Página 1 dos resultados de 81 itens digitais encontrados em 0.006 segundos

Evolução e determinantes da população rural e do emprego rural não-agropecuário no estado de Santa Catarina: período de 1991 a 2000; Evolution and determinants of the rural population and non-agricultural rural employment in the state of Santa Catarina - 1991 a 2000

Santos Filho, Jonas Irineu dos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/12/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.3%
O comportamento do emprego no meio rural vêm se modificando ao longo do tempo. Pode-se perceber que o rural não é mais unicamente agropecuário. Existem atividades nãoagrícolas realizadas no meio rural vinculadas ou não à agropecuária, gerando o fenômeno conhecido como pluriatividade. O diagnóstico deste fenômeno para o Brasil já foi executado pelo projeto RURBANO. Entretanto, ainda existe uma lacuna na literatura nacional referente à utilização de modelos econométricos visando identificar os seus fatores determinantes. Além disto, estudos que tenham tentado entender como a vizinhança e os atributos do contexto em torno do município afetam o emprego não-agropecuário por pessoas residentes no meio rural ainda não foram efetuados. Neste contexto, o presente estudo analisa as questões relacionadas ao emprego rural, com ênfase nas atividades que não pertencem diretamente à produção agropecuária para o estado de Santa Catarina. São enfocados os aspectos econômicos, sociais e locacionais que possam explicar a evolução do emprego rural no estado. A escolha de Santa Catarina, para o estudo de caso, deve-se a algumas características peculiares deste estado, as quais são: apresentar uma economia altamente diversificada...

Estimativa econométrica das elasticidades renda e preço da demanda por gás natural para o setor industrial brasileiro; Econometric Forecasts: A Study on Long-Term Price and Income Elasticity for Natural Gas in the Brazilian Industrial Sector

Cabral, Renata Fonseca
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/06/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.12%
Este trabalho tem como objetivo estimar a elasticidade renda e preço da demanda por gás natural no Brasil para o setor industrial brasileiro. O segmento de consumo industrial representa cerca de dois terços do consumo de gás natural no país, destacando sua importância estratégica na elaboração de política energética relacionada ao gás. Este trabalho apresenta também o incremento nas trocas internacionais de gás natural e a perspectiva de aumento do uso desse energético no Brasil e no mundo. Alguns desafios ainda se colocam para a efetiva globalização dessa indústria, como: a necessidade de realização de investimentos em infraestrutura de produção, transporte e distribuição; o aprimoramento do acesso às principais reservas do hidrocarboneto; e as incertezas com relação à evolução da demanda. Utiliza-se o estudo estatístico econométrico para estimar as elasticidades preço e renda, ou seja, para investigar como a demanda industrial brasileira reage frente a um aumento ou diminuição de preço do gás e das variações na renda disponíveis no Brasil. Como proxy da renda industrial utilizam-se os dados do PIB industrial brasileiro. Após identificar que as séries estudadas eram não estacionárias, optou-se pela utilização do conceito de cointegração. Os resultados obtidos por meio do referido modelo mostraram que a demanda estudada é muito mais sensível a variações do preço do gás natural do que a variações na renda. Desse modo...

Advances and challenges in innovation studies

Castellacci, F.; Grodal, S.; Mendonça, S.; Wibe, M.
Fonte: Dinâmia Publicador: Dinâmia
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2004 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.15%
The article discusses recent advances and future challenges in innovation studies. First, it separately considers four main strands of research, studying innovation at the organizational, systemic, sectoral and macroeconomic levels. Then, considering the field as a whole, the article points to the existence of important neglected topics and methodological challenges for future research. In fact, several fundamental issues are still unexplored, such as the co-evolution between technological and institutional change; the role of demand; and the impacts of innovation on individual and collective welfare. There are also important methodological challenges, such as the need for more systematic interactions between the different levels of analysis; the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of technological and institutional changes; and the search for a combination of contingent explanations based on case studies with general analytical results based on econometric and formal models.

Ill-gotten Money and the Economy : Experiences from Malawi and Namibia

Yikona, Stuart; Slot, Brigie; Geller, Michael; Hansen, Bjarne; Kadiri, Fatima el
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.12%
Over the last 20 years, the international community has significantly stepped up its efforts to prevent, detect, and deter money flows related to criminal activities and terrorism financing. Since the early 2000s, this drive has extended to developing countries, with most of them introducing anti-money laundering (AML) policies. The primary driver behind this is law enforcement; these policies are aimed at detecting and tracing flows of ill-gotten money, which would enable authorities to fight and prevent crime and recover assets of crime, corruption, and tax evasion. The core objective of this study is to introduce economics into the international debate about anti-money laundering, and to introduce the idea of the usefulness and effectiveness of such policies. The study focuses on two developing countries: Malawi, a low-income country, and Namibia, a middle-income country. The findings presented in this study are based on an extensive literature research; World Bank discussions with numerous public- and private-sector officials and representatives of the Governments of Malawi and Namibia during a Bank mission in November 2010; and workshops conducted in both countries in February 2011 to obtain feedback on the preliminary findings. In conducting this study...

Making the Grade : Smallholder Farmers, Emerging Standards, and Development Assistance Programs in Africa - A Research Program Synthesis

Jaffee, Steven; Henson, Spencer; Diaz Rios, Luz
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.04%
Market access has been identified as one of the foremost factors influencing the performance of small-scale producers in developing countries, and in particular least-developed countries. Smallholder access to markets for higher-value or differentiated agricultural and food products (hereafter HVAF) is recognized as a vital opportunity to enhance and diversify the livelihoods of lower-income farm households and reduce rural poverty more generally (World Bank 2007a). Smallholder participation in HVAF markets is typically constrained by inadequate farm-level resources, farm-to-market logistical bottlenecks, and more general transaction costs in matching and aggregating dispersed supplies to meet buyer and consumer demand. These traditional constraints have been amplified and, in some cases, surpassed by a new set of challenges associated with compliance with product and process standards, set and enforced by governments as well as private supply-chain leaders. In the face of emerging challenges and opportunities associated with standards and serving HVAF markets...

Economic Valuation of Development Projects : A Case Study of a Non-Motorized Transport Project in India

Wang, Hua; Fang, Ke; Shi, Yuyan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.23%
One of the major difficulties in doing cost-benefit analysis of a development project is to estimate the total economic value of project benefits, which are usually multi-dimensional and include goods and services that are not traded in the market. Challenges also arise in aggregating the values of different benefits, which may not be mutually exclusive. This paper uses a contingent valuation approach to estimate the economic value of a non-motorized transport project in Pune, India, across beneficiaries. The heads of households which are potentially affected by the project are presented with a detailed description of the project, and then are asked to vote on whether such a project should be undertaken given different specifications of costs to the households. The total value of the project is then derived from the survey answers. Econometric analysis indicates that the survey responses provide generally reasonable valuation estimates.

Macroprudential Stress-Testing Practices of Central Banks in Central and South Eastern Europe : An Overview and Challenges Ahead

Melecky, Martin; Podpiera, Anca Maria
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
Stress tests are the main practical tools of macroprudential oversight. This paper reviews the stress-testing practices of central banks in Central and South Eastern Europe (CSEECBs) and outlines the challenges in the area of stress testing going forward. The authors discuss good practice and the applied approaches by CSEECBs focusing on the main components of a typical macroprudential stress test, i.e. constructing the baseline and stress scenarios, mapping macroeconomic scenarios and microeconomic factors to risk factors, calculating risk exposures to different risk indicators, and estimating outcome indicators to inform macroprudential policy. The main challenges for the CSEECBs going forward involve needed improvements in data reliability, consideration of quantitative microprudential indicators in macroprudential stress tests, explicit incorporation of dynamics in stress tests to include reaction functions of banks and macroprudential policy, institutionalization of macroprudential policy responses to alarming stress-test results...

Infrastructure and Growth in Africa

Calderón, César
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
The goal of the paper is to provide a comprehensive assessment of the impact of infrastructure development on growth in African countries. Based on econometric estimates for a sample of 136 countries from 1960-2005, the authors evaluate the impact on per capita growth of faster accumulation of infrastructure stocks and of enhancement in the quality of infrastructure services for 39 African countries in three key infrastructure sectors: telecommunications, electricity, and roads.Using an econometric technique suitable for dynamic panel data models and likely endogenous regressors, the authors find that infrastructure stocks and service quality boost economic growth. The growth payoff of reaching the infrastructure development of the African leader (Mauritius) is 1.1 percent of GDP per year in North Africa and 2.3 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa, with most of the contribution coming from more, rather than better, infrastructure. Across Africa, infrastructure contributed 99 basis points to per capita economic growth...

Breaking the Barriers to Higher Economic Growth : Better Governance and Deeper Reforms in the Middle East and North Africa

Nabli, Mustapha Kamel
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.04%
Contents of the report are as follows: Long-term economic development: challenges and prospects for the Arab countries by Mustapha K. Nabli. Reform complementarities and economic growth in the Middle East and North Africa by Mustapha Kamel Nabli, and Marie-Ange Veganzones-Varoudakis. After Argentina: was MENA right to be cautious? By Mustapha K. Nabli. Restarting Arab economic reform by Mustapha K. Nabli. Democracy for better governance and higher economic growth in the MENA region? By Mustapha K. Nabli, and Carlos Silva-Jauregui. The political economy of industrial policy in the Middle East and North Africa by Mustapha K. Nabli, Jennifer Keller, Claudia Nassif, and Carlos Silva-Jauregui. The macroeconomics of labor market outcomes in MENA by Jennifer Keller, and Mustapha K. Nabli. Challenges and opportunities for the 21st century by Mustapha Nabli. Labor market reforms, growth, and unemployment in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa by Pierre-Richard Agenor, Mustapha K. Nabli...

Infrastructure and Growth in Developing Countries : Recent Advances and Research Challenges

Straub, Stéphane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.23%
This paper presents a survey of recent research on the economics of infrastructure in developing countries. Energy, transport, telecommunications, water and sanitation are considered. The survey covers two main set of issues: the linkages between infrastructure and economic growth (at the economy-wide, regional and sectoral level) and the composition, sequencing and efficiency of alternative infrastructure investments, including the arbitrage between new investments and maintenance expenditures; OPEX and CAPEX, and public versus private investment. Following the introduction, section 2 discusses the theoretical foundations (growth theory and new economic geography). Section 3 assesses the analysis of 140 specifications from 64 recent empirical papers-examining type of data used, level of aggregation, econometric techniques and nature of the sample-and discusses both the macro-econometric and micro-econometric contributions of these papers. Finally section 4 discusses directions for future research and suggests priorities in data development.

Infrastructure and Development : A Critical Appraisal of the Macro Level Literature

Straub, Stéphane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
This survey reviews the existing macro-level empirical literature on the link between infrastructure and development outcomes in a critical light. After providing a general framework that casts the relevant terms of the controversy on the real effect of infrastructure on growth in the context of an aggregate production function, it signals what are the relevant empirical questions to be addressed. This guides the systematic review of a number of empirical studies and the discussion of the main econometric challenges to the identification of the effect of infrastructure on output and productivity. Finally, building on related research, in particular in contract theory and political economy, the paper spells out several promising research avenues.

The Econometrics of Finance and Growth

Beck, Thorsten
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.12%
This paper reviews different econometric methodologies to assess the relationship between financial development and growth. It illustrates the identification problem, which is at the center of the finance and growth literature, using the example of a simple Ordinary Least Squares estimation. It discusses cross-sectional and panel instrumental variable approaches to overcome the identification problem. It presents the time-series approach, which focuses on the forecast capacity of financial development for future growth rates, and differences-in-differences techniques that try to overcome the identification problem by assessing the differential effect of financial sector development across states with different policies or across industries with different needs for external finance. Finally, it discusses firm-level and household approaches that allow analysts to dig deeper into the channels and mechanisms through which financial development enhances growth and welfare, but pose their own methodological challenges.

CGE Modeling of Market Access in Services

Christen, Elisabeth; Francois, Joseph; Hoekman, Bernard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.12%
This paper examines how the applied multi-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) literature has moved into quantication of the impacts of greater market access for services. This includes discussion of multi-sector linkages to the service sector, as well both measuring barriers to trade and investment (generally with a mix of firm surveys, price comparisons, and econometrics), and how changes in these barriers, however measured, have been implemented in the CGE literature. Three challenges are highlighted. The first is identification of how trade in services takes place and how market access is therefore affected by policy. The second is to find data sufficiently robust for modeling purposes. The third, linked to the data problem, is to quantify the barriers to be examined. Significant progress has been made in modeling foreign direct investment and linking this to productivity, which turns out to be important. The paper also provides an example of modeling productivity linkages to openness and domestic regulation...

Development Economics through the Decades; A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Report

Yusuf, Shahid; Deaton, Angus; Dervis, Kemal; Easterly, William; Ito, Takatoshi; Stiglitz, Joseph E.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.12%
The World Development Report (WDR) has become such a fixture that it is easy to forget the circumstances under which it was born and the Bank's motivation for producing such a report at that time. In the first chapter of this essay, the authors provide a brief background on the circumstances of newly independent developing countries and summarize some of the main strands of the emerging field of development economics. This backdrop to the genesis of the WDR accounts for the orientation of the earlier reports. The thinking on development in the 1960s and 1970s also provides a baseline from which to view the evolution that has occurred since. From the coverage in the second chapter, the authors isolate a number of key issues common to several or all of the WDRs, and the author examine these issues individually at greater length in third chapter. The discussion in third chapter, which builds on the material in the WDRs, presents some views about how far development thinking and, relatedly, policy making have advanced relative to 30 years ago. It asks whether promoting growth...

Participation in WTO Dispute Settlement : Complainants, Interested Parties, and Free Riders

Bown, Chad P.
Fonte: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.12%
What affects a country's decision of whether to formally engage in a trade dispute directly related to its exporting interests? This article empirically examines determinants of affected country participation decisions in formal trade litigation arising under the World Trade Organization (WTO) between 1995 and 2000. It investigates determinants of nonparticipation and examines whether the incentives generated by the system's rules and procedures discourage active engagement in dispute settlement by developing country members in particular. Though the size of exports at stake is found to be an important economic determinant affecting the decision to participate in challenges to a WTO-inconsistent policy, the evidence also shows that measures of a country's retaliatory and legal capacity as well as its international political economy relationships matter. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of an implicit 'institutional bias' generated by the system's rules and incentives that particularly affects developing economy participation in dispute settlement.

Fiscal Decentralization and Fiscal Performance

Shah, Anwar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.25%
A resurgence of recent interest in fiscal federalism has been a source of concern among macroeconomic stabilization experts. They argue that a decentralized fiscal system poses a threat to macroeconomic stability as it is incompatible with prudent monetary and fiscal management. The author addresses these concerns by taking a simple neo-institutional economics with an econometric analysis perspective. His analysis concludes that, contrary to a common misconception, fiscal decentralization is associated with improved fiscal performance and better functioning of internal common markets. Fiscal policy coordination represents an important challenge for federal systems. In this context, fiscal rules and institutions provide a useful framework but not necessarily a solution to this challenge. Fiscal rules binding on all levels can help sustain political commitment in countries having coalitions or fragmented regimes in power. Coordinating institutions help in the use of moral suasion to encourage a coordinated response. Industrial countries' experiences also show that unilaterally imposed federal controls and constraints on subnational governments typically do not work. Instead, societal norms based on fiscal conservatism such as the Swiss referenda and political activism of the electorate play important roles. Ultimately capital markets and bond-rating agencies provide more effective discipline on fiscal policy. In this context...

Colombia : Land Policy in Transition

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.12%
Unequal land distribution and the negative social and economic implications resulting from such polarization in Colombia have long been of concern to policymakers. A 1950 World Bank mission identified unequal land distribution as a key impediment to economic and social development in the country. Since then, a wide range of policies has been adopted to deal with this issue and its consequences. Numerous studies show that the success of these policies was often limited by a combination of an inappropriate policy environment, limited financial resources, cumbersome processes loaded with bureaucratic obstacles, drug money, and violence. This report uses new empirical evidence to describe the dimensions and impact of the problem of land access and land distribution and past policies to deal with this issue, and to identify possible avenues to address land issues in an integrated manner in future interventions. It complements contemporaneous studies by the Bank on rural finance and agricultural competitiveness...

A Public Expenditure Review for Paraguay : The Quest for Optimal Tax and Expenditure Policies for Shared Prosperity

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.11%
Paraguay has achieved significant progress in terms of fiscal policy over the past decade. Despite this progress on fiscal reform, three major challenges remain: 1) a volatile macroeconomic environment; 2) still insufficient fiscal resources; and 3) high levels of poverty and inequality. In light of these three challenges, the objective of this report is to examine the extent to which fiscal policy in Paraguay has contributed to the social progress of the past decade, and can serve the purpose of further reducing poverty and enhancing shared prosperity in the years to come. Overall, fiscal policy can contribute to containing poverty and inequality by buffering the negative impact of financial and economic crises on vulnerable parts of the population. Moreover, tax and expenditure policies that redistribute from high- to low-income households in a well-targeted manner can also contribute to these goals. The current structure of the tax system appears suboptimal in light of the identified challenges. Even though the reliance on indirect taxes insulates public revenues from economic volatility to a certain extent...

El Salvador : Investment Climate Assessment, Volume 2, Detailed Findings and Recommendations

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Investment Climate Assessment (ICA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.12%
This report identifies constraints to Salvadoran manufacturing firms, in the areas of governance and insecurity, physical infrastructure, access to finance and skills, quality and technology. The report uses a survey of manufacturing firms to benchmark El Salvador with respect to other countries of the region and the world, as well as to estimate the impact of investment climate constraints on firm performance. The report presents policy recommendations based on national and international data sources, the survey analysis and other Economic and Sector Work done by the Bank. In almost all investment climate indicators El Salvador performs substantially better than Honduras, Nicaragua and, to a lesser extent, Guatemala. The main exception is in the area of technology, where Guatemalan firms appear to be ahead of their Salvadoran counterparts. Despite these regional advantages, in global terms El Salvador faces important challenges associated with the need to enhance skills, and modernize the production technologies used by local manufacturers, increase the use of information and communication technologies, reduce the relatively high levels of insecurity, improve contract enforcement mechanisms, and decrease transportation and other logistic costs. Statistical analysis indicates that improvements in all four areas of the investment climate - governance and insecurity...

Econometric calibration of the joint time assignment-mode choice model

Greeven, Paulina; Jara Díaz, Sergio Rodolfo; Bhat, Chandra; Munizaga, Marcela
Fonte: INFORMS Publicador: INFORMS
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
This paper describes the derivation and the econometric calibration of a joint time assignment-mode choice model with a microeconomic foundation, to be applied to the TASTI (time assignment travel and income) database. The econometric procedure is a full information maximum likelihood with three nonlinear continuous equations and one discrete choice. We use Lee's transformation [Lee, L. F. 1983. Generalized econometric models with selectivity. Econometrica 51 507-512] to include correlations between the continuous and discrete equations. This allows us to estimate (a) the value of time as a resource or value of assigning time to a pleasurable activity, (b) the value of assigning time to work, and (c) the value of assigning time to travel. We apply the method and obtain reasonable results. Finally, we identify some econometric challenges for further research.