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Educational levels and the functional dependence of ischemic stroke survivors; Nível de escolaridade e dependência funcional em sobreviventes de acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico

Fernandes, Tiotrefis G.; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Santos-Junior, Waldyr R.; Alencar, Airlane P.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade
Fonte: CADERNOS SAUDE PUBLICA; RIO DE JANIERO Publicador: CADERNOS SAUDE PUBLICA; RIO DE JANIERO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.86%
We evaluated the functional dependence of stroke survivors from the Study of Stroke Mortality and Morbidity, using the Rankin Scale. Out of 355 ischemic stroke survivors (with a mean age of 67.9 years), 40% had some functional dependence at 28 days and 34.4% had some functional dependence at 6 months. Most predictors of physical dependence were identified at 28 days. These predictors were: low levels of education [illiterate vs. >= 8 years of education, multivariate odds ratio (OR) = 3.7; 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.60-8.54] and anatomical stroke location (total anterior circulation infarct, OR = 16.9; 95%CI: 2.93-97.49). Low levels of education and ischemic brain injury influenced functional dependence in these stroke survivors. Our findings reinforce the necessity of developing strategies for the rehabilitation of stroke patients, more especially in formulating specific strategies for care and treatment of stroke survivors with low socioeconomic status.; Foi avaliada a dependência funcional em sobreviventes de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) do Estudo da Mortalidade e Morbidade do Acidente Vascular Cerebral, utilizando a Escala de Rankin. De 355 sobreviventes com AVC isquêmico (idade média de 67,9 anos), 40% tinham dependência funcional em 28 dias e 34...

Psychophysical power functions for estimates of area: Effects of age and educational levels

Alliprandini, PMZ; Longo, O.; de Souza, C.; Da Silva, J. A.; Killeen, P. R.; Uttal, W. R.
Fonte: Arizona Stat Univ, Dept Psychology Publicador: Arizona Stat Univ, Dept Psychology
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 210-215
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
The purpose of the present study was to verify the memory exponents of power function for area in observers of different age and educational levels (elementary school, high school or undergraduate school), using the psychophysics method of magnitude estimation. For the age level I (17 to 30 years old) there was no difference among educational levels, although for the age level II (45 to 60 years old) the differences were significant. Tn the age level II, there was a tendency for greater variability of the responses for lower educational levels. The data obtained for the age level I did not show the same results, although a significant difference among the three educational levels was observed. We call conclude that the mnemonic processes present different results when we observe the answers from observers with different ages. This result leads us to suppose that the motivational factor related to the stimulus used can interact with the mnemonic processes.

Intelligence of adolescents is related to their parents’ educational level but not to family income

Lemos, Gina C.; Almeida, Leandro S.; Colom, Roberto
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
Parental educational level and family income have been related to individual differences in intelligence. However, large and representative samples are hardly available. Here two samples of young and old adolescents totaling 3233 boys and girls completed an intelligence battery comprising abstract, numerical, verbal, mechanical, and spatial reasoning subtests. Parents’ educational levels, family incomes, and adolescents’ general intelligence (g) were simultaneously related using SEM (structural equation modeling) analyses. The main findings show that (1) parental education strongly predicts family differences in income, (2) family income is not related to adolescents’ intelligence, and (3) parents’ education predicts adolescents’ intelligence regardless of family income. Because it is widely acknowledged that personal intelligence is the best predictor of educational differences, the next causal chain is endorsed: brighter parents reach higher levels of education, which allows approaching better occupations, and, therefore, they can create families with higher incomes. Adolescents from more affluent families tend to be brighter because their parents are brighter, not because they enjoy better family environments.

Low educational level effects on the performance of healthy adults on a Neuropsychological Protocol suggested by the Commission on Neuropsychology of the Liga Brasileira de Epilepsia

Santos,Erich Belzunces dos; Tudesco,Ivanda de Souza Silva; Caboclo,Luis Otávio S.F.; Yacubian,Elza Márcia T.
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.89%
OBJECTIVE: To assess cognitive measures and impact of education on cognitive performance (CP) of low educational levels healthy adults (LELHA) on a Neuropsychological Protocol (NP) suggested by the Liga Brasileira de Epilepsia. METHOD: 138 subjects from an Education Program for Adults divided into two, age and gender matched groups of 69 subjects, answered the NP: Group 1 (mean of 6.9±2.95 months of formal education) and Group 2, 47.8±10 months. Data were compared as z-scores. RESULTS: The mean IQ was 77.1±5.50 and 79.4±3.30 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.001). Both performed below the normal curve and Group 1 worse than 2. CP correlated with schooling, especially executive functions (54.1% vs 36.2%) and language (52.9% vs 25.7%). CONCLUSION: LELHA showed significant cognitive impairment in verbal and visuospatial areas. If these results had been obtained in epilepsy patients they would be interpreted as global cognitive impairment.

Educational levels and the functional dependence of ischemic stroke survivors

Fernandes,Tiótrefis G.; Goulart,Alessandra C.; Santos-Junior,Waldyr R.; Alencar,Airlane P.; Benseñor,Isabela M.; Lotufo,Paulo A.
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.86%
We evaluated the functional dependence of stroke survivors from the Study of Stroke Mortality and Morbidity, using the Rankin Scale. Out of 355 ischemic stroke survivors (with a mean age of 67.9 years), 40% had some functional dependence at 28 days and 34.4% had some functional dependence at 6 months. Most predictors of physical dependence were identified at 28 days. These predictors were: low levels of education [illiterate vs. > 8 years of education, multivariate odds ratio (OR) = 3.7; 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.60-8.54] and anatomical stroke location (total anterior circulation infarct, OR = 16.9; 95%CI: 2.93-97.49). Low levels of education and ischemic brain injury influenced functional dependence in these stroke survivors. Our findings reinforce the necessity of developing strategies for the rehabilitation of stroke patients, more especially in formulating specific strategies for care and treatment of stroke survivors with low socioeconomic status.

A Dime a Day : The Possibilities and Limits of Private Schooling in Pakistan

Andrabi, Tahir; Das, Jishnu; Khwaja, Asim Ijaz
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
This paper looks at the private schooling sector in Pakistan, a country that is seriously behind schedule in achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Using new data, the authors document the phenomenal rise of the private sector in Pakistan and show that an increasing segment of children enrolled in private schools are from rural areas and from middle-class and poorer families. The key element in their rise is their low fees-the average fee of a rural private school in Pakistan is less than a dime a day (Rs.6). They hire predominantly local, female, and moderately educated teachers who have limited alternative opportunities outside the village. Hiring these teachers at low cost allows the savings to be passed on to parents through low fees. This mechanism-the need to hire teachers with a certain demographic profile so that salary costs are minimized-defines the possibility of private schools: where they arise, fees are low. It also defines their limits. Private schools are horizontally constrained in that they arise in villages where there is a pool of secondary educated women. They are also vertically constrained in that they are unlikely to cater to the secondary levels in rural areas, at least until there is an increase in the supply of potential teachers with the required skills and educational levels.

Survey of ICT and Education in Africa : Sierra Leone Country Report

Mangesi, Kofi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.98%
This short country report, a result of larger Information for Development Program (infoDev) - supported survey of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education in Africa, provides a general overview of current activities and issues related to ICT use in education in the country. As a country recovering from a devastating civil war that destroyed its infrastructure, Sierra Leone has huge gaps in both ICT policy-making and implementation both at the national and educational levels. An ICT policy has still not been finalized, and the education sector has no systematic policy of integrating ICTs at all levels. There seems, however, to be a strong governmental will to make ICT a core component of its education reforms.

Egypt : Inequality of Opportunity in Education

Ersado, Lire; Gignoux, Jeremie
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
The paper examines the levels and trends in access to education and educational outcomes across generations of Egyptian youth. Examination of three cohorts of individuals aged 21 to 24 (born between 1964 and 1967, 1974 and 1977, and 1982 and 1985) shows that access to education has substantially improved during the last three decades. Completion rates increased by more than 60 percent at the preparatory level and 70 percent at the secondary level and the college completion rate more than doubled. However, significant inequities remain in access to education and educational outcomes. The fraction of never enrolled among the cohorts is still large, affecting more girls than boys, more rural than urban areas, and more children of parents with lower level of education and in elementary occupations, such as subsistence agriculture. The analysis of test-scores from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and national examinations shows that more than a quarter of learning outcome inequality is attributable to circumstances beyond the control of a student...

Früher Fremdsprachenunterricht in Baden-Württemberg. Drei Fallstudien. Die Umsetzung der Bildungsstandards im frühen Fremdsprachenunterricht ...; Early foreign language teaching in Baden-Württemberg. 3 case studies. The application of educational standards in foreign language teaching ...

Bleutge, Christine
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
In dieser Arbeit will ich darstellen, auf welchen Prinzipien die Einführung des Fremdsprachenunterrichts in Baden-Württemberg basiert. Ebenso erarbeite ich, wie die Bildungsstandards umgesetzt werden und welche Empfehlungen für die zukünftige Umsetzung gegeben werden können. Die Untersuchung legt die Zielvorgaben in Form der Bildungsstandards dar und zeigt die Umsetzung des Fremdsprachenunterrichts anhand von drei Fallstudien. Im Mittelpunkt der Arbeit steht der Fremdsprachenunterricht an einer Grundschule, einer Schule für Kinder mit Sprachbehinderung und einer Schule für Kinder mit Lernbehinderung, der anhand von Unterrichtstranskriptionen dargestellt und analysiert wird. Aufgrund einer Befragung der beteiligten Lehrkräfte erfasse ich Umfeldbedingungen und soziale Hintergründe sowie die Umsetzung der Bildungsstandards. Auch die Organisation des Fremdsprachenunterrichts und die Haltung der Eltern und SchülerInnen wird erfasst. Die Untersuchung findet im Fach der Schulpädagogik und im Kontext ihrer Grundlagen statt. Nach einem Überblick über die Methoden der qualitativen Sozialforschung, einer Darlegung des methodischen Vorgehens – Kapitel 3 - diskutiere ich in den Kapiteln 4, 5 und 6 die für die Umsetzung des Fremdsprachenunterrichts relevanten Einflussfaktoren. Dies sind historische...

Educational Achievement of Immigrants in Western Countries: Origin, Destination, and Community Effects on Mathematical Performance

KRAAYKAMP, Gerbert; LEVELS, Mark; DRONKERS, Jaap
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 500567 bytes
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
Why do immigrants in different countries perform differently at school, and what explains the fact that immigrants from different countries of origin perform differently? This paper explores the extent to which the macro-level characteristics of destination and origin countries and immigrant communities can explain differences in educational achievement. Using data from the 2003 PISA survey, analyses on the mathematical performance of 7459 immigrants, originating in 48 different countries and 94 communities, in 13 countries of destination are performed. Cross-classified multilevel analysis shows that the better educational performance of immigrants in traditional immigrant receiving countries cannot be reduced to compositional effects caused by strict immigration laws. Furthermore, it is found that immigrants from predominantly Islamic countries perform worse at school than immigrants from predominantly Christian countries. This can be explained by the greater cultural and socioeconomic distance from the native population. Results indicate that the characteristics of countries of destination, countries of origin and immigrant communities are an important component in explaining differences in the educational performance of immigrants.

Providing Skills for the Knowledge Economy : The World Bank in Tertiary Education in Latin America and the Caribbean; Como procurar las capacidades necesarias para la economdel conocimiento : el Banco Mundial en la educacion terciaria de America Latina y el Caribe

Holm-Nielsen, Lauritz B.; Blom, Andreas; Garcia, Patricia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
Knowledge based economies have an advantage in today's liberalized global market. OECD countries with extensive knowledge assets are able to drive rapid technological progress and reap the benefits in economic growth and rising living standards. Yet, Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries struggle to provide their citizens with the educational levels and advanced skills needed to create and apply new knowledge. Recent empirical work by Sanchez-Paramo and Schady (2002) documents a remarkable shift in labor demand towards advanced skills in LAC countries. Producing skilled and knowledgeable people requires a strong education system, including access to good secondary and tertiary education. This note provides information about World Bank assistance to LAC countries to increase access to quality tertiary education.

Nepal : Priorities and Strategies for Education Reform

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
The modern education system in Nepal is one of the youngest in the world and operates within a political democracy that was established only in 1991. While parts of the system have been well designed and are implemented effectively, others remain in an embryonic stage and are only partly effective. This report identifies a number of key constraints which currently are hindering the development of the system and suggests priorities and strategies for organizing and managing the required changes. Six aspects of the current status are highlighted: Levels of literacy and educational attainment remain low. While access to all levels of the education system has increased considerably, participation remains unequal across income and social groups and the benefits of public subsidies are inequitably distributed. The quality of education is low. High repetition and dropout rates throughout the system are wasting valuable resources. The system does not serve the labor market well. This report recommends the government to: ensure within the coming decade that all children enroll in and complete a five year primary education while developing the structures and processes for expanding a strengthened basic cycle of schooling for eight years...

Spatial Dynamics of Labor Markets in Brazil

Chomitz, Kenneth M.; da Mata, Daniel; de Carvalho, Alexandre Ywata; Magalhães, João Carlos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
There was substantial spatial variation in labor market outcomes in Brazil over the 1990s. In 2000, about one-fifth of workers lived in apparently economically stagnant municipios where real wages declined but employment increased faster than the national population growth rate. More than one-third lived in apparently dynamic municipios, experiencing both real wage growth and faster-than-average employment growth. These areas absorbed more than half of net employment growth over the period. To elucidate this spatial variation, the authors estimate spatial labor supply and demand equations describing wage and employment changes of Brazilian municipios. They use Conley's spatial GMM technique to allow for instrumental variable estimation in the presence of spatially autocorrelated errors. The main findings include: (1) a very strong influence of initial workforce educational levels on subsequent wage growth (controlling for possibly confounding variables such as remoteness and climate); (2) evidence of positive spillover effects of own-municipio growth onto neighbors' wage and employment levels; (3) an exodus from farming areas; (4) relatively elastic response of wages to an increase in labor supply; and (5) evidence of a local multiplier effect from government transfers.

What Did You Do All Day? Maternal Education and Child Outcomes

Andrabi, Tahir; Das, Jishnu; Khwaja, Asim Ijaz
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
Female education levels are very low in many developing countries. Does maternal education have a causal impact on children's educational outcomes even at these very low levels of education? By combining a nationwide census of schools in Pakistan with household data, the authors use the availability of girls' schools in the mother's birth village as an instrument for maternal schooling to address this issue. Since public schools in Pakistan are segregated by gender, the instrument affects only maternal education rather than the education levels of both mothers and fathers. The analysis finds that children of mothers with some education spend 75 minutes more on educational activities at home compared with children whose mothers report no education at all. Mothers with some education also spend more time helping their children with school work; the effect is stronger (an extra 40 minutes per day) in families where the mother is likely the primary care-giver. Finally, test scores for children whose mothers have some education are higher in English...

Skills for Quality Jobs and Development in Lao PDR : A Technical Assessment of the Current Context

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
Lao has embarked on an ambitious plan to transform its economy, reduce poverty, and graduate from least developed country status by 2020. The objectives of this report are 1) to provide critical information to the Government of Lao PDR (GoL) about existing skills gaps in Lao; 2) to provide the GoL and the steering committee that will revise the Human Resource Development Strategy 2000-2020 (and link it to the 8th NSEDP) with evidence of the current skills situation in the country, to better inform decisions and human resource planning for the future; and 3) to provide the GoL, the World Bank, and other development partners a baseline of skills indicators against which to measure progress going forward. Lao's economic growth has led to increased demand for workers at all skill levels, but employers have a difficult time finding workers to meet that demand. The lack of skills among the workforce is the most commonly cited constraint. The first priority will be to increase the limited flow of students progressing to higher education levels...

Education in Sub-Saharan Africa : A Comparative Analysis

Majgaard, Kirsten; Mingat, Alain
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
As in most countries worldwide, Sub-Saharan African countries are striving to build their human capital so they can compete for jobs and investments in an increasingly globalized world. In this region, which includes the largest number of countries that have not yet attained universal primary schooling, the ambitions and aspirations of Sub-Saharan African countries and their youth far exceed this basic goal. Over the past 20 years, educational levels have risen sharply across Sub-Saharan Africa. Already hard at work to provide places in primary schools for all children, most countries of the region are also rapidly expanding access to secondary and tertiary levels of education. Alongside this quantitative push is a growing awareness of the need to make sure that students are learning and acquiring the skills needed for life and work. Achieving education of acceptable quality is perhaps an even greater challenge than providing enough school places for all. Thus, Sub-Saharan African countries are simultaneously confronting many difficult challenges in the education sector, and much is at stake. This book gives those concerned with education in Sub-Saharan Africa an analysis of the sector from a cross-country perspective, aimed at drawing lessons that individual country studies alone cannot provide. A comparative perspective is useful not only to show the range of possibilities in key education policy variables but also to learn from the best performers in the region. (Although the report covers 47 Sub- Saharan African countries whenever possible...

Mexico : Earnings Inequality after Mexico's Economic and Educational Reforms, Volume 1. Main Document

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
The study reviews the forces driving Mexico's inequality, in particular, the recent expansion in earnings inequality, emphasizing the roles of education on: establishing an analytical framework, that allows interaction between education, and labor market; examining the evolution of earnings inequality, following the macroeconomic, and educational policies of the 80s, and 90s; exploring best practices for the use, and allocation of public educational resources, in light of foreseeable increases in earnings inequality; and, identifying those areas of educational public policy, which impact student graduation. The study argues on the student's decision-making at the secondary, and tertiary levels, concerning the disciplines to pursue, - a choice clearly influenced by several factors - such as taste, abilities, family background, etc. Though some factors may be intrinsic, others could be used as policy tools, to provide advice on best study options, but insufficient effort on the part of educational institutions...

Sleep Complaints Affecting School Performance at Different Educational Levels

Pagel, James F.; Kwiatkowski, Carol F.
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/11/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.81%
The clear association between reports of sleep disturbance and poor school performance has been documented for sleepy adolescents. This study extends that research to students outside the adolescent age grouping in an associated school setting (98 middle school students, 67 high school students, and 64 college students). Reported restless legs and periodic limb movements are significantly associated with lower GPA's in junior high students. Consistent with previous studies, daytime sleepiness was the sleep variable most likely to negatively affects high school students. Sleep onset and maintenance insomnia were the reported sleep variables significantly correlated with poorer school performance in college students. This study indicates that different sleep disorder variables negatively affect performance at different age and educational levels.

Qué escuela, para qué inmigrantes. Zonas de procedencia y tipos de escolarización: el caso de Canarias

Zamora Fortuny, Begoña M.
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2008 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
La distribución de los inmigrantes en el sistema educativo muestra una realidad muy distinta en la geografía española. Las grandes características diferenciadoras serán las que dirijan el desarrollo de este trabajo, haciendo especial referencia en el análisis comparativo al archipiélago canario. No sólo la comunidad autónoma de acogida, sino también la zona de procedencia de los inmigrantes se convierten en elementos esenciales para entender la distribución según niveles educativos y titularidad de los centros. El análisis de esta cuestión y su comparación con el alumnado autóctono nos permitirá distinguir hasta dónde llega la búsqueda de igualdad o de diferencia de los inmigrantes y destacar cuáles son las comunidades autónomas más igualitarias. Asimismo, se cuestionará el sentido de algunas de las políticas y de las prácticas educativas.; The data on immigrants in the educational system show us a very different reality in the Spanish geography. The great differentiating characteristics will guide the development of this article, doing special reference to Canary Archipelago in the comparative analysis. Autonomous Community of reception and zone of origin of immigrants are essential elements to understand the distribution according to the educational levels and according to ownership...

Educational levels and the functional dependence of ischemic stroke survivors

Fernandes,Tiótrefis G.; Goulart,Alessandra C.; Santos-Junior,Waldyr R.; Alencar,Airlane P.; Benseñor,Isabela M.; Lotufo,Paulo A.
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.86%
We evaluated the functional dependence of stroke survivors from the Study of Stroke Mortality and Morbidity, using the Rankin Scale. Out of 355 ischemic stroke survivors (with a mean age of 67.9 years), 40% had some functional dependence at 28 days and 34.4% had some functional dependence at 6 months. Most predictors of physical dependence were identified at 28 days. These predictors were: low levels of education [illiterate vs. > 8 years of education, multivariate odds ratio (OR) = 3.7; 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.60-8.54] and anatomical stroke location (total anterior circulation infarct, OR = 16.9; 95%CI: 2.93-97.49). Low levels of education and ischemic brain injury influenced functional dependence in these stroke survivors. Our findings reinforce the necessity of developing strategies for the rehabilitation of stroke patients, more especially in formulating specific strategies for care and treatment of stroke survivors with low socioeconomic status.