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Academic achievement and/or educational attainment : the role of teacher librarians in students’ future: main findings of a research in Portugal

Novo, Ana; Calixto, José António
Fonte: IASL Publicador: IASL
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /09/2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.42%
Conferência realizada em Pádua, Itália, de 2-5 de Setembro de 2009; This paper aims at analysing 20 teacher librarians definitions’ of academic achievement and educational attainment targeting their students’ preparation for the future. Reflection is also done on how these teacher librarians see their roles and specific qualifications in relation with those concepts. This research work, belonging to a PhD program, is focused on School Libraries of Portuguese public elementary integrated schools, which were in the school libraries network till 2005. This research used a qualitative methodology both for data gathering and analysis techniques.

Educational attainment, deprivation-affluence and self reported health in Britain: a cross sectional study

White, I. R.; Blane, D.; Morris, J. N.; Mourouga, P.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.73%
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The level of material deprivation or affluence is strongly and independently correlated with all cause mortality at an area level, but educational attainment, after controlling for deprivation-affluence, remains strongly associated with coronary and infant mortality. This study investigated whether these relations hold at an individual level with self reported morbidity. DESIGN: Analysis of the cross sectional associations of self reported longstanding illness and "not good" or "fairly good" self assessed health with individual educational attainment in seven levels, adjusting for deprivation measures (economic status of head of household, car ownership, housing tenure, overcrowding). SETTING: The 1993 General Household Survey, a random sample of households in Great Britain. PARTICIPANTS: 11,634 subjects aged 22 to 69. MAIN RESULTS: After adjusting for household deprivation, lower educational attainment was significantly associated with longstanding illness in men (odds ratio 1.05 per education category, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.08), but not in women (odds ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.04). The associations with "not good" or "fairly good" self assessed health were stronger and significant in both men and women (men 1.13...

Understanding Links Between Adolescent Health and Educational Attainment

JACKSON, MARGOT I.
Fonte: Population Association of America Publicador: Population Association of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.75%
The educational and economic consequences of poor health during childhood and adolescence have become increasingly clear, with a resurgence of evidence leading researchers to reconsider the potentially significant contribution of early-life health to population welfare both within and across generations. Meaningful relationships between early-life health and educational attainment raise important questions about how health may influence educational success in young adulthood and beyond, as well as for whom its influence is strongest. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I examine how adolescents’ health and social status act together to create educational disparities in young adulthood, focusing on two questions in particular. First, does the link between adolescent health and educational attainment vary across socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups? Second, what academic factors explain the connection between adolescent health and educational attainment? The findings suggest that poorer health in adolescence is strongly negatively related to educational attainment, net of both observed confounders and unobserved, time-invariant characteristics within households. The reduction in attainment is particularly large for non-Hispanic white adolescents...

Specific psychological variables predict quality of diet in women of lower, but not higher, educational attainment

Lawrence, Wendy; Schlotz, Wolff; Crozier, Sarah; Skinner, Timothy C; Haslam, Cheryl; Robinson, Sian; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Barker, Mary;
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.73%
Our previous work found that perceived control over life was a significant predictor of the quality of diet of women of lower educational attainment. In this paper, we explore the influence on quality of diet of a range of psychological and social factors identified during focus group discussions, and specify the way this differs in women of lower and higher educational attainment. We assessed educational attainment, quality of diet, and psycho-social factors in 378 women attending Sure Start Children’s Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. Multiple-group path analysis showed that in women of lower educational attainment, the effect of general self-efficacy on quality of diet was mediated through perceptions of control and through food involvement, but that there were also direct effects of social support for healthy eating and having positive outcome expectancies. There was no effect of self-efficacy, perceived control or outcome expectancies on the quality of diet of women of higher educational attainment, though having more social support and food involvement were associated with improved quality of diet in these women. Our analysis confirms our hypothesis that control-related factors are more important in determining dietary quality in women of lower educational attainment than in women of higher educational attainment.

Genetic Variation Associated with Differential Educational Attainment in Adults Has Anticipated Associations with School Performance in Children

Ward, Mary E.; McMahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M.; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Cesarini, David; ; Smith, George Davey; Timpson, Nicholas J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/07/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.74%
Genome-wide association study results have yielded evidence for the association of common genetic variants with crude measures of completed educational attainment in adults. Whilst informative, these results do not inform as to the mechanism of these effects or their presence at earlier ages and where educational performance is more routinely and more precisely assessed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms exhibiting genome-wide significant associations with adult educational attainment were combined to derive an unweighted allele score in 5,979 and 6,145 young participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children with key stage 3 national curriculum test results (SATS results) available at age 13 to 14 years in English and mathematics respectively. Standardised (z-scored) results for English and mathematics showed an expected relationship with sex, with girls exhibiting an advantage over boys in English (0.433 SD (95%CI 0.395, 0.470), p<10−10) with more similar results (though in the opposite direction) in mathematics (0.042 SD (95%CI 0.004, 0.080), p = 0.030). Each additional adult educational attainment increasing allele was associated with 0.041 SD (95%CI 0.020, 0.063), p = 1.79×10−04 and 0.028 SD (95%CI 0.007...

Educational Attainment by Life Course Sexual Attraction: Prevalence and Correlates in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults

Walsemann, Katrina M.; Lindley, Lisa L.; Gentile, Danielle; Welihindha, Shehan V.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.74%
Researchers know relatively little about the educational attainment of sexual minorities, despite the fact that educational attainment is consistently associated with a range of social, economic, and health outcomes. We examined whether sexual attraction in adolescence and early adulthood was associated with educational attainment in early adulthood among a nationally representative sample of US young adults. We analyzed Waves I and IV restricted data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=14,111). Sexual orientation was assessed using self-reports of romantic attraction in Waves I (adolescence) and IV (adulthood). Multinomial regression models were estimated and all analyses were stratified by gender. Women attracted to the same-sex in adulthood only had lower educational attainment compared to women attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Men attracted to the same-sex in adolescence only had lower educational attainment compared to men attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Adolescent experiences and academic performance attenuated educational disparities among men and women. Adjustment for adolescent experiences also revealed a suppression effect; women attracted to the same-sex in adolescence and adulthood had lower predicted probabilities of having a high school diploma or less compared to women attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Our findings challenge previous research documenting higher educational attainment among sexual minorities in the US. Additional population-based studies documenting the educational attainment of sexual minority adults are needed.

Explaining the evolution of educational attainment in the U.S.

Castro, Rui; Coen-Pirani, Daniele
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.42%
We study the evolution of educational attainment of the 1932–1972 cohorts using a calibrated model of investment in human capital with heterogeneous learning ability. The inter-cohort variation in schooling is driven by changes in skill prices, tuition, and education quality over time, and average learning ability across cohorts. A version of the model with static expectations is successful in accounting for the main patterns in the data. Rising skill prices for college explain the rapid increase in college graduation till the 1948 cohort. The measured decline in average learning ability contributes to explain the stagnation in college graduation between the 1948 and 1972 cohorts.

Can Migration Reduce Educational Attainment? Evidence from Mexico

McKenzie, David; Rapoport, Hillel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.63%
The authors examine the impact of migration on educational attainment in rural Mexico. Using historical migration rates by state to instrument for current migration, they find evidence of a significant negative effect of migration on schooling attendance and attainment of 12 to 18 year-old boys and 16 to 18 year-old girls. IV-Censored Ordered Probit results show that living in a migrant household lowers the chances of boys completing junior high school and of boys and girls completing high school. The negative effect of migration on schooling is somewhat mitigated for younger girls with low educated mothers, which is consistent with remittances relaxing credit constraints on education investment for the very poor. However, for the majority of rural Mexican children, family migration depresses educational attainment. Comparison of the marginal effects of migration on school attendance and on participation in other activities shows that the observed decrease in schooling of 16 to 18 year-olds is accounted for by the current migration of boys and increased housework for girls.

Magical Transition?

Emran, Shahe; Sun, Yan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.75%
This paper presents evidence on intergenerational educational and occupational mobility in rural China over a period of 14 years (1988–2002). To understand whether the estimated inter-generational persistence can be driven solely by unobserved heterogeneity, biprobit sensitivity analysis and heteroskedasticity-based identification are implemented. The empirical results show that there have been dramatic improvements in occupational mobility from agriculture to nonfarm occupations; a farmer’s children are not any more likely to become farmers in 2002, although there was significant persistence in occupation choices in 1988. In contrast, the intergenerational mobility in educational attainment has remained largely unchanged for daughters, and it has deteriorated significantly for sons. There is strong evidence of a causal effect of parental education on a son’s schooling in 2002. The paper provides some possible explanations for the dramatic divergence between occupational and educational mobility in rural China from 1988 to 2002.

GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment

Rietveld, C.A.; Medland, S.E.; Derringer, J.; Yang, J.; Esko, T.; Martin, N.W.; Westra, H.J.; Shakhbazov, K.; Abdellaoui, A.; Agrawal, A.; Albrecht, E.; Alizadeh, B.Z.; Amin, N.; Barnard, J.; Baumeister, S.E.; Benke, K.S.; Bielak, L.F.; Boatman, J.A.; Boy
Fonte: American Association for the Advancement of Science Publicador: American Association for the Advancement of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.47%
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R2 ≈ 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ≈2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics.; Cornelius A. Rietveld ... Lyle J. Palmer ... et al.

Promoting or Perturbing Access: An Event History Analysis of Latinos' Educational Attainment

Gross, Jacob P.K.
Fonte: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University Publicador: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University
Tipo: Doctoral Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.42%
Thesis (Ph.D.) - Indiana University, School of Education, 2008; At a time when Latinos make up an increasing proportion of the U.S. school population and increasingly seek entrance to postsecondary education the role of financial aid in postsecondary access remains in flux and uncertain. Though federal, state, and institutional grants have historically helped the lowest income students pay for their educational costs, grants have generally not kept pace with increasing costs (Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2001; Ficklen & Stone, 2002). Therefore, education costs have increasingly shifted to students and their families via loans. This shift has a disproportionately negative effect on Latinos (as well as African Americans), who are more likely to come from low- to low-middle income families (Price, 2004). Moreover, recent data suggest that concerns about affordability and access are not the sole domain of low-income families. While the net price (total costs less total grant aid) paid by low-income (<$40,000) students as a proportion of total income remained constant between 1992-1993 and 2003-2004 for students enrolled at public four-year institutions, students from low-middle income ($40,000 to $69,999) families in the same sector paid more as a proportion of total income. Although low-income students still pay a disproportionately high percent of family income for school (particularly when room and board is included)...

Schooling and educational attainment: evidence from Bangladesh

Maitra, Pushkar
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 222451 bytes; 351 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.56%
Education and human capital accumulation are essential components of economic development. This paper attempts to identify some of the individual and household level characteristics that affect the demand for schooling in Bangladesh. We examine (1) current enrolment status of children aged 6 . 12 and (2) the highest grade attained for children aged 13 . 24. The first is estimated using a standard probit model and the second using a censored ordered probit model. Estimation results show that there is no gender differential in current enrolment status but grade attainment is higher by girls, relative to boys. Increases in the permanent income of the household is always associated with an increase in educational attainment. Parental education generally has a positive and statistically significant effect on the educational attainment of children and mother's education has a stronger effect on both school enrolment and grade attainment of children compared to father's education.; no

Gender, Geography and Generations : Intergenerational Educational Mobility in Post-reform India

Emran, M. Shahe; Shilpi, Forhad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.42%
India experienced sustained economic growth for more than two decades following the economic liberalization in 1991. While economic growth reduced poverty significantly, it was associated with an increase in inequality. Does this increase in inequality reflect deep-seated inequality of opportunity or efficient incentive structure in a market oriented economy? This paper provides evidence on economic mobility in post-reform India by focusing on the educational attainment of children. It uses two related measures of immobility: sibling and intergenerational correlations. The paper analyzes the trends in and patterns of educational mobility from 1992/93 to 2006, with a special emphasis on the roles played by gender and geography. The evidence shows that family background plays a strong role; the estimated sibling correlation in India in 2006 is higher than the available estimates for Latin American countries. There is a persistent gender gap in rural and less-developed areas. The only group that experienced substantial improvements is women in urban and developed areas, with the lower caste women benefiting the most. Almost 70 percent of the variance in children's education can be accounted for by parental education and geographic location. The authors provide possible explanations for the apparently puzzling improvements for urban women in a country with strong son preference.

Educational Attainment in Afghanistan : An Economic Analysis

Auturupane, Harsha; Gunatilake, Ramani; Shojo, Mari; Ebenezer, Roshini
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.42%
Afghanistan's ability to enhance its human capital resources will determine the course of the nation's future economic, human and social development. Recognizing this, the Government of Afghanistan is committed to implementing policies aimed at getting children, particularly girls, into the education system. This paper aims to inform this process by investigating a variety of characteristics of children, such as their households, educational facilities, community factors, and spatial variables that are associated with education enrollment in urban and rural Afghanistan. This paper aims to investigate the factors underlying these low school enrollment figures and is structured as follows. Section one reviews previous research in this area. Section two provides a brief description the data and the methodology used in this analysis. In section three authors present the results which are then discussed in section four. In fact this study found that while the availability of appropriate schools is significantly correlated with primary and mid-school enrollment...

Educational, Economic Welfare and Subjective Well-Being in Afghanistan

Auturupane, Harsha; Gunatilake, Ramani; Shojo, Mari; Ebenezer, Roshini
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.63%
Education is universally recognized as one of the key determinants of socio-economic security and welfare. The link between education and increased individual earnings has been widely documented: there is a large body of cross-country evidence that education enhances the employability, productivity and income earning capacity of individuals. The impact of educational attainment on these various socio-economic indicators has been shown to vary by region, sub-region, gender, age, by income levels, and other variables. In this paper, we focus on the socio-economic impact of educational attainment in Afghanistan. Afghanistan presents a fairly unique context for examining the association between education and the socio-economic variable discussed above. It is a conflict-affected country, with strong and rich cultural and religious traditions. It also has some of the worst developmental indicators and in the world. Using data from the National Risk and Vulnerability Assessment (NRVA) survey of 2007/08, authors investigate the extent to which the educational attainment of men and women is associated with greater economic welfare and less likelihood of being poor. The analysis is divided into four parts: part one looks education and other factors associated with household economic welfare and the probability of being poor; part two focuses on the education and other factors associated with women's participation in the labor force; part three looks at the association of mother's education with health-related outcomes of children; and part four looks at the association between educational attainment of girls and women...

Education Attainment in the Middle East and North Africa : Success at a Cost

Iqbal, Farrukh; Kiendrebeogo, Youssouf
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.46%
This paper reviews the experience of the Middle East and North Africa region in education attainment over the past four decades (1970-2010). It documents the following main findings: (a) all countries in the region experienced significant improvements in educational attainment over this period; (b) most countries in the region did better in this regard than comparators that had roughly the same education stocks in 1970; (c) collectively, the region achieved a greater percentage increase in education than other regions; (d) the region's better performance was in part because of higher rates of public spending on education, better food sufficiency status, and a lower initial stock of education in 1970 in comparison with most other developing country regions; and (e) the region had among the lowest payoffs to public spending in terms of increments in education stock; the impressive advance in education was achieved at high cost.

Family Formation, Educational Attainment, and Religion: Longitudinal Approaches to Religious Change

Schleifer, Cyrus Joseph
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.47%

Research into how different life events shape individual religiosity has a long history within sociology. However, some scholars have begun to question whether research in this area has methodologically justified making strong causal claims. In an effort to re-center religion within the field of sociological concerns, quantitative sociologists of religion have tended to over-state the meaning of their statistical relationships and this has led to many of their causal assumptions being unstated and/or untested in their analyses. The advances in causal statistical modeling and counterfactually grounded analyses has led to the development of statistical models that are better able to establish causal relationships. It is time to begin implementing these approaches within the sociology of religion. This more rigorous statistical approach runs the risk of demonstrating that social life’s influence on religion may be less impressive than was previously thought. But researchers in this area must take this risk to develop a better sense of the real effects of society on religion. This in turn will provide a better foundation for developing theories of religion’s role in our modern world.

One way in which sociologists of religion can improve their causal modeling strategies is through the use of longitudinal data and methods. In recent years there has been a significant increase in the availability of large-scale longitudinal data that collects information on respondents’ religious belief...

The Negative Effect of Residential Broadband Availability on Educational Attainment in the US

Kang, Polly
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Publicado em /12/2011 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.42%
A student’s decision to drop out of high school has repercussions for the individual and society. Broadband availability, which has become ubiquitous in the US since the late 1990s, can dramatically affect a student’s willingness to attend school. This study attempts to understand how broadband availability affects a student’s disengagement from school, which may lead to dropping out. I use data from two sources: the American Community Survey (ACS) regarding school enrollment and educational attainment on an individual level, and Federal Communication Commission (FCC) information on broadband availability. By using an application of difference-in-difference (DID) modeling and fixed effects, I compare trends in dropout behavior between areas that received full service by 2000 and those that acquired it in later years. The introduction of broadband correlates positively with an individual’s dropout choice. However, there are threats to causal interpretation.; Honors Thesis

Trends in Indigenous educational participation and attainment, 1986-96

Gray, Malcolm; Hunter, Boyd; Schwab, Robert (Jerry)
Fonte: Australian Council for Educational Research Press Publicador: Australian Council for Educational Research Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.45%
This paper provides a summary and overview of indigenous people within the Australian education system. A cohort analysis of changes in educational participation and the level and type of educational qualification over the last three censuses for the indigenous and non-indigenous populations is presented. The main finding is that although there have been some absolute improvements in indigenous educational outcomes over the period 1986 to 1996, relative to the non-indigenous there have been little if any real gains. The lack of improvement relative to the non-indigenous population occurs not only in the proportion of the population with post-secondary qualifications, but also in the proportion of indigenous teenagers staging at school. By any measure, the indigenous population remains severely disadvantaged. Another finding is that, for younger age groups, the non-indigenous population has a higher participation rate in post-secondary education than the indigenous population. This situatior is reversed for older age groups.

The Impact of Interrupted Education on Subsequent Educational Attainment: A Cost of the Chinese Cultural Revolution

Meng, Xin; Gregory, Robert
Fonte: University of Chicago Press Publicador: University of Chicago Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.39%
One of the largest interruptions to the usual educational process occurred during the Chinese Cultural Revolution, when most schools in urban China ceased regular operation for 6 years. Universities stopped normal student recruitment for an even longer period of time. The 11 years of the Cultural Revolution, 1966-77, affected the formal education of a whole generation of young people. This article examines the extent to which individuals were able to overcome this interruption and proceed to acquire a university degree. It also explores the points at which interruption matters most in the educational process and examines the characteristics of those individuals who were most successful in overcoming the educational upheaval. The article is structured as follows: Section II provides the background. Section III presents the model specifications and describes the data. Section IV analyzes the empirical results. Conclusions are given in Section V.