Página 1 dos resultados de 19530 itens digitais encontrados em 0.029 segundos

On the Determinant of Economic Growth

Rebelo, Sergio
Fonte: University of Rochester. Rochester Center for Economic Research. Publicador: University of Rochester. Rochester Center for Economic Research.
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.95%
The fate of different countries is amazingly diverse. Some economies expand at a fast pace, quickly developing new sectors and introducing new products and technologies. Workers see their standard of living increase, while soaring stock markets reward domestic savings and attract eager foreign investors. In other economies everything goes wrong. Investment is scarce and flows often to technologically outdated sectors. Workers see little change in their standard of living; they have the same jobs and perform the same tasks as their parents. Investors see their capital earn meager rewards. The only sure ways to succeed seem to be across the border; domestic savings fly abroad in search of better returns and workers migrate in search of higher wages. This paper reports on the progress made by the literature about economic growth in answering the question "Why do Growth Rates Differ?" It reviews what we currently know about the mechanics of growth miracles and poverty traps, as well as the tentative policy advice that these mechanics suggest.

Distributions in Motion : Economic Growth, Inequality, and Poverty Dynamics

Ferreira, Francisco H.G.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
The joint determination of aggregate economic growth and distributional change has been studied empirically from at least three different perspectives. A macroeconomic approach that relies on cross-country data on poverty, inequality, and growth rates has generated some interesting stylized facts about the correlations between these variables, but has not shed much light on the underlying determinants. "Meso-" and microeconomic approaches have fared somewhat better. The microeconomic approach, in particular, builds on the observation that growth, changes in poverty, and changes in inequality are simply different aggregations of information on the incidence of economic growth along the income distribution. This paper reviews the evolution of attempts to understand the nature of growth incidence curves, from the statistical decompositions associated with generalizations of the Oaxaca-Blinder method, to more recent efforts to generate "economically consistent" counterfactuals, drawing on structural, reduced-form...

Breaking the Barriers to Higher Economic Growth : Better Governance and Deeper Reforms in the Middle East and North Africa

Nabli, Mustapha Kamel
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
Contents of the report are as follows: Long-term economic development: challenges and prospects for the Arab countries by Mustapha K. Nabli. Reform complementarities and economic growth in the Middle East and North Africa by Mustapha Kamel Nabli, and Marie-Ange Veganzones-Varoudakis. After Argentina: was MENA right to be cautious? By Mustapha K. Nabli. Restarting Arab economic reform by Mustapha K. Nabli. Democracy for better governance and higher economic growth in the MENA region? By Mustapha K. Nabli, and Carlos Silva-Jauregui. The political economy of industrial policy in the Middle East and North Africa by Mustapha K. Nabli, Jennifer Keller, Claudia Nassif, and Carlos Silva-Jauregui. The macroeconomics of labor market outcomes in MENA by Jennifer Keller, and Mustapha K. Nabli. Challenges and opportunities for the 21st century by Mustapha Nabli. Labor market reforms, growth, and unemployment in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa by Pierre-Richard Agenor, Mustapha K. Nabli...

Economic Growth in Latin America and the Caribbean : Stylized Facts, Explanations, and Forecasts

Loayza, Norman; Fajnzylber, Pablo; Calderón, César
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
Economic Growth in Latin America and the Caribbean analyzes whether economic reforms have been beneficial to growth in the region. In doing so, it recognizes that growth is driven by a variety of factors - in some cases poor growth is due to insufficient structural reforms (e.g., low trade openness), in others to inappropriate stabilization policies (e.g., exchange rate overvaluation), and still in others to negative international conditions (e.g., growth slowdown in industrial countries). It is obvious but still correct to say that identifying the problem is the first step towards the solution. This book contributes to this effort by examining the growth performance of countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, explaining the underlying sources of their economic growth, and designing a strategy for further growth.

How Might Climate Change Affect Economic Growth in Developing Countries? A Review of the Growth Literature with a Climate Lens

Lecocq, Franck; Shalizi, Zmarak
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
This paper reviews the empirical and theoretical literature on economic growth to examine how the four components of the climate change bill, namely mitigation, proactive (ex ante) adaptation, reactive (ex post) adaptation, and ultimate damages of climate change affect growth, especially in developing countries. The authors consider successively the Cass-Koopmans growth model and three major strands of the subsequent literature on growth: with multiple sectors, with rigidities, and with increasing returns. The paper finds that although the growth literature rarely addresses climate change per se, some issues discussed in the growth literature are directly relevant for climate change analysis. Notably, destruction of production factors, or decrease in factor productivity may strongly affect long-run equilibrium growth even in one-sector neoclassical growth models; climatic shocks have had large impacts on growth in developing countries because of rigidities; and the introducing increasing returns has a major impact on growth dynamics...

Guatemala : Country Economic Memorandum, Challenges to Higher Economic Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
The purpose of this Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) is to contribute to the ongoing discussion in Guatemala about means of accelerating economic growth to help achieve targets set in the 1996 Peace Accords as a key ingredient in the fight to reduce national poverty rates. Chapter I examines historical and recent developments and uses a benchmarking growth methodology to identify the measures and policies most conducive to increasing long-term economic growth. Those areas that are identified as critical on the list of priorities are developed further in separate chapters. Chapter II focuses on the important role of human capital development for growth, along with the complementary policies for improving education and health. Chapter III examines the investment climate, broadly understood, which includes governance, access to infrastructure, and financial development. Chapter IV analyzes the importance of innovation and technology adaptation for productivity growth. Chapter V looks at trade openness and the catalytic role that the recently negotiated free trade agreement with the U.S. (CAFTA) could have on the Guatemalan economy.

Argentina : Sources of Growth, Seeking Sustained Economic Growth with Social Equity

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
This report attempts to analyze selected topics, chosen in collaboration with the Argentine authorities, regarding the inter-linkages between economic growth, income distribution and poverty, as well as the respective roles of these factors in explaining the historical underperformance of the Argentine economy. The report aims to identify relevant issues for policy formulation and further economic work. Its emphasis is on longer-term structural factors which are thought to determine productivity and income distribution. The report is organized as follows. Chapter 2 briefly reviews the time-dynamics o f economic growth, poverty and inequality in Argentina. Sections of the chapter study the evolution of poverty and inequality. It is noted that inequality has increased dramatically, though not monotonically, since 1990 and, notably, increases in inequality were observed in periods of both growth and recession. Chapter 3 reviews the latest episode o f economic volatility in Argentina, a period that started with the sharp decline o f economic activity in 2002 and continued with a recovery since 2003. Special attention is paid to the impact of this recent volatility on economic growth, poverty and inequality. The sections study the social impact of the recent crisis and recovery; employing different methodologies to test whether the recent recovery was pro-poor. It also analyzes the recession and recovery at the sector level...

Economic Growth in the Republic of Yemen : Sources, Constraints, and Potentials

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
High and sustained rate of economic growth in Yemen is a necesary, though not sufficient, condition for reduction of the high incidence of poverty and for raising the living standards of Yemeni citizens. Evidence in this report suggests that the main obstacle to rapid and sustained economic growth is the weak governance that characterizes Yemen in addition to the weaknesses in domestic security, property rights, and rule of law systems. Weak governance in Yemen is characterized/manifested by widespread corruption, lack of transparency and accountability, inefficiency in the interaction of public officials and private business, ineffective or absent market promoting institutions such as those enforcing contracts (courts, tribunals, etc.), poor performance of the public sector in terms of delivering essential goods and implementing programs, associated lack of incentives and skills in the civil service, and weak enforceability of contracts and rulings. Along with ordering the governance situation, there are areas that should receive government priority in the short and medium term...

Bangladesh : Financial Sector Distress and Lost Economic Growth

Kojo, Naoko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
The financial system in Bangladesh has suffered from years of systemic and chronic problems, represented by weak supervision and enforcement, deficient accounting and reporting practices, and more importantly, widespread loan defaults and delinquencies. It is widely perceived that major inadequacies in the financial sector have had a considerable growth restraining effect over the years, by inhibiting private investment activities and productivity growth, as well as promoting misallocation of resources. It is paramount important that the government takes an urgent policy action to reform the mal-functioning financial sector. The main objective of such reforms is to develop a market oriented, disciplined modem system for mobilization of resources, efficient allocation of resources from both domestic and foreign sources, and reduction of poverty through sustained economic growth. This paper is organized as follows. Section two reviews the recent theoretical and empirical literature on finance and growth. Section three summarizes the main findings of our cross-country analysis...

Economic Growth and Equality of Opportunity

Peragine, Vito; Palmisano, Flaviana; Brunori, Paolo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
The paper proposes an approach to understand the relationship between inequality and economic growth obtained by shifting the analysis from the space of final achievements to the space of opportunities. To this end, it introduces a formal framework based on the concept of the Opportunity Growth Incidence Curve. This framework can be used to evaluate the income dynamics of specific groups of the population and to infer the role of growth in the evolution of inequality of opportunity over time. The paper shows the relevance of the introduced framework by providing two empirical analyses, one for Italy and the other for Brazil. These analyses show the distributional impact of the recent growth experienced by Brazil and the recent crisis suffered by Italy from both the income inequality and opportunity inequality perspectives.

Regional economic growth: An evaluation of the Northern Territory

Anwar, Sajid; Prideaux, Bruce
Fonte: The Economic Society of Australia Publicador: The Economic Society of Australia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.98%
The Gross Product of the Northern Territory accounts for approximately 1.2% of Australian GDP. The economic growth record of NT in the past few years has been well below all Australian states and territories but the per capita income of NT remains higher than the national per capita income. Due to continued interstate migration, higher birth rate among the indigenous population and the inability of NT to attract international migrants, the Territory's population mix is slowly changing. This paper shows that the NT's economic growth rate is closely linked to the growth rate of labour force and private investment. Although the overall labour force participation-rate is almost unchanged, the male and female participation rates are moving in the opposite direction. Finally, the paper presents short-term forecasts for NT's Gross State Product per person employed, private investment and employment. The forecasting exercise shows that the cyclical pattern is likely to continue in the near future; Sajid Anwar and Bruce Prideaux; Article first published online: 13 APR 2010

Puzzles of Economic Growth

Balcerowicz, Leszek; Rzonca, Andrzej
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
Looking at the economic growth of seemingly similar countries one can find striking differences. Why has Australia gotten so much ahead of New Zealand, in spite of the latter being held up as a paragon of free market reform? How is it possible that Austria, with its persistently oversized state enterprise sector, has managed to (nearly) catch up with Switzerland? How can we account for the differences in economic growth between Estonia and Slovenia, and which of these two countries has been more successful at systemic transformation? Why is Mexico so much poorer than Spain, despite having been wealthier all the way into the 1960s? Why has Venezuela, which in 1950 had a per capita income higher than that of Norway and remains a major exporter of oil, slipped behind Chile? Why is Costa Rica lagging behind Puerto Rico, even though in the 1970s the U.S. territory's fast development slowed to a crawl and is now far below other comparable island economies? Why has 'communist' China outstripped 'capitalist' India? Why has Pakistan's growth lagged behind that of Indonesia...

Tanzania - Sustaining and Sharing Economic Growth : Country Economic Memorandum and Poverty Assessment, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
Tanzania's National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP) sets an ambitious target of 6 to 8 percent annual economic growth to achieve rapid reduction in poverty. This report focuses on three issues that are central to the success of Tanzania's poverty reduction efforts: 0 what factors explain Tanzania's recent acceleration in economic growth; has the accelerated economic growth translated into reduced poverty; and what must be done to sustain economic growth that is pro-poor. The report presents evidence from the macroeconomic, sectoral, and firm and household levels that shed light on these questions. The report is presented in two volumes. Volume I summarizes the main findings and recommendations. Volume II contains the main report.

Is India's Economic Growth Leaving the Poor Behind?

Datt, Gaurav; Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
There has been much debate about how much India's poor have shared in the economic growth unleashed by economic reforms in the 1990s. The authors argue that India has probably maintained its 1980s rate of poverty reduction in the 1990s. However, there is considerable diversity in performance across states. This holds some important clues for understanding why economic growth has not done more for India's poor. India's economic growth in the 1990s has not been occurring in the states where it would have the most impact on poverty nationally. If not for the sectoral and geographic imbalance of growth, the national rate of growth would have generated a rate of poverty reduction that was double India's historical trend rate. States with relatively low levels of initial rural development and human capital development were not well-suited to reduce poverty in response to economic growth. The study's results are consistent with the view that achieving higher aggregate economic growth is only one element of an effective strategy for poverty reduction in India. The sectoral and geographic composition of growth is also important...

Has India’s Economic Growth Become More Pro-Poor in the Wake of Economic Reforms?

Datt, Gaurav; Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
The extent to which India's poor have benefited from the country s economic growth has long been debated. This paper revisits the issues using a new series of consumption-based poverty measures spanning 50 years, and including a 15-year period after economic reforms began in earnest in the early 1990s. Growth has tended to reduce poverty, including in the post-reform period. There is no robust evidence that the responsiveness of poverty to growth has increased, or decreased, since the reforms began, although there are signs of rising inequality. The impact of growth is higher for poverty measures that reflect distribution below the poverty line, and it is higher using growth rates calculated from household surveys than national accounts. The urban-rural pattern of growth matters to the pace of poverty reduction. However, in marked contrast to the pre-reform period, the post-reform process of urban economic growth has brought significant gains to the rural poor as well as the urban poor.

Sustaining and Sharing Economic Growth in Tanzania

Utz, Robert J.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
This book is designed to contribute to the government's thinking on how best to translate broad MKUKUTA (the government of Tanzania's National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty) policy objectives into practical tactics and programs well suited to Tanzania's economic priorities and to the removal of key institutional and infrastructure bottlenecks. The book aims to respond to three fundamental questions: (a) what factors explain Tanzania's recent acceleration in economic growth, (b) how well has the accelerated growth translated into reduced poverty, and (c) what needs to be done to sustain growth that is also pro-poor. This book focuses on three issues that are central to the success of Tanzania's poverty reduction efforts: What factors explain Tanzania's recent acceleration in economic growth? Has the accelerated economic growth translated into reduced poverty? What must be done to sustain economic growth that is pro-poor? The book presents evidence from the macroeconomic, sectoral, firm...

Sustaining and Sharing Economic Growth in Tanzania : Contents of CD Rom

Utz, Robert J.
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
This book is designed to contribute to the government's thinking on how best to translate broad MKUKUTA (the government of Tanzania's National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty) policy objectives into practical tactics and programs well suited to Tanzania's economic priorities and to the removal of key institutional and infrastructure bottlenecks. The book aims to respond to three fundamental questions: (a) what factors explain Tanzania's recent acceleration in economic growth, (b) how well has the accelerated growth translated into reduced poverty, and (c) what needs to be done to sustain growth that is also pro-poor. This book focuses on three issues that are central to the success of Tanzania's poverty reduction efforts: What factors explain Tanzania's recent acceleration in economic growth? Has the accelerated economic growth translated into reduced poverty? What must be done to sustain economic growth that is pro-poor? The book presents evidence from the macroeconomic, sectoral, firm...

Primary commodity export and economic growth in Sub Sahara Africa: Evidence from panel data analysis

Ocran,Matthew Kofi; Biekpe,Nicholas
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Publicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.02%
The paper sought to examine the impact of instability in primary commodity export earnings and the level of commodity dependence on economic growth in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Fixed effects panel data estimator was used in the empirical estimation. The findings of the study suggest that there is a negative relationship between instability in export earnings and economic growth. The results also indicate that the level of commodity dependence matter in determining economic growth in the region. The results of the paper have economic development policy implications for SSA economies and these are not farfetched. First, it appears the difficult growth experience of SSA is not solely due to instability in export receipts. The question of continued dependence on a narrow range of primary commodities is also matter of great importance.

Promoting sustainable economic growth in South Africa through the export of low-carbon environmental goods

van Niekerk,Antoinette; Viviers,Wilma
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Publicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.03%
ABSTRACT Many countries, particularly those in the developing world, are under increasing pressure to improve their growth rates in order to tackle pressing economic problems at the domestic level. Increasing export volumes can make a positive contribution to a country's economic growth rate, but it can also endanger the environment. How to reconcile the often conflicting phenomena of increased export activity, stronger economic growth and a lower carbon footprint is the focus of this study. A core outcome of the study was the creation of a single list using a cross-section of international sources, of low-carbon environmental goods, and their ranking according to their inherent ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, South Africa's capacity to produce them, and their economic benefits, as reflected in the export opportunities they present. These export opportunities were revealed through the application of the Decision Support Model (DSM), an export market selection tool that incorporates a systematic filtering and screening system. The results of the analysis should help guide policymakers in their strategic deliberations on which export sectors to incentivise and support with a view to encouraging more 'green' growth in South Africa in the years ahead.

Real exchange rate behaviour and economic growth: Evidence from Sierra Leone

Tarawalie,Abu Bakarr
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Publicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.05%
The main focus of this paper is to examine the impact of the real effective exchange rate on economic growth in Sierra Leone. First an analytical framework is developed to identify the determinants of the real effective exchange rate. Using quarterly data and employing recent econometric techniques, the relationship between the real effective exchange rate and economic growth is then investigated. A bivariate Granger causality test was also employed as part of the methodology to examine the causal relationship between the real exchange rate and economic growth. The empirical results suggest that the real effective exchange rate correlates positively with economic growth, with a statistically significant coefficient. The results also indicate that monetary policy is relatively more effective than fiscal policy in the long run, and evidence of the real effective exchange rate causing economic growth was profound. In addition, the results showed that terms of trade, exchange rate devaluation, investment to GDP ratio and an excessive supply of domestic credit were the main determinants of the real exchange rate in Sierra Leone.