and commercial sectors are highly dependent on electricity for heat as well as lighting and industrial processes. The Government is responsible for guiding programs that keep power supply apace with demand. The purpose of this study is to assist the Government in further defining ways to meet growing demand for electricity in Tajikistan, with a particular focus on the recurring winter shortages which amount to about 24 percent of winter demand. The study also examines the potential benefits of power exports, particularly during summers when hydropower plants spill energy. The study explores a range of alternatives to meet electricity demand as quickly as possible and develop a short term plan of action to alleviate the social and economic costs of winter shortages. The study focuses on multiple initiatives that can be started immediately and simultaneously...

The Transition from Underpricing Residential Electricity in Bangladesh : Fiscal and Distributional Impacts

Ahmed, Faizuddin; Trimble, Chris; Yoshida, Nobuo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.06%
The electricity sector in Bangladesh has been facing unprecedented challenges, with severe capacity constraints and sector subsidies that quadrupled from 0.2 percent to 0.8 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) between 2010 and 2012, driving the government's fiscal deficit deeper. This policy note examines the poverty and distribution impact of one such reform-residential electricity tariff increases-along with their fiscal implications. A challenge of such adjustments is how to minimize their impact on the poor and vulnerable. Using household survey data, this report studies the distributional and fiscal implications of the residential tariff adjustments between March 2010 and March 2012 on to inform policy dialogue on the provision and targeting of electricity subsidies. Electricity subsidies are defined as the difference between the cost of supplying a unit of electricity and the tariff the end-user is charged for a given unit. Between 2010 and 2012, real cost of supply increased almost 20 percent. This policy note focuses on just one part of a much broader and complex system of connected energy policies. The policy implications of this analysis should only be considered in light of this broader context. In particular...

Cambodia Power Sector : Technical Assistance for Capacity Building of the Electricity Authority of Cambodia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.06%
The Electricity Authority of Cambodia (EAC) is in its nascent stage of development. However, it has undertaken initial steps toward increasing public awareness of electricity regulation and issuing licenses to larger scale generators and distributors in urban areas. EAC's next important task is to formalize the operations of small-scale private operators in the rural areas. The regulatory framework for rural electricity operations in the country has yet to be fully developed. Guidelines and procedures are currently being drafted by EAC, but they still have to be tested thus, gradual revisions can be anticipated and precedents must be established. In addition, the scope of EAC's operations must be expanded to include, among other things, definitions of technical standards and procedures for determining tariff levels. In view of EAC's extensive work plan, the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) has provided a grant toward the financing for a technical advisor to support EAC in these activities.

Spatial Dynamics of Electricity Usage in India

Ghani, Ejaz; Goswami, Arti Grover; Kerr, William R.
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.06%
India's manufacturing sector has undergone many spatial adjustments since 1989, including, for example, the organized sector's migration to rural locations, the powerful rise of informal manufacturing within cities, and the development of intermediate cities for manufacturing. This paper investigates the impact of these spatial adjustments for electricity usage in India s manufacturing sector. Striking spatial differences in energy usage exist, and whether spatial adjustments exacerbate or alleviate energy consumption strains is important for issues ranging from reducing India's power blackouts to stemming rising pollution levels. Using detailed surveys for the organized and unorganized sectors, the analysis finds that electricity usage per unit of output in urban plants declined steadily during 1989-2010. In the rural areas, by contrast, electricity consumption per unit of output for organized sector plants peaked in 2000 and thereafter declined. Decomposing the observed trends in aggregate electricity usage from 2000 onwards...

Reforming Electricity Subsidies in Pakistan : Measures to Protect the Poor

Walker, Thomas; Sahin, Sebnem; Saqib, Mohammad; Mayer, Kristy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.06%
As part of its energy sector reforms, the Government of Pakistan plans to reduce spending on electricity subsidies to 0.3-0.4 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) by mid-2016. The reforms will alleviate a major constraint on the government's budget. However, they will necessitate increases in the price of electricity, which have the potential to measurably reduce the welfare of the poor. The government will need to carefully design the price increases and provide associated compensation to avoid this outcome. This paper demonstrates that that it is possible for the government to protect the poor against most of the costs of the reform while at the same time improving the targeting of remaining subsidy expenditures. Measures that can be taken include targeting subsidies based on poverty scores and providing targeted cash compensation to poor households. The authors illustrate how these measures can be implemented, and estimate their associated welfare impacts.

Lebanon - Social Impact Analysis : Electricity and Water Sectors

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.06%
The purpose of this Social Impact Analysis (SIA) is to probe the social, poverty, and equity dimensions of electricity and water sector reforms' and provide meaningful analysis to policy makers based on recently collected data. With a focus on households, the end users of utility services, the study complements the recent and ongoing studies on the Lebanon water and energy sectors that deal with more technical and supply side issues. The study assesses how poor and vulnerable households are affected by the current utility service situation and how they may be affected by reform proposals under deliberation. The aim is to provide policy makers with a deeper understanding of the social dimensions of water and electricity consumption as well as tools for estimating the distributional impacts of reform measures. This study followed the Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) approach, an increasingly common approach, used both within and outside the World Bank to evaluate the distributional impacts of policy reforms. Chapter two provides a review of household electricity supply and demand...

Assessment and Action Plan to Improve Payment for Electricity Services in the Palestinian Territories

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.1%
The Palestinian Territories (West Bank and Gaza Strip) are highly dependent on energy imports from neighboring countries because of its lack of domestic energy resources. The Israeli Electricity Corporation (IEC) is the largest supplier of electricity to the Territories, supplying around 88 percent of its total electricity consumption. In this context the Palestinian Authority (PA) has been actively engaged in a comprehensive reform of the electricity sector to increase its overall efficiency, bringing in the commitment and involvement of all stakeholders and resulting in the creation of a well-structured electricity market. Alongside steady increase in electricity consumption, however, non-payment for electricity imported from the IEC has increased over the past few years, amounting to 58 percent of its total cost. The non-payments or partial payments of these bills create deficient for the IEC, which then leads the Israeli government to proceed with monthly deductions from the clearance revenue, thus accruing as debt. This assessment aims to precisely understand the sources and the reasons for non-payment of electricity in the Territories and to develop an action plan based on current programs and activities led by the Palestinian Energy and Natural Resources Authority (PENRA) and the donor community. The impacts of non-payment for electricity on the complete financial payment cycle are assessed in detail. An overview of the Palestinian Electricity Sector is provided in Chapter 2...

Local variation of the superficial atmospheric electricity activity in a tropical region

Falcón Veloz, Nelson Leonardo; Rojas, S; Guerra, O; Jiménez, J
Fonte: Society of Atmospheric Electricity of Japan Publicador: Society of Atmospheric Electricity of Japan
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ES_ES
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
A study of the atmospheric surface electrical activity in the Maracay city (10°14'59.1"N 67°37'20.6"W 436masl) is performed, through the analysis of the Carnegie curve. We present the methodological construction of the Field Mill, for the measurement of the electric field atmospheric, and a counter of atmospheric ions, based on the capacitor Gerdien. We shown that the local heating due to convective movement during the morning could change the concentration of ions, and subsequently, produce a second local mínimum in the curve of the local electric field, this second minimum is not a feature of the Carnegie curve. We conclude that the curve of local variation of the superficial atmospheric electricity activity, under conditions of clear skies and no clouds, for the tropical region, as in the Maracay city, is functionally similar to Carnegie curve.