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Dwarfism and early death in mice lacking C-type natriuretic peptide

Chusho, Hideki; Tamura, Naohisa; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Yasoda, Akihiro; Suda, Michio; Miyazawa, Takashi; Nakamura, Kenji; Nakao, Kazuki; Kurihara, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Yasato; Itoh, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Saito, Yoshihiko; Katsuki, Motoya; Nakao, Kazuwa
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Longitudinal bone growth is determined by endochondral ossification that occurs as chondrocytes in the cartilaginous growth plate undergo proliferation, hypertrophy, cell death, and osteoblastic replacement. The natriuretic peptide family consists of three structurally related endogenous ligands, atrial, brain, and C-type natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP, and CNP), and is thought to be involved in a variety of homeostatic processes. To investigate the physiological significance of CNP in vivo, we generated mice with targeted disruption of CNP (Nppc−/− mice). The Nppc−/− mice show severe dwarfism as a result of impaired endochondral ossification. They are all viable perinatally, but less than half can survive during postnatal development. The skeletal phenotypes are histologically similar to those seen in patients with achondroplasia, the most common genetic form of human dwarfism. Targeted expression of CNP in the growth plate chondrocytes can rescue the skeletal defect of Nppc−/− mice and allow their prolonged survival. This study demonstrates that CNP acts locally as a positive regulator of endochondral ossification in vivo and suggests its pathophysiological and therapeutic implication in some forms of skeletal dysplasia.

Laron Dwarfism and Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus in the Hnf-1α Knockout Mouse

Lee, Ying-Hue; Sauer, Brian; Gonzalez, Frank J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1998 EN
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Mice deficient in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF-1α) were produced by use of the Cre-loxP recombination system. HNF-1α-null mice are viable but sterile and exhibit a phenotype reminiscent of both Laron-type dwarfism and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). In contrast to an earlier HNF-1α-null mouse line that had been produced by use of standard gene disruption methodology (M. Pontoglio, J. Barra, M. Hadchouel, A. Doyen, C. Kress, J. P. Bach, C. Babinet, and M. Yaniv, Cell 84:575–585, 1996), these mice exhibited no increased mortality and only minimal renal dysfunction during the first 6 months of development. Both dwarfism and NIDDM are most likely due to the loss of expression of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and lower levels of insulin, resulting in stunted growth and elevated serum glucose levels, respectively. These results confirm the functional significance of the HNF-1α regulatory elements that had previously been shown to reside in the promoter regions of both the IGF-I and the insulin genes.

Positional cloning of the gene LIMBIN responsible for bovine chondrodysplastic dwarfism

Takeda, Haruko; Takami, Marika; Oguni, Tomoko; Tsuji, Takehito; Yoneda, Kazuhiro; Sato, Hiroaki; Ihara, Naoya; Itoh, Tomohito; Kata, Srinivas R.; Mishina, Yuji; Womack, James E.; Moritomo, Yasuo; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Kunieda, Tetsuo
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Chondrodysplastic dwarfism in Japanese brown cattle is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short limbs. Previously, we mapped the locus responsible for the disease on the distal end of bovine chromosome 6. Here, we narrowed the critical region to ≈2 cM by using linkage analysis, constructed a BAC and YAC contig covering this region, and identified a gene, LIMBIN (LBN), that possessed disease-specific mutations in the affected calves. One mutation was a single nucleotide substitution leading to an activation of a cryptic splicing donor site and the other was a one-base deletion resulting in a frameshift mutation. Strong expression of the Lbn gene was observed in limb buds of developing mouse embryos and in proliferating chondrocytes and bone-forming osteoblasts in long bones. These findings indicate that LBN is responsible for bovine chondrodysplastic dwarfism and has a critical role in a skeletal development.

Effect of thyrotropin-releasing factor on serum thyroid-stimulating hormone: An approach to distinguishing hypothalamic from pituitary forms of idiopathic hypopituitary dwarfism

Costom, Bruce H.; Grumbach, Melvin M.; Kaplan, Selna L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1971 EN
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To test the hypothesis that the primary defect in some patients with idiopathic hypopituitary dwarfism is failure to secrete hypothalamic hypophysiotropic-releasing factors, synthetic thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF), 500 μg, wa given intravenously, and timed venous samples obtained for determination of the concentration of plasma TSH by radioimmunoassay in three groups of subjects: (a) 11 patients without evidence of endocrine or systemic disease, (group I) (b) 8 with isolated growth hormone deficiency and normal thyroid function, (group II) and (c) 9 patients with idiopathic hypopituitary dwarfism and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiency (group III). The mean fasting plasma TSH value was 4.1 μU/ml in group I, and 3.9 μU/ml in group II; in both groups there was a brisk rise in plasma TSH to peak levels of 12-45 μU/ml at 30-45 min, and a fall toward base line levels at 120 min. All children in group III had basal TSH levels of < 1.5 μU/ml; one failed to respond to TRF; eight exhibited a rise in plasma TSH with peak values comparable with those in groups I and II. In four of eight children in group III who responded to TRF, the TSH response was delayed and the initial rise in plasma TSH was not detectable until 10-60 min. In these four patients...

Absence of serum growth hormone binding protein in patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron dwarfism).

Daughaday, W H; Trivedi, B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1987 EN
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It has recently been recognized that human serum contains a protein that specifically binds human growth hormone (hGH). This protein has the same restricted specificity for hGH as the membrane-bound GH receptor. To determine whether the GH-binding protein is a derivative of, or otherwise related to, the GH receptor, we have examined the serum of three patients with Laron-type dwarfism, a condition in which GH refractoriness has been attributed to a defect in the GH receptor. The binding of 125I-labeled hGH incubated with serum has been measured after gel filtration of the serum through an Ultrogel AcA 44 minicolumn. Nonspecific binding was determined when 125I-hGH was incubated with serum in the presence of an excess of GH. Results are expressed as percent of specifically bound 125I-hGH and as specific binding relative to that of a reference serum after correction is made for endogenous GH. The mean +/- SEM of specific binding of sera from eight normal adults (26-46 years of age) was 21.6 +/- 0.45%, and the relative specific binding was 101.1 +/- 8.6%. Sera from 11 normal children had lower specific binding of 12.5 +/- 1.95% and relative specific binding of 56.6 +/- 9.1%. Sera from three children with Laron-type dwarfism lacked any demonstrable GH binding...

Recurrent nonsense mutations in the growth hormone receptor from patients with Laron dwarfism.

Amselem, S; Sobrier, M L; Duquesnoy, P; Rappaport, R; Postel-Vinay, M C; Gourmelen, M; Dallapiccola, B; Goossens, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1991 EN
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In addition to its classical effects on growth, growth hormone (GH) has been shown to have a number of other actions, all of which are initiated by an interaction with specific high affinity receptors present in a variety of tissues. Purification of a rabbit liver protein via its ability to bind GH has allowed the isolation of a cDNA encoding a putative human growth hormone receptor that belongs to a new class of transmembrane receptors. We have previously shown that this putative growth hormone receptor gene is genetically linked to Laron dwarfism, a rare autosomal recessive syndrome caused by target resistance to GH. Nevertheless, the inability to express the corresponding full-length coding sequence and the lack of a test for growth-promoting function have hampered a direct confirmation of its role in growth. We have now identified three nonsense mutations within this growth hormone receptor gene, lying at positions corresponding to the amino terminal extremity and causing a truncation of the molecule, thereby deleting a large portion of both the GH binding domain and the full transmembrane and intracellular domains. Three independent patients with Laron dwarfism born of consanguineous parents were homozygous for these defects. Two defects were identical and consisted of a CG to TG transition. Not only do these results confirm the growth-promoting activity of this receptor but they also suggest that CpG doublets may represent hot spots for mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene that are responsible for hereditary dwarfism.

Dominant dwarfism in transgenic rats by targeting human growth hormone (GH) expression to hypothalamic GH-releasing factor neurons.

Flavell, D M; Wells, T; Wells, S E; Carmignac, D F; Thomas, G B; Robinson, I C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/08/1996 EN
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Expression of human growth hormone (hGH) was targeted to growth hormone-releasing (GRF) neurons in the hypothalamus of transgenic rats. This induced dominant dwarfism by local feedback inhibition of GRF. One line, bearing a single copy of a GRF-hGH transgene, has been characterized in detail, and has been termed Tgr (for Transgenic growth-retarded). hGH was detected by immunocytochemistry in the brain, restricted to the median eminence of the hypothalamus. Low levels were also detected in the anterior pituitary gland by radioimmunoassay. Transgene expression in these sites was confirmed by RT-PCR. Tgr rats had reduced hypothalamic GRF and mRNA, in contrast to the increased GRF expression which accompanies GH deficiency in other dwarf rats. Endogenous GH mRNA, GH content, pituitary size and somatotroph cell number were also reduced significantly in Tgr rats. Pituitary adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were normal, but prolactin content, mRNA levels and lactotroph cell numbers were also slightly reduced, probably due to feedback inhibition of prolactin by the lactogenic properties of the hGH transgene. This is the first dominant dwarf rat strain to be reported and will provide a valuable model for evaluating the effects of transgene expression on endogenous GH secretion...

The Heterozygous Disproportionate Micromelia (Dmm) Mouse: Morphological Changes in Fetal Cartilage Precede Postnatal Dwarfism and Compared With Lethal Homozygotes Can Explain the Mild Phenotype

Seegmiller, Robert E.; Bomsta, Brandon D.; Bridgewater, Laura C.; Niederhauser, Cindy M.; Montaño, Carolina; Sudweeks, Sterling; Eyre, David R.; Fernandes, Russell J.
Fonte: Histochemical Society Publicador: Histochemical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2008 EN
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The disproportionate micromelia (Dmm) mouse has a mutation in the C-propeptide coding region of the Col2a1 gene that causes lethal dwarfism when homozygous (Dmm/Dmm) but causes only mild dwarfism observable ∼1-week postpartum when heterozygous (Dmm/+). The purpose of this study was 2-fold: first, to analyze and quantify morphological changes that precede the expression of mild dwarfism in Dmm/+ animals, and second, to compare morphological alterations between Dmm/+ and Dmm/Dmm fetal cartilage that may correlate with the marked skeletal differences between mild and lethal dwarfism. Light and electron transmission microscopy were used to visualize structure of chondrocytes and extracellular matrix (ECM) of fetal rib cartilage. Both Dmm/+ and Dmm/Dmm fetal rib cartilage had significantly larger chondrocytes, greater cell density, and less ECM per unit area than +/+ littermates. Quantitative RT-PCR showed a decrease in aggrecan mRNA in Dmm/+ vs +/+ cartilage. Furthermore, the cytoplasm of chondrocytes in Dmm/+ and Dmm/Dmm cartilage was occupied by significantly more distended rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) compared with wild-type chondrocytes. Fibril diameters and packing densities of +/+ and Dmm/+ cartilage were similar, but Dmm/Dmm cartilage showed thinner...

Insular dwarfism in hippos and a model for brain size reduction in Homo floresiensis

Weston, Eleanor M.; Lister, Adrian M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/05/2009 EN
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Body size reduction in mammals is usually associated with only moderate brain size reduction as the brain and sensory organs complete their growth before the rest of the body during ontogeny1,2. On this basis “phyletic dwarfs” are predicted to have a higher relative brain size than “phyletic giants”1,3. This trend has been questioned, however, in the special case of dwarfism of mammals on islands4. Here we show that the endocranial capacities of extinct dwarf species of hippopotamus from Madagascar are up to 30% smaller than those of a mainland African ancestor scaled to equivalent body mass. These results show brain size reduction is much greater than predicted from an intraspecific ‘late ontogenetic’ model of dwarfism where brain size scales to body size with an exponent of 0.35. The nature of the proportional change or grade shift2,5 observed here indicates that selective pressures upon brain size are potentially independent from those on body size. This study demonstrates empirically that it is mechanistically possible for dwarf mammals on islands to evolve significantly smaller brains than would be predicted from a model of dwarfing based on the intraspecific scaling of the mainland ancestor. Our findings challenge our understanding of brain-body allometric relationships in mammals and suggest that the process of dwarfism could in principle explain small brain size...

A nonsense mutation in cGMP-dependent type II protein kinase (PRKG2) causes dwarfism in American Angus cattle

Koltes, James E.; Mishra, Bishnu P.; Kumar, Dinesh; Kataria, Ranjit S.; Totir, Liviu R.; Fernando, Rohan L.; Cobbold, Rowland; Steffen, David; Coppieters, Wouter; Georges, Michel; Reecy, James M.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Historically, dwarfism was the major genetic defect in U.S. beef cattle. Aggressive culling and sire testing were used to minimize its prevalence; however, neither of these practices can eliminate a recessive genetic defect. We assembled a 4-generation pedigree to identify the mutation underlying dwarfism in American Angus cattle. An adaptation of the Elston-Steward algorithm was used to overcome small pedigree size and missing genotypes. The dwarfism locus was fine-mapped to BTA6 between markers AFR227 and BM4311. Four candidate genes were sequenced, revealing a nonsense mutation in exon 15 of cGMP-dependant type II protein kinase (PRKG2). This C/T transition introduced a stop codon (R678X) that truncated 85 C-terminal amino acids, including a large portion of the kinase domain. Of the 75 mutations discovered in this region, only this mutation was 100% concordant with the recessive pattern of inheritance in affected and carrier individuals (log of odds score = 6.63). Previous research has shown that PRKG2 regulates SRY (sex-determining region Y) box 9 (SOX9)-mediated transcription of collagen 2 (COL2). We evaluated the ability of wild-type (WT) or R678X PRKG2 to regulate COL2 expression in cell culture. Real-time PCR results confirmed that COL2 is overexpressed in cells that overexpressed R678X PRKG2 as compared with WT PRKG2. Furthermore...

Mechanisms and pathways of growth failure in primordial dwarfism

Klingseisen, Anna; Jackson, Andrew P.
Fonte: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press Publicador: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/2011 EN
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The greatest difference between species is size; however, the developmental mechanisms determining organism growth remain poorly understood. Primordial dwarfism is a group of human single-gene disorders with extreme global growth failure (which includes Seckel syndrome, microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism I [MOPD] types I and II, and Meier-Gorlin syndrome). Ten genes have now been identified for microcephalic primordial dwarfism, encoding proteins involved in fundamental cellular processes including genome replication (ORC1 [origin recognition complex 1], ORC4, ORC6, CDT1, and CDC6), DNA damage response (ATR [ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related]), mRNA splicing (U4atac), and centrosome function (CEP152, PCNT, and CPAP). Here, we review the cellular and developmental mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these conditions and address whether further study of these genes could provide novel insight into the physiological regulation of organism growth.

Extreme insular dwarfism evolved in a mammoth

Herridge, Victoria L.; Lister, Adrian M.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The insular dwarfism seen in Pleistocene elephants has come to epitomize the island rule; yet our understanding of this phenomenon is hampered by poor taxonomy. For Mediterranean dwarf elephants, where the most extreme cases of insular dwarfism are observed, a key systematic question remains unresolved: are all taxa phyletic dwarfs of a single mainland species Palaeoloxodon antiquus (straight-tusked elephant), or are some referable to Mammuthus (mammoths)? Ancient DNA and geochronological evidence have been used to support a Mammuthus origin for the Cretan ‘Palaeoloxodon’ creticus, but these studies have been shown to be flawed. On the basis of existing collections and recent field discoveries, we present new, morphological evidence for the taxonomic status of ‘P’. creticus, and show that it is indeed a mammoth, most probably derived from Early Pleistocene Mammuthus meridionalis or possibly Late Pliocene Mammuthus rumanus. We also show that Mammuthus creticus is smaller than other known insular dwarf mammoths, and is similar in size to the smallest dwarf Palaeoloxodon species from Sicily and Malta, making it the smallest mammoth species known to have existed. These findings indicate that extreme insular dwarfism has evolved to a similar degree independently in two elephant lineages.

An Unusual Association of Microcephalic Osteodysplastic Primordial Dwarfism Type I with Cardiac and Brain Anomalies

Bhutia, Euden; Verma, Arushi; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Maria, Arti
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
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Less than 100 cases of primordial dwarfism have been reported worldwide out of which Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I comprise about <30 cases. We report a rare case of extreme growth failure in a neonate with primordial dwarfism of antenatal onset due to Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I. Our case is also unique in being associated with hitertho unreported association of subpulmonic ventricular septal defect and a dorsal interhemispheric cyst in the brain.

Deletion in the EVC2 Gene Causes Chondrodysplastic Dwarfism in Tyrolean Grey Cattle

Murgiano, Leonardo; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Benazzi, Cinzia; Bolcato, Marilena; Brunetti, Barbara; Muscatello, Luisa Vera; Dittmer, Keren; Piffer, Christian; Gentile, Arcangelo; Drögemüller, Cord
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/04/2014 EN
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During the summer of 2013 seven Italian Tyrolean Grey calves were born with abnormally short limbs. Detailed clinical and pathological examination revealed similarities to chondrodysplastic dwarfism. Pedigree analysis showed a common founder, assuming autosomal monogenic recessive transmission of the defective allele. A positional cloning approach combining genome wide association and homozygosity mapping identified a single 1.6 Mb genomic region on BTA 6 that was associated with the disease. Whole genome re-sequencing of an affected calf revealed a single candidate causal mutation in the Ellis van Creveld syndrome 2 (EVC2) gene. This gene is known to be associated with chondrodysplastic dwarfism in Japanese Brown cattle, and dwarfism, abnormal nails and teeth, and dysostosis in humans with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of a 2 bp deletion in exon 19 (c.2993_2994ACdel) that led to a premature stop codon in the coding sequence of bovine EVC2, and was concordant with the recessive pattern of inheritance in affected and carrier animals. This loss of function mutation confirms the important role of EVC2 in bone development. Genetic testing can now be used to eliminate this form of chondrodysplastic dwarfism from Tyrolean Grey cattle.

Hypomorphism in human NSMCE2 linked to primordial dwarfism and insulin resistance

Payne, Felicity; Colnaghi, Rita; Rocha, Nuno; Seth, Asha; Harris, Julie; Carpenter, Gillian; Bottomley, William E.; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wong, Stephen; Saudek, Vladimir; Savage, David; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Carel, Jean-Claude; Barroso, Inês; O’Driscoll, M
Fonte: American Society for Clinical Investigation Publicador: American Society for Clinical Investigation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complexes are essential for maintaining chromatin structure and regulating gene expression. Two the three known SMC complexes, cohesin and condensin, are important for sister chromatid cohesion and condensation, respectively; however, the function of the third complex, SMC5–6, which includes the E3 SUMO-ligase NSMCE2 (also widely known as MMS21) is less clear. Here, we characterized 2 patients with primordial dwarfism, extreme insulin resistance, and gonadal failure and identified compound heterozygous frameshift mutations in NSMCE2. Both mutations reduced NSMCE2 expression in patient cells. Primary cells from one patient showed increased micronucleus and nucleoplasmic bridge formation, delayed recovery of DNA synthesis, and reduced formation of foci containing Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM) after hydroxyurea-induced replication fork stalling. These nuclear abnormalities in patient dermal fibroblast were restored by expression of WT NSMCE2, but not a mutant form lacking SUMO-ligase activity. Furthermore, in zebrafish, knockdown of the NSMCE2 ortholog produced dwarfism, which was ameliorated by reexpression of WT, but not SUMO-ligase–deficient NSMCE. Collectively, these findings support a role for NSMCE2 in recovery from DNA damage and raise the possibility that loss of its function produces dwarfism through reduced tolerance of replicative stress.

Mice Deficient in NF-κB p50 and p52 or RANK Have Defective Growth Plate Formation and Post-natal Dwarfism

Xing, Lianping; Chen, Di; Boyce, Brendan F.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
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NF-κBp50/p52 double knockout (dKO) and RANK KO mice have no osteoclasts and develop severe osteopetrosis associated with dwarfism. In contrast, Op/Op mice, which form few osteoclasts, and Src KO mice, which have osteoclasts with defective resorptive function, are osteopetrotic, but they are not dwarfed. Here, we compared the morphologic features of long bones from p50/p52 dKO, RANK KO, Op/Op and Src KO mice to attempt to explain the differences in their long bone lengths. We found that growth plates in p50/p52 dKO and RANK KO mice are significantly thicker than those in WT mice due to a 2–3-fold increase in the hypertrophic chondrocyte zone associated with normal a proliferative chondrocyte zone. This growth plate abnormality disappears when animals become older, but their dwarfism persists. Op/Op or Src KO mice have relatively normal growth plate morphology. In-situ hybridization study of long bones from p50/p52 dKO mice showed marked thickening of the growth plate region containing type 10 collagen-expressing chondrocytes. Treatment of micro-mass chondrocyte cultures with RANKL did not affect expression levels of type 2 collagen and Sox9, markers for proliferative chondrocytes, but RANKL reduced the number of type 10 collagen-expressing hypertrophic chondrocytes. Thus...

A new mutation of the PCNT gene in a Colombian patient with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II: a case report.

Pachajoa, Harry; Ruiz-Botero, Felipe; Isaza, Carolina
Fonte: BioMed Central Ltd. Publicador: BioMed Central Ltd.
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INTRODUCTION: Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism is a syndrome characterized by the presence of intrauterine growth restriction, post-natal growth deficiency and microcephaly. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II is the most distinctive syndrome in this group of entities. Individuals affected by this disease present at an adult height of less than 100 cm, a post-pubertal head circumference of 40 cm or less, mild mental retardation, an outgoing personality and bone dysplasia.; CASE PRESENTATION: We report the first case of a five-year-old Colombian boy of mixed race ancestry (mestizo), with clinical features of microcephaly, prominent and narrow nose, arched palate, amelogenesis imperfecta, short stature, tall and narrow pelvis, disproportionate shortening of fore-arms and legs, and mild coxa vara. Analysis of the PCNT gene by sequencing showed the presence of a nucleotide change in exon 10, c. 1468C>T, evidencing a new mutation not reported in the literature for microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism.; CONCLUSION: The new mutation identified in this case could be associated with the severity of the phenotypic expression of the disease, resulting in the extreme short stature of the patient. Further studies are required to reach an explanation that can justify such findings...

Characterization of the human growth hormone receptor gene and demonstration of a partial gene deletion in two patients with Laron-type dwarfism.

Godowski, P J; Leung, D W; Meacham, L R; Galgani, J P; Hellmiss, R; Keret, R; Rotwein, P S; Parks, J S; Laron, Z; Wood, W I
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1989 EN
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Laron-type dwarfism is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that is characterized by high levels of growth hormone and low levels of insulin-like growth factor I in the circulation. Several lines of evidence suggest that this disease is caused by a defect in the growth hormone receptor. In order to analyze the receptor gene in patients with Laron-type dwarfism and with other growth disorders, we have first determined the gene structure in normal individuals. There are nine exons that encode the receptor and several additional exons in the 5' untranslated region. The coding exons span at least 87 kilobase pairs of chromosome 5. Characterization of the growth hormone receptor gene from nine patients with Laron-type dwarfism shows that two individuals have a deletion of a large portion of the extracellular, hormone binding domain of the receptor gene. Interestingly, this deletion includes nonconsecutive exons, suggesting that an unusual rearrangement may have occurred. Thus, we provide direct evidence that Laron-type dwarfism can result from a defect in the structural gene for the growth hormone receptor.

Hypomorphism for human NSMCE2/MMS21 causes primordial dwarfism and insulin resistance

Payne, Felicity; Colnaghi, Rita; Rocha, Nuno; Seth, Asha; Harris, Julie; Carpenter, Gillian; Bottomley, William E.; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wong, Stephen; Saudek, Vladimir; Savage, David; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Carel, Jean-Claude; Barroso, In?s; O'Driscoll, Mark;
Fonte: American Society for Clinical Investigation Publicador: American Society for Clinical Investigation
Tipo: Article; published version
EN_US
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This is the final published manuscript. It was first published by The Journal of Clinical Investigation here: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/73264.; Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complexes are essential for maintaining chromatin structure and regulating gene expression. Two the three known SMC complexes, cohesin and condensin, are important for sister chromatid cohesion and condensation, respectively; however, the function of the third complex, SMC5?6, which includes the E3 SUMO-ligase NSMCE2 (also widely known as MMS21) is less clear. Here, we characterized 2 patients with primordial dwarfism, extreme insulin resistance, and gonadal failure and identified compound heterozygous frameshift mutations in NSMCE2. Both mutations reduced NSMCE2 expression in patient cells. Primary cells from one patient showed increased micronucleus and nucleoplasmic bridge formation, delayed recovery of DNA synthesis, and reduced formation of foci containing Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM) after hydroxyurea-induced replication fork stalling. These nuclear abnormalities in patient dermal fibroblast were restored by expression of WT NSMCE2, but not a mutant form lacking SUMO-ligase activity. Furthermore, in zebrafish, knockdown of the NSMCE2 ortholog produced dwarfism...

Pituitary dwarfism in a dog; Panhipopituitarismo juvenil em um cão

Noda, Rute Suzuki Noro; Hagiwara, Mitika Kuribayashi; Iwasaki, Masao
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/09/1983 POR
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Clinical and pathologic alterations in a one year and half old German shepherd male dog with pituitary dwarfism were described. Lethargy, small stature, puppy coats of lanugo hair, oppened epiphysis, alopecia and hyperpigmentation of skin, spastic paralysis of the distal limbs and pryapism were the clinical abnormalities observed during, the four months period of observation. Cystic formations filled with eosinophylic material and replacing partially pituitary gland, thyroid and adrenal hypoplasia were the most proeminent pathologic and histopathologic features. The probable origin of the ciliated columnar epithelium that lined the cysts were discussed.; Descreveram-se as alterações clínicas, e anatomo-patológicas observadas em um animal da espécie canina, mestiço da raça Pastor Alemão, macho, de 1 ano e meio de idade. Letargia, desenvolvimento físico inadequado, pelame infantil, retardo na dentição e ausência do fechamento das cartilagens de conjugação, além de paralisia espástica dos membros pélvicos, priapismo, alopecia e hiperpigmentação das extremidades dos membros, foram as principais alterações clínicas encontradas no animal durante o período de observação. A presença de formações císticas na hipófise...