This report aims to update knowledge of
gender disparities in Ethiopia using the latest household
survey data. The aim of this analysis is to support ongoing
efforts to implement Plan for Accelerated and Sustained
Development to End Poverty (PASDEP) vision. The significant
progress in addressing key dimensions of gender disparities
such as education shown in this report as well as in the
recent annual progress report on the implementation of
PASDEP in 2006-2007 suggests that current policy directions
are proving effective. At the same time this report
highlights the need to complement the existing emphasis on
broad based interventions with additional targeted
interventions which might address the specific constraints
experienced by some groups. Further, based on the evidence
from a few detailed evaluations of some existing programs,
the study highlights how policy making in this area should
include more emphasis on considerations of effective
implementation and monitoring. This report is structured as
follows. Chapter two presents a set of stylized facts on
gender disparities in Ethiopia...
Pilot programs have gained significance in donor-supported development interventions because of the growing emphasis on measuring impact. The Results-based initiatives (RBI) were conceived as pioneering pilots expected to acquire rigorous evidence on effective interventions to foster women’s economic empowerment. However, they fell short of providing clear or generalizable conclusions on women’s economic empowerment due to design and implementation problems. The RBI nevertheless offer important lessons on common traps in pilot design and implementation. This article synthesizes 10 lessons from the RBI as a checklist to avoid pilot failure, intended for practitioners in any area of development.
Women in post-conflict economies face a
number of challenges. Often their businesses stay at
embryonic stages only, due to three key limitations relating
to: knowledge of business vision and management; access to
finance and markets; and access to role models and networks.
Added to the complexity is the risk of having to start all
over again due to their countriesapos; political instability
and the limited infrastructure to make their businesses
proper and become more efficient over time. This report
presents findings on the situation of women entrepreneurs in
Liberia. It discusses the challenges that female
entrepreneurs face as well as enabling factors that they
encounter when operating their businesses in Liberiaapos;s
post-conflict environment. Through the voices and
experiences of women - as in the IFC series quot;Voices of
Women Entrepreneursquot; that inspires it - this report
sheds some light on the specificities of women doing
business in fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCS),
such as those in Liberia. It identifies operational lessons
and proposes recommendations on how to support women
entrepreneurs and contribute to their economic empowerment
in the transition from post-conflict to reconstruction and
development. The women interviewed for this report
highlighted how obstacles...
Economic reforms or globalisation in more generalised terms, is dominating the world socio-economic scenario for the last two decades. The process is having significant impacts on India as well. Effectiveness of public sector economic development programs is increasingly being questioned now. Higher accountability and participatory approach are becoming more acceptable means. This paper attempts to assess the roles of the public sector and voluntary organisations in the process of conducting economic development programs for women in India. More specifically, it analyses whether implementation of economic development programs automatically improves the level of empowerment of women. To pursue this objective the authors take the help of a socioeconomic case study based on the interview of some 70 women beneficiaries of economic development program from a non-governmental organisation (NGO) and a governmental organisation (GO) in the districts of South 24 Parganas in West Bengal, India. These women are micro-entrepreneurs and engaged in self-employment business for more than three years. The economic development program of the NGO and the GO in the case study area provided them credit to run their businesses. The case study finds that income generation activity of the NGO increases economic empowerment and overall empowerment of women more than government organisation. It highlights the fact that the NGOs’ development programs have contributed more than the GOs’ programs to improve the economic and social status of women beneficiaries. The NGOs have certain positive qualities that make them more successful in reaching the poorer sections of society. The major positive point lies in the NGO development strategy or approach. This approach includes participation...
The adolescent girl’s initiative (AGI)
was motivated by the idea that vocational training and youth
employment programs tailored to the needs of girls and young
women can improve the economic empowerment and agency. By
putting that idea into practice in a number of ways, the AGI
pilots are making it possible to learn about the demand for
such programs and whether in their current form they are a
feasible and (in some cases) cost-effective means of meeting
their objectives. Adolescent females in lower-income
countries face a difficult environment in their path toward
economic empowerment, a critical dimension of adulthood.
Females, especially from low-income countries, want to
participate in programs to support their economic
empowerment. Effective programs shared certain features that
made it possible for them to reach adolescent girls and
young women and successfully assess and impart the skills
that they needed.
Bhutan has undergone a major
socio-economic transformation over the past few decades.
Today, as a middle-income country guided by the unique
development philosophy of Gross National Happiness, it
continues to develop rapidly and become more integrated into
the global economy. Coinciding with its development, Bhutan
has also made considerable strides in closing gaps in gender
equality. The analysis of the Gender Policy Note (GPN)
focuses on specific issues related to economic empowerment.
It analyzes patterns related to specific aspects of the
economic empowerment of both men and women by applying the
analytical framework of the 2012 World Development Report on
Gender and Development to the Bhutan context. For the areas
of focus, the report examines overall indicators on gender
and identifies areas where gender gaps persist: agricultural
land holding and inheritance practices, and gender gaps in
labor markets and job quality. In Bhutan, most women acquire
land ownership through inheritance, particularly in
matrilineal communities. Unlike in other countries...
Although there has been considerable
recent interest in micro-credit programs, rigorous evidence
on the impacts of forming self-help groups to mobilize
savings and foster social empowerment at the local level is
virtually non-existent, despite a large number of programs
following this pattern. The authors use a large household
survey to assess the economic and social impacts of the
formation of self-help groups in India. They find positive
impacts on empowerment and nutritional intake in program
areas overall and heterogeneity of impacts between members
of pre-existing and newly formed groups, as well as
non-participants. Female social and economic empowerment in
program areas increased irrespective of participation
status, suggesting positive externalities. Nutritional
benefit was more pronounced for new participants than for
members of pre-existing groups. Evidence of higher
consumption - but not income or asset formation - by
participants suggests that at the time of the survey, the
program's main economic impact had been through
consumption smoothing and diversification of income sources
rather than exploitation of new income sources. Evaluation
of such programs in ways that allow heterogeneity of program
impact can yield highly policy-relevant insights.
Despite the popularity and unique nature
of women's self-help groups in India, evidence of their
economic impacts is scant. Based on two rounds of a 2,400
household panel, the authors use double differences,
propensity score matching, and pipeline comparison to assess
economic impacts of longer (2.5-3 years) exposure of a
program that promoted and strengthened self-help programs in
Andhra Pradesh in India. The analysis finds that longer
program exposure has positive impacts on consumption,
nutritional intake, and asset accumulation. Investigating
heterogeneity of the impacts suggests that even the poorest
households were able to benefit from the program.
Furthermore, overall benefits would exceed program cost by a
significant margin even under conservative assumptions.
Gender-based violence against women,
including intimate partner violence (IPV), is a pervasive
health and human rights concern. However, relatively little
intervention research has been conducted on how to reduce
IPV in settings impacted by conflict. The current study
reports on the evaluation of the incremental impact of
adding gender dialogue groups to an economic empowerment
group savings program on levels of IPV. This study took
place in north and northwestern rural Côte d Ivoire.
Group s gender action plan (GAP) trust
fund has financed a series of programs to promote gender
equality by empowering women to compete in key markets:
land, labor, agriculture, finance and the private sector.
Work and family: Latin American and the Caribbean women in
search of a new balance offer new analysis of how household
decision-making and allocation of resources affects female
labor market outcomes in the region. This project summarizes
over half a decade of gender-related activities, training,
research and results in Latin America and the Caribbean. All
of the GAP-funded cases chosen for this project provide
succinct policy lessons that were: innovative;
results-driven (impact was measured or documented); policy
relevant (clear indications for policy makers);
methodologically strong; have potential for scaling up or
replication. The chapters present policy lessons organized
around four themes of vital importance to women and their
families: (A) access to labor markets; (B) improved
The Results-Based Initiatives (RBI), launched in 2007, were a pioneering attempt to provide comprehensive, coherent, and rigorous evidence on effective interventions to foster the economic empowerment of women. The RBI comprised five small pilots with built-in impact evaluation designed to identify what works best in promoting better outcomes for women as entrepreneurs, wage earners or farmers, under different country contexts.
The program was an innovative experiment in an important policy area. While there is a clear rationale for policy interventions to help remove constraints to women’s economic empowerment, knowledge of what interventions work best in different settings remains limited. When the RBI were conceived, rigorous evidence in this area was close to nonexistent because no systematic impact evaluations had been carried out in developing countries. However, the RBI fell short of meeting several of their ambitious objectives.
This study highlights lessons from the RBI with respect to both the impact of the interventions and dos and don’ts in the design and implementation of pilots. Regarding the impact on economic opportunities, the interventions did not generally increase women’s earnings, with the exception of the Peru pilot. However...
There is compelling evidence of the
importance of gender equality for poverty reduction and
sustainable growth. So it should come as no surprise that
most development actors-international agencies, bilateral
donors, and most developing countries, have an official
policy for promoting gender equality. Millennium Development
Goal 3 (MDG3) on gender equality and women's
empowerment is shared global commitment. With only seven
years remaining until the end date for the MDGs, it is an
opportune time to take stock of where the world stands in
terms of progress toward gender equality. This volume
documents trends both on the official MDG3 indicators and on
an expanded set of indicators that provide a more complete
measure of gender equality, especially in the area of
women's economic empowerment. The message that emerges
is both hopeful and sobering: progress toward equality in
capabilities has been considerable, but progress toward
equality of opportunities for women's economic
livelihoods leaves much to be desired. Beyond tracking
trends toward gender equality...
Launched in 2001 in response to the
plight of a faction of poor women - the widows of the
conflict in Aceh Province - the Women-Headed Household
Empowerment Program (PEKKA) has mushroomed into a
community-driven phenomenon across eight provinces that
shows all signs of continued, rapid growth. Emphasizing
vision, capacity building, networking, and advocacy for
those at the lowest end of the social scale - poor single
women heads of households - the PEKKA spark has become a
blaze that seemed ready to ignite a national movement. A
program that helps the individuals that most aid programs
pass over - widows and single women household heads, PEKKA
also seeks to embolden poor Indonesian women to take charge
of their lives and engage in the development cycle as a
This study examines whether political
empowerment of women affects their economic participation.
In the context of mandated political representation reform
for women in India, the study finds that the length of
exposure to women politicians affects overall female labor
force participation. These effects seem to arise through
direct and indirect channels: political representation of
women directly affects hours of work assigned to women under
the recent national public works program, the Mahatma Gandhi
National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. In addition, the
level of access to public goods, as influenced by exposure
to women leaders over time, increases the likelihood of
women being engaged in the labor force. The findings suggest
that women's participation in politics could be a
useful policy tool to increase both the supply of and the
demand for labor market opportunities for women, potentially
helping to stem India's declining female labor force
Economic empowerment brings with it a wide range of consequences, both positive and negative. The objective of this paper was to examine the relationship between economic empowerment and the sexual behaviour and practices of migrant workers within the context of HIV and AIDS in the Lesotho textile industry. Data for this paper were extracted from the findings of a larger study which had been conducted concerning HIV and AIDS in the textile industry in Lesotho. Using in-depth interviews, data were collected from 40 participants who were purposively selected from five factories which had been chosen randomly. Empowerment theory was used as a lens to provide meanings for the experiences of the participants. The findings show that the participants were empowered only in certain respects in terms of Kabeer's empowerment model of ‘power to’ and ‘power within’, on one hand, and in terms of Malhotra's comprehensive empowerment framework at the household level, on the other, as being employed in the industry enabled them to participate in the economy. Employment in the sector provided the participants with the means to be able to acquire basic needs and the ability to participate in household decision-making: for the female participants...
Youth of color are disproportionately likely to grow-up in poor, disadvantaged neighborhoods characterized by high levels of psychosocial stressors and inadequate supportive resources. Poverty and racial minority status correlate with an increased risk of high-school dropout, teen pregnancy, substance abuse, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Given these trends, child welfare researchers are developing various interventions to increase the protective resources and social opportunities available to youth of color. This article reports results of a preliminary, qualitative study that investigated the feasibility and acceptability of an economic empowerment intervention in the South Bronx and East Harlem, New York. Using focus groups and brief questionnaires with youth and their parents/guardians (N=24 dyads), we explored attitudes toward youth educational savings accounts, financial planning classes, and mentorship for inner-city youth. Findings indicate a strong interest in an economic empowerment intervention among adolescents and their caregivers in these communities. These findings have implications for the design of larger-scale research programs that aim to improve inner-city youth's socio-economic wellbeing using economic empowerment models.
The black economic empowerment (BEE) score consists of seven elements, namely ownership, management control, employment equity, skills development, preferential procurement, enterprise development and socio-economic development. The purpose of this study is to establish whether an association exists between an entity's BEE elements and its share returns in the short term. Based on prior literature, it appears that the market reacts positively to an announcement of a BEE deal, although the literature also indicates that an entity's BEE score, which includes all seven elements of the BEE score, bears a negative relationship to its share returns. Therefore the association between the various BEE elements and share returns needs to be investigated. The study uses a multivariate regression analysis that controls for factors influencing share returns. The study includes the BEE element data as obtained from the survey of the top empowerment companies carried out by Empowerdex/Financial Mail for the period 2005 to 2011. The results of this study indicate that a significant positive association exists between the management control element of the BEE score and the entity's share returns. Furthermore, a significant negative association exists between the ownership and preferential procurement elements of an entity and its share returns. This study contributes to the literature on BEE in the accounting and finance field in South Africa as well as enhances the understanding and effect of BEE compliance through implementation of the generic scorecard as required by the 2007 codes of good practice. The results of this study would be of interest to government policy analysts...
Fonte: African Human Rights Law JournalPublicador: African Human Rights Law Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista CientíficaFormato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
In many societies, including Nigeria, persons with disabilities (PWDs) are extremely poor and disadvantaged. Economic empowerment is an effective means through which PWDs can fend for themselves and reduce poverty. The article focuses on the right of PWDs in Nigeria to economic empowerment. It argues that PWDs in Nigeria lack the opportunity to economically empower themselves, especially in relation to the Nigerians with Disability Act 1993. It also suggests ways through which PWDs can attain economic empowerment.
This paper examines the experiences of persons with disabilities (PWDs) who enter and exit employment at a company in the Cape Metropole of the Western Cape Province in South Africa. The aim of the study was to explore the factors which cause PWDs to remain in or leave employment in the open labour market. The literature review will consider the concepts of disability, poverty and economic empowerment. A collective case study was used and in-depth interviews with five disabled employees were analysed to generate categories and sub-categories from the data. Two themes are discussed, namely "I can say I got a home, it's a home to me" and "Disability in the workplace: a double-edged sword". The themes represent findings that revealed that money earned through employment motivated the participants and improved their independence, self-sufficiency and their contribution to society. Simultaneously though, it was found that earning an income caused increased stress for the participants, due to the effects that it had on their eligibility for a disability grant. The paper concludes by giving recommendations concerning economic empowerment of PWDs in the context of the social security grant.
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management SciencesPublicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista CientíficaFormato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2009EN
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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has recently received considerable attention in literature. One of the vehicles by which companies can conform to CSR in South Africa is Black Economic Empowerment (BEE). In this regard, BEE has been employed to assist previously disadvantaged groups of investors obtain a larger share of the equity of South African listed companies. The question has often been asked whether the announcement of BEE transactions by listed companies increases shareholder wealth. This article tries to answer this question by examining the share performance of 125 BEE transactions involving 95 companies during the period January 2002 to July 2006. The results indicate a positive relation between BEE transaction announcements and shareholder wealth creation, but only during the last part of the period covered by the study.