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Unleashing the Potential of Ethiopian Women : Trends and Options for Economic Empowerment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.47%
This report aims to update knowledge of gender disparities in Ethiopia using the latest household survey data. The aim of this analysis is to support ongoing efforts to implement Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP) vision. The significant progress in addressing key dimensions of gender disparities such as education shown in this report as well as in the recent annual progress report on the implementation of PASDEP in 2006-2007 suggests that current policy directions are proving effective. At the same time this report highlights the need to complement the existing emphasis on broad based interventions with additional targeted interventions which might address the specific constraints experienced by some groups. Further, based on the evidence from a few detailed evaluations of some existing programs, the study highlights how policy making in this area should include more emphasis on considerations of effective implementation and monitoring. This report is structured as follows. Chapter two presents a set of stylized facts on gender disparities in Ethiopia...

A Checklist to Avoid Pilot Failures : Lessons from a Set of Women’s Economic Empowerment Initiatives

Johansson de Silva, Sara; Paci, Pierella; Posadas, Josefina
Fonte: Taylor and Francis Publicador: Taylor and Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.5%
Pilot programs have gained significance in donor-supported development interventions because of the growing emphasis on measuring impact. The Results-based initiatives (RBI) were conceived as pioneering pilots expected to acquire rigorous evidence on effective interventions to foster women’s economic empowerment. However, they fell short of providing clear or generalizable conclusions on women’s economic empowerment due to design and implementation problems. The RBI nevertheless offer important lessons on common traps in pilot design and implementation. This article synthesizes 10 lessons from the RBI as a checklist to avoid pilot failure, intended for practitioners in any area of development.

Striving for Business Success : Voices of Liberian Women Entrepreneurs

World Bank Institute; International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.61%
Women in post-conflict economies face a number of challenges. Often their businesses stay at embryonic stages only, due to three key limitations relating to: knowledge of business vision and management; access to finance and markets; and access to role models and networks. Added to the complexity is the risk of having to start all over again due to their countriesapos; political instability and the limited infrastructure to make their businesses proper and become more efficient over time. This report presents findings on the situation of women entrepreneurs in Liberia. It discusses the challenges that female entrepreneurs face as well as enabling factors that they encounter when operating their businesses in Liberiaapos;s post-conflict environment. Through the voices and experiences of women - as in the IFC series quot;Voices of Women Entrepreneursquot; that inspires it - this report sheds some light on the specificities of women doing business in fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCS), such as those in Liberia. It identifies operational lessons and proposes recommendations on how to support women entrepreneurs and contribute to their economic empowerment in the transition from post-conflict to reconstruction and development. The women interviewed for this report highlighted how obstacles...

Income generation program and empowerment of women – a case study in India

Basu, Saswati; Basu, Parikshit
Fonte: ASARC Publicador: ASARC
Tipo: Conference paper Formato: 91951 bytes; 356 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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46.61%
Economic reforms or globalisation in more generalised terms, is dominating the world socio-economic scenario for the last two decades. The process is having significant impacts on India as well. Effectiveness of public sector economic development programs is increasingly being questioned now. Higher accountability and participatory approach are becoming more acceptable means. This paper attempts to assess the roles of the public sector and voluntary organisations in the process of conducting economic development programs for women in India. More specifically, it analyses whether implementation of economic development programs automatically improves the level of empowerment of women. To pursue this objective the authors take the help of a socioeconomic case study based on the interview of some 70 women beneficiaries of economic development program from a non-governmental organisation (NGO) and a governmental organisation (GO) in the districts of South 24 Parganas in West Bengal, India. These women are micro-entrepreneurs and engaged in self-employment business for more than three years. The economic development program of the NGO and the GO in the case study area provided them credit to run their businesses. The case study finds that income generation activity of the NGO increases economic empowerment and overall empowerment of women more than government organisation. It highlights the fact that the NGOs’ development programs have contributed more than the GOs’ programs to improve the economic and social status of women beneficiaries. The NGOs have certain positive qualities that make them more successful in reaching the poorer sections of society. The major positive point lies in the NGO development strategy or approach. This approach includes participation...

The Spirit of Boldness; Lessons from the World Bank’s Adolescent Girls Initiative

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.54%
The adolescent girl’s initiative (AGI) was motivated by the idea that vocational training and youth employment programs tailored to the needs of girls and young women can improve the economic empowerment and agency. By putting that idea into practice in a number of ways, the AGI pilots are making it possible to learn about the demand for such programs and whether in their current form they are a feasible and (in some cases) cost-effective means of meeting their objectives. Adolescent females in lower-income countries face a difficult environment in their path toward economic empowerment, a critical dimension of adulthood. Females, especially from low-income countries, want to participate in programs to support their economic empowerment. Effective programs shared certain features that made it possible for them to reach adolescent girls and young women and successfully assess and impart the skills that they needed.

Bhutan Gender Policy Note

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.58%
Bhutan has undergone a major socio-economic transformation over the past few decades. Today, as a middle-income country guided by the unique development philosophy of Gross National Happiness, it continues to develop rapidly and become more integrated into the global economy. Coinciding with its development, Bhutan has also made considerable strides in closing gaps in gender equality. The analysis of the Gender Policy Note (GPN) focuses on specific issues related to economic empowerment. It analyzes patterns related to specific aspects of the economic empowerment of both men and women by applying the analytical framework of the 2012 World Development Report on Gender and Development to the Bhutan context. For the areas of focus, the report examines overall indicators on gender and identifies areas where gender gaps persist: agricultural land holding and inheritance practices, and gender gaps in labor markets and job quality. In Bhutan, most women acquire land ownership through inheritance, particularly in matrilineal communities. Unlike in other countries...

Economic and Social Impacts of Self-help Groups in India

Deininger, Klaus; Liu, Yanyan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
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56.59%
Although there has been considerable recent interest in micro-credit programs, rigorous evidence on the impacts of forming self-help groups to mobilize savings and foster social empowerment at the local level is virtually non-existent, despite a large number of programs following this pattern. The authors use a large household survey to assess the economic and social impacts of the formation of self-help groups in India. They find positive impacts on empowerment and nutritional intake in program areas overall and heterogeneity of impacts between members of pre-existing and newly formed groups, as well as non-participants. Female social and economic empowerment in program areas increased irrespective of participation status, suggesting positive externalities. Nutritional benefit was more pronounced for new participants than for members of pre-existing groups. Evidence of higher consumption - but not income or asset formation - by participants suggests that at the time of the survey, the program's main economic impact had been through consumption smoothing and diversification of income sources rather than exploitation of new income sources. Evaluation of such programs in ways that allow heterogeneity of program impact can yield highly policy-relevant insights.

Longer-Term Economic Impacts of Self-Help Groups in India

Deininger, Klaus; Liu, Yanyan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
Despite the popularity and unique nature of women's self-help groups in India, evidence of their economic impacts is scant. Based on two rounds of a 2,400 household panel, the authors use double differences, propensity score matching, and pipeline comparison to assess economic impacts of longer (2.5-3 years) exposure of a program that promoted and strengthened self-help programs in Andhra Pradesh in India. The analysis finds that longer program exposure has positive impacts on consumption, nutritional intake, and asset accumulation. Investigating heterogeneity of the impacts suggests that even the poorest households were able to benefit from the program. Furthermore, overall benefits would exceed program cost by a significant margin even under conservative assumptions.

Gender Norms and Economic Empowerment Intervention to Reduce Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Rural Côte D'ivoire : A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

Gupta, Jhumka; Falb, Kathryn L.; Lehmann, Heidi; Kpebo, Denise; Xuan, Ziming; Hossain, Mazeda; Zimmerman, Cathy; Watts, Charlotte; Annan, Jeannie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.37%
Gender-based violence against women, including intimate partner violence (IPV), is a pervasive health and human rights concern. However, relatively little intervention research has been conducted on how to reduce IPV in settings impacted by conflict. The current study reports on the evaluation of the incremental impact of adding gender dialogue groups to an economic empowerment group savings program on levels of IPV. This study took place in north and northwestern rural Côte d Ivoire.

Women's Economic Empowerment in Latin America and the Caribbean : Policy Lessons from the World Bank Gender Action Plan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA)
ENGLISH; EN_US
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66.47%
Group s gender action plan (GAP) trust fund has financed a series of programs to promote gender equality by empowering women to compete in key markets: land, labor, agriculture, finance and the private sector. Work and family: Latin American and the Caribbean women in search of a new balance offer new analysis of how household decision-making and allocation of resources affects female labor market outcomes in the region. This project summarizes over half a decade of gender-related activities, training, research and results in Latin America and the Caribbean. All of the GAP-funded cases chosen for this project provide succinct policy lessons that were: innovative; results-driven (impact was measured or documented); policy relevant (clear indications for policy makers); methodologically strong; have potential for scaling up or replication. The chapters present policy lessons organized around four themes of vital importance to women and their families: (A) access to labor markets; (B) improved workplace conditions...

Lessons Learned and Not Yet Learned from a Multicountry Initiative on Women's Economic Empowerment

Johansson de Silva, Sara; Paci, Pierella; Posadas, Josefina
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.5%
The Results-Based Initiatives (RBI), launched in 2007, were a pioneering attempt to provide comprehensive, coherent, and rigorous evidence on effective interventions to foster the economic empowerment of women. The RBI comprised five small pilots with built-in impact evaluation designed to identify what works best in promoting better outcomes for women as entrepreneurs, wage earners or farmers, under different country contexts. The program was an innovative experiment in an important policy area. While there is a clear rationale for policy interventions to help remove constraints to women’s economic empowerment, knowledge of what interventions work best in different settings remains limited. When the RBI were conceived, rigorous evidence in this area was close to nonexistent because no systematic impact evaluations had been carried out in developing countries. However, the RBI fell short of meeting several of their ambitious objectives. This study highlights lessons from the RBI with respect to both the impact of the interventions and dos and don’ts in the design and implementation of pilots. Regarding the impact on economic opportunities, the interventions did not generally increase women’s earnings, with the exception of the Peru pilot. However...

Equality for Women : Where Do We Stand on Millennium Development Goal 3?

Buviníc, Mayra; Morrison, Andrew R.; Ofosu-Amaah, A. Waafas; Sjöblom, Mirja
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
There is compelling evidence of the importance of gender equality for poverty reduction and sustainable growth. So it should come as no surprise that most development actors-international agencies, bilateral donors, and most developing countries, have an official policy for promoting gender equality. Millennium Development Goal 3 (MDG3) on gender equality and women's empowerment is shared global commitment. With only seven years remaining until the end date for the MDGs, it is an opportune time to take stock of where the world stands in terms of progress toward gender equality. This volume documents trends both on the official MDG3 indicators and on an expanded set of indicators that provide a more complete measure of gender equality, especially in the area of women's economic empowerment. The message that emerges is both hopeful and sobering: progress toward equality in capabilities has been considerable, but progress toward equality of opportunities for women's economic livelihoods leaves much to be desired. Beyond tracking trends toward gender equality...

A Call to Dignity : How Indonesia's Women-Headed Household Empowerment Program (PEKKA) is Transforming Lives and Changing Development Paradigms

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.55%
Launched in 2001 in response to the plight of a faction of poor women - the widows of the conflict in Aceh Province - the Women-Headed Household Empowerment Program (PEKKA) has mushroomed into a community-driven phenomenon across eight provinces that shows all signs of continued, rapid growth. Emphasizing vision, capacity building, networking, and advocacy for those at the lowest end of the social scale - poor single women heads of households - the PEKKA spark has become a blaze that seemed ready to ignite a national movement. A program that helps the individuals that most aid programs pass over - widows and single women household heads, PEKKA also seeks to embolden poor Indonesian women to take charge of their lives and engage in the development cycle as a cooperative bloc.lt;BRgt;

Can Political Empowerment Help Economic Empowerment? Women Leaders and Female Labor Force Participation in India

Ghani, Ejaz; Mani, Anandi; O'Connell, Stephen D.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.57%
This study examines whether political empowerment of women affects their economic participation. In the context of mandated political representation reform for women in India, the study finds that the length of exposure to women politicians affects overall female labor force participation. These effects seem to arise through direct and indirect channels: political representation of women directly affects hours of work assigned to women under the recent national public works program, the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. In addition, the level of access to public goods, as influenced by exposure to women leaders over time, increases the likelihood of women being engaged in the labor force. The findings suggest that women's participation in politics could be a useful policy tool to increase both the supply of and the demand for labor market opportunities for women, potentially helping to stem India's declining female labor force participation rate.

Interplay between economic empowerment and sexual behaviour and practices of migrant workers within the context of HIV and AIDS in the Lesotho textile industry

Tanga, Pius Tangwe; Tangwe, Magdaline Nji
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
Economic empowerment brings with it a wide range of consequences, both positive and negative. The objective of this paper was to examine the relationship between economic empowerment and the sexual behaviour and practices of migrant workers within the context of HIV and AIDS in the Lesotho textile industry. Data for this paper were extracted from the findings of a larger study which had been conducted concerning HIV and AIDS in the textile industry in Lesotho. Using in-depth interviews, data were collected from 40 participants who were purposively selected from five factories which had been chosen randomly. Empowerment theory was used as a lens to provide meanings for the experiences of the participants. The findings show that the participants were empowered only in certain respects in terms of Kabeer's empowerment model of ‘power to’ and ‘power within’, on one hand, and in terms of Malhotra's comprehensive empowerment framework at the household level, on the other, as being employed in the industry enabled them to participate in the economy. Employment in the sector provided the participants with the means to be able to acquire basic needs and the ability to participate in household decision-making: for the female participants...

Increasing Opportunities for Inner-City Youth: The Feasibility of an Economic Empowerment Model in East Harlem and the South Bronx, New York*

Ssewamala, Fred M.; Sperber, Elizabeth; Blake, Clair A.; Ilic, Vilma P.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
Youth of color are disproportionately likely to grow-up in poor, disadvantaged neighborhoods characterized by high levels of psychosocial stressors and inadequate supportive resources. Poverty and racial minority status correlate with an increased risk of high-school dropout, teen pregnancy, substance abuse, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Given these trends, child welfare researchers are developing various interventions to increase the protective resources and social opportunities available to youth of color. This article reports results of a preliminary, qualitative study that investigated the feasibility and acceptability of an economic empowerment intervention in the South Bronx and East Harlem, New York. Using focus groups and brief questionnaires with youth and their parents/guardians (N=24 dyads), we explored attitudes toward youth educational savings accounts, financial planning classes, and mentorship for inner-city youth. Findings indicate a strong interest in an economic empowerment intervention among adolescents and their caregivers in these communities. These findings have implications for the design of larger-scale research programs that aim to improve inner-city youth's socio-economic wellbeing using economic empowerment models.

The association between the seven elements of the black economic empowerment score and market performance

van der Merwe,Cara Maria; Ferreira,Petri
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Publicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
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76.5%
The black economic empowerment (BEE) score consists of seven elements, namely ownership, management control, employment equity, skills development, preferential procurement, enterprise development and socio-economic development. The purpose of this study is to establish whether an association exists between an entity's BEE elements and its share returns in the short term. Based on prior literature, it appears that the market reacts positively to an announcement of a BEE deal, although the literature also indicates that an entity's BEE score, which includes all seven elements of the BEE score, bears a negative relationship to its share returns. Therefore the association between the various BEE elements and share returns needs to be investigated. The study uses a multivariate regression analysis that controls for factors influencing share returns. The study includes the BEE element data as obtained from the survey of the top empowerment companies carried out by Empowerdex/Financial Mail for the period 2005 to 2011. The results of this study indicate that a significant positive association exists between the management control element of the BEE score and the entity's share returns. Furthermore, a significant negative association exists between the ownership and preferential procurement elements of an entity and its share returns. This study contributes to the literature on BEE in the accounting and finance field in South Africa as well as enhances the understanding and effect of BEE compliance through implementation of the generic scorecard as required by the 2007 codes of good practice. The results of this study would be of interest to government policy analysts...

The right to economic empowerment of persons with disabilities in Nigeria: How enabled?

Ofuani,Anwuli Irene
Fonte: African Human Rights Law Journal Publicador: African Human Rights Law Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
In many societies, including Nigeria, persons with disabilities (PWDs) are extremely poor and disadvantaged. Economic empowerment is an effective means through which PWDs can fend for themselves and reduce poverty. The article focuses on the right of PWDs in Nigeria to economic empowerment. It argues that PWDs in Nigeria lack the opportunity to economically empower themselves, especially in relation to the Nigerians with Disability Act 1993. It also suggests ways through which PWDs can attain economic empowerment.

Exploring the tensions of sustaining economic empowerment of persons with disabilities through open labour market employment in the Cape Metropole

Engelbrecht,Madri; Lorenzo,Theresa
Fonte: South African Journal of Occupational Therapy Publicador: South African Journal of Occupational Therapy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.47%
This paper examines the experiences of persons with disabilities (PWDs) who enter and exit employment at a company in the Cape Metropole of the Western Cape Province in South Africa. The aim of the study was to explore the factors which cause PWDs to remain in or leave employment in the open labour market. The literature review will consider the concepts of disability, poverty and economic empowerment. A collective case study was used and in-depth interviews with five disabled employees were analysed to generate categories and sub-categories from the data. Two themes are discussed, namely "I can say I got a home, it's a home to me" and "Disability in the workplace: a double-edged sword". The themes represent findings that revealed that money earned through employment motivated the participants and improved their independence, self-sufficiency and their contribution to society. Simultaneously though, it was found that earning an income caused increased stress for the participants, due to the effects that it had on their eligibility for a disability grant. The paper concludes by giving recommendations concerning economic empowerment of PWDs in the context of the social security grant.

Corporate social responsibility: The financial impact of Black Economic Empowerment transactions in South Africa

Wolmarans,Hendrik; Sartorius,Kurt
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Publicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26%
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has recently received considerable attention in literature. One of the vehicles by which companies can conform to CSR in South Africa is Black Economic Empowerment (BEE). In this regard, BEE has been employed to assist previously disadvantaged groups of investors obtain a larger share of the equity of South African listed companies. The question has often been asked whether the announcement of BEE transactions by listed companies increases shareholder wealth. This article tries to answer this question by examining the share performance of 125 BEE transactions involving 95 companies during the period January 2002 to July 2006. The results indicate a positive relation between BEE transaction announcements and shareholder wealth creation, but only during the last part of the period covered by the study.