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Análise das dificuldades na disciplina de bioquímica diagnosticadas por um plantão de dúvidas on line; Students difficulties in biochemistry discipline analyzed through an on line academic drop-in center

Schoenmaker, Fernando
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/09/2009 PT
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105.66%
A disciplina de bioquímica é parte integrante do currículo de todos os cursos de graduação da Área Biológica, sendo pré-requisito para outras disciplinas. São de conhecimento geral as dificuldades que os estudantes enfrentam no aproveitamento desta disciplina. Para investigar estas dificuldades foi criado um Plantão de Dúvidas on line, disponível para estudantes graduandos, com três finalidades: (i) oferecer um suporte aos estudantes para facilitar o prosseguimento dos seus estudos, (ii) analisar as dúvidas apresentadas como uma estratégia para diagnóstico das dificuldades mais freqüentes e (iii) realizar uma classificação do nível cognitivo das dúvidas recebidas. Ao final do período de atendimento, foram recebidas e respondidas 416 questões. Houve várias questões conceituais, a enorme maioria tendo sido problemas ou exercícios a serem resolvidos. Os assuntos mais freqüentemente questionados foram: (i) metabolismo celular (42,5%), principalmente metabolismo de lipídios e a respiração celular; (ii) conceitos básicos (14,2%) sobre aminoácidos, tampão entre outros; (iii) estrutura de proteínas (8,7%) e (iv) enzimas (7,0%). Estes percentuais correlacionam-se com a carga horária dedicada a cada um dos tópicos na maioria das disciplinas. Uma importante dificuldade encontrada foi a integração dos processos metabólicos. Em relação ao nível cognitivo...

Estudo espectroscópico in situ e espectrométrico on line da eletro-oxidação oscilatória de álcoois simples sobre platina; In situ spectroscopic and on line spectrometric study of the oscillatory electro-oxidation of simple alcohols on platinum

Boscheto, Emerson Paulinho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/07/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.48%
Embora a entropia do universo evolua para um máximo, localmente, sistemas podem se odernar às custas do maior desordenamento de suas vizinhanças. Assim, a formação espontânea de padrões temporais e espaciais tem sido observada em diferentes sistemas, incluindo os eletroquímicos. Neste trabalho foram estudadas as dinâmicas oscilatórias temporais de potencial desenvolvidas durante a eletro-oxidação galvanostática de metanol e etanol em meio ácido sobre eletrodos de platina. Como a técnica galvanostática informa apenas sobre a totalidade dos processos a ocorrer na interface eletrodo/solução técnicas auxiliares devem ser empregadas em conjunto para obter informações a respeito de processos individuais. Desta forma as técnicas de espectroscopia de infravermelho in situ, em configuração de reflexão interna, e de espectrometria de massas on line foram utilizadas e permitiram alcançar as seguintes conclusões. Para a eletro-oxidação oscilatória de metanol os resultados mostraram que (i) em média, o grau de recobrimento de monóxido de carbono linearmente adsorvido (θCOL) decai continuamente ao longo do experimento oscilatório, sugerindo que um acúmulo de espécies oxigenadas adsorvidas desenvolve-se ao longo das oscilações de potencial e é o responsável pela deriva que age sobre o sistema; (ii) a variação negativa da posição da banda de COL com o aumento do potencial durante o período de indução sugere que não há formação de padrões ou ilhas de COads previamente à observação de oscilações. Já os resultados da eletro-oxidação oscilatória de etanol mostraram (i) também uma queda contínua...

Sarcomere lengthening and tension drop in the latent period of isolated frog skeletal muscle fibers

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/09/1976 EN
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45.5%
A laser diffraction technique has been developed for registering small changes in sarcomere length. The technique is capable of resolving changes as small as 0.2 A in isolated frog skeletal muscle fibers. The small sarcomere lengthening that accompanies the drop in tension in the latent period of contraction was investigated. We suggest this lengthening be named latency elongation (LE). The LE is present in a completely slack fiber and must, therefore, be caused by a forcible lengthening process. Furthermore, the LE is dependent on the existence of an overlap between thin and tick filaments. The rate of elongation and the time interval between stimulation and maximum elongation may vary along the fiber. The maximum elongation was 3-5 A per sarcomere. At any instant the drop in tension is a product of the sum of sarcomere lengthenings along the fiber and the slope stiffness of the series elasticity. The latency relaxation (LR) could be registered in the sarcomere length range from 2.2 mum to 3.6-3.7 mum. The amplitude went through a sharp maximum at 3.0-3.1 mum. In the sarcomere length range from 2.2 to 2.8 mum the delay from onset to maximum LR was nearly proportional to the distance from the Z-line to the overlap zone. A working hypothesis is presented. It is suggested that the LE is caused by a lengthening of the thin filaments.

HAART rollout in the new fiscal and economic environment

Moatti, J
Fonte: International AIDS Society Publicador: International AIDS Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/11/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.51%
The trend towards universal access for HIV prevention and treatment that was initiated at the beginning of the 21st century (international donor funding has been multiplied by 3 to reach 27 billion US$ in 2010) has been threatened by the 2008–9 economic crisis which currently translates in a fiscal crisis for most developed countries (including the US, France and the UK – the main donors for HIV/AIDS). Other advances such as the drastic drop in ARV drug prices are also threatened (generic first line drugs close to marginal cost, insufficient drop in second line drug prices, etc.). The presentation will discuss the negative consequences of slowing down and delaying universal access on macro-economic growth in the most affected countries and suggest alternative sources of funding such as the financial transaction tax recently introduced by the French Parliament.

Trade and Trade Finance Developments in 14 Developing Countries Post September 2008 : A World Bank Survey

Malouche, Mariem
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.47%
In the aftermath of the Lehman Brothers collapse in September 2008, drop in the supply of trade finance, a critical engine for trade transactions, has become an acute concern for the development community. Banks were increasing pricing on trade finance transactions to cover increased funding costs and higher credit risks, and trade was dropping drastically in most countries, with global trade projected to decline in 2009 for the first time in decades. Yet, little was known about the real impact of the crisis on developing country s capacity to export. The World Bank has commissioned a firm and bank survey on trade and trade finance developments in developing countries during the first quarter of 2009 to collect field information. In total, 425 firms and 78 banks were surveyed in 14 developing countries across five regions. This paper summarizes the findings of the survey as well as discusses the type of policies governments and international organizations put in place to mitigate the impact of the crisis. In sum...

From the International Financial Crisis towards Inclusive Growth in the Dominican Republic

Senderowitsch, Roby; Tsikata, Yvonne M.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.44%
During the second half of the year 2008, the world experienced the worst worldwide economic crisis in over 70 years. The effects deriving from this crisis can still be felt over most of the planet. Low or negative economic growth in developed nations and emerging economies, high levels of unemployment and millions of persons below the poverty line, are some of the starkest examples. In the Dominican Republic, the effects of this international crisis are manifested in the reduction in international trade, the drop in tourism and in remittances, and an economic growth rate lower than expected. In this regard, the Dominican Republic asked the World Bank to prepare nine policy notes which are presented in this volume. These notes focus on the following topics: 1) long run economic growth in the Dominican Republic; 2) ease of doing business; 3) logistics for competitiveness; 4) access to financial services with emphasis on financing for micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs); 5) the electricity sector; 6) climate change and the Dominican Republic...

Macro and Micro Perspectives of Growth and Poverty in Africa

Christiaensen, Luc; Demery, Lionel; Paternostro, Stefano
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.38%
This article reviews trends in poverty, economic policies, and growth in a sample of African countries during the 1990s, drawing on the better household data now available. Experiences have varied. Some countries have seen sharp drops in income poverty, whereas others have witnessed marked increases. In some countries overall economic growth has been pro-poor and in others not. But the aggregate numbers hide systematic distributional effects. Taking both macro and micro perspectives of growth and poverty in Africa, the article draws four key conclusions. First, economic policy reforms (improving macroeconomic balances and liberalizing markets) appear conducive to reducing poverty. Second, market connectedness is crucial to enable participation in the gains from economic growth. Some regions and households by virtue of their remoteness were left behind when growth picked up. Third, education and access to land emerge as key private endowments to help households benefit from new economic opportunities. Finally, rainfall variations and ill health have profound effects on poverty outcomes...

Data and Dogma : The Great Indian Poverty Debate

Deaton, Angus; Kozel, Valerie
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.39%
What happened to poverty in India in the 1990s has been fiercely debated, both politically and statistically. The debate has run parallel to the wider debate about globalization and poverty in the 1990s and is also an important part of that debate. The economic reforms of the early 1990s in India were followed by rates of economic growth that were high by historical standards. The effects on poverty remain controversial, however. The official numbers published by the government of India, showing acceleration in the rate of poverty reduction from 36 percent of the population in 1993 to 1994 to 26 percent in 1999 to 2000, have been challenged for showing both too little and too much poverty reduction. The various claims have often been frankly political, but there are also many important statistical issues. The debate, reviewed in this article, provides an excellent example of how politics and statistics interact in an important, largely domestic debate. Although there is no consensus on what happened to poverty in India in the 1990s...

Accelerating Poverty Reduction in a Less Poor World : The Roles of Growth and Inequality

Olinto, Pedro; Lara Ibarra, Gabriel; Saavedra-Chanduvi, Jaime
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.37%
This paper re-examines the roles of changes in income and inequality in poverty reduction. The study provides estimates of the relative effects of inequality reduction versus growth promotion in reducing poverty for countries with different levels of initial poverty. The analysis uses country panel-data for 1980-2010. The results indicate that, as countries become less poor, inequality-reducing policies are likely to become relatively more effective for poverty reduction than growth-promoting policies. The results indicate that the growth elasticity of poverty reduction either increases or remains constant with the level of initial poverty. Nevertheless, the results also strongly indicate that, as poverty declines, the inequality elasticity of poverty reduction increases faster. Therefore, if the marginal cost of reducing inequality relative to the marginal cost of increasing growth does not increase with lower poverty levels, to accelerate poverty reduction, greater emphasis should be given to equity rather than growth as countries attain higher levels of development.

Poverty Reduction and Shared Prosperity in Tajikistan : A Diagnostic

Azevedo, Joao Pedro; Atamanov, Aziz; Rajabov, Alisher
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.45%
Tajikistan was one of the fastest growing countries in the Europe and Central Asia region during the last decade. The economic growth was widely shared by the population and as a result poverty (measured by the national poverty line) declined from 73 percent in 2003 to 47 percent in 2009 accompanied by falling inequality. Consumption growth of the bottom 40 percent of the population -- a measure of shared prosperity proposed by the World Bank- was positive, pointing out that the growth was shared among the less well off. This work presents a diagnostic of shared prosperity and poverty reduction in Tajikistan during 2003-2009. The paper also focuses on quantifying the main drivers of poverty reduction, shared prosperity, and intra-generational mobility (class transitions). Some of the mechanisms of poverty reduction are explored in detail. Finally, main impediments to inter-generational mobility are discussed.

Gone with the Storm : Rainfall Shocks and Household Well-Being in Guatemala

Baez, Javier E.; Lucchetti, Leonardo; Genoni, Maria E.; Salazar, Mateo
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.45%
This paper investigates the causal consequences of Tropical Storm Agatha (2010) -- the strongest tropical storm ever to strike Guatemala since rainfall records have been kept -- on household welfare. The analysis reveals substantial negative effects, particularly among urban households. Per capita consumption fell by 12.6 percent, raising poverty by 5.5 percentage points (an increase of 18 percent). The negative effects of the shock span other areas of human welfare. Households cut back on food consumption (10 percent or 43 to 108 fewer calories per person per day) and reduced expenditures on basic durables. These effects are related to a drop in income per capita (10 percent), mostly among salaried workers. Adults coped with the shock by increasing their labor supply (on the intensive margin) and simultaneously relying on the labor supply of their children and withdrawing them from school. Impact heterogeneity is associated with the intensity of the shock, food price inflation, and the timing of Agatha with respect to the harvest cycle of the main crops. The results are robust to placebo treatments...

Disagreeing about poverty: a case study in derivation dependence

Horn, Stephen
Fonte: Graduate Program in Public Policy, The Australian National University; http://www.crawford.anu.edu.au Publicador: Graduate Program in Public Policy, The Australian National University; http://www.crawford.anu.edu.au
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper; Working/Technical Paper Formato: 41 pages
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Conceptual problems have marked the poverty debate in Australia at least since the beginning of the 1980s . More recently, data and technical problems have compounded controversy over the best method to analyse poverty, over time or across countries and obscured judgement on the effectiveness of policy outcomes. Results obtained by Ann Harding and Deborah Mitchell in 1992 showed a net drop in measured poverty over the 1980s in Australia using a median income poverty line and the OECD equivalence scale. This was contrary to the 'official' steady growth shown in studies using the Henderson poverty line ... This paper examines why two groups of researchers reached different results using the same data source and derivational strategy.

Consumption Poverty in the Republic of Kosovo in 2009 : Western Balkans Programmatic Poverty Assessment; Potrosa ko siromastvo u Republici Kosovo 2009 : Programska procena siromastva na zapadnom Balkanu Varferia ne konsum ne Republiken e Kosoves ne vitin 2009 : vleresimi programatik i varferise ne Ballkanin perendimor

World Bank; Statistical Office of Kosovo
Fonte: World Bank and Statistical Office of Kosovo, Prishtina Publicador: World Bank and Statistical Office of Kosovo, Prishtina
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.5%
Since the end of armed conflict in 1999, progress on improving living standards in the Republic of Kosovo has been slow and uneven, despite solid macroeconomic performance. Kosovo weathered the economic crisis in 2008-09 better than most countries in South Eastern Europe (SEE). Even so, this growth was modest, constrained by a worsening investment climate, a drop in foreign direct investment, poor governance and rule of law, and growing rent seeking behavior (World Bank 2010). Remittances from the sizeable out-migrant population also declined following the onset of the crisis. Thus Kosovo remains the poorest country in South Eastern Europe. The approach reflects a broader shift in the World Bank's analytical work on poverty in the Western Balkans, placing greater emphasis on shorter and more frequent poverty updates as new data become available. This poverty update is based on the household budget survey (HBS) conducted in 2009. Even though Kosovo appears to have suffered less from the economic crisis than most countries in Europe...

Household Strategies for Coping with Poverty and Social Exclusion in Post-Crisis Russia

Lokshin, Michael M.; Yemtsov, Ruslan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.39%
What strategies have Russian households used, to cope with economic hardship in the wake of recent financial crisis? Which coping strategies have been most effective in reducing poverty for different groups of households? And how have people been able to adapt to the dramatic drop in formal cash incomes? The authors look at these questions using subjective evaluations of coping strategies used by household survey respondents to mitigate the effects of the Russian financial crisis on their welfare. The data come from two rounds (1996 and 1998) of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. The results of their analysis show that a household's choice of survival strategy, strongly depends on its human capital: the higher its level of human capital, the more likely it is to choose an active strategy (such as finding a supplementary job, or increasing home production). Households with low levels of human capital, those headed by pensioners, and those whose members have low levels of education, are more likely to suffer social exclusion. To prevent poverty from becoming entrenched...

Distributional Implications of Climate Change in India

Jacoby, Hanan; Rabassa, Mariano; Skoufias, Emmanuel
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.38%
Global warming is expected to heavily impact agriculture, the dominant source of livelihood for the world's poor. Yet, little is known about the distributional implications of climate change at the sub-national level. Using a simple comparative statics framework, this paper analyzes how changes in the prices of land, labor, and food induced by modest temperature increases over the next three decades will affect household-level welfare in India. The authors predict a substantial fall in agricultural productivity, even allowing for farmer adaptation. Yet, this decline will not translate into a sharp drop in consumption for the majority of rural households, who derive their income largely from wage employment. Overall, the welfare costs of climate change fall disproportionately on the poor. This is true in urban as well as in rural areas, but, in the latter sector only after accounting for the effects of rising world cereal prices. Adaptation appears to primarily benefit the non-poor, since they own the lion's share of agricultural land. The results suggest that poverty in India will be roughly 3-4 percentage points higher after thirty years of rising temperatures than it would have been had this warming not occurred.

Sri Lanka - Agricultural Commercialization : Improving Farmers’ Incomes in the Poorest Regions

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.39%
The issue of regional differences in development has moved to the center of the development debate in Sri Lanka, partly after the release of regional poverty data. For the past many years, there have been significant and increasing differences between the Western province and the rest of the country in terms of per capita income levels, growth rates of per capita income, poverty rates, and the structure of provincial economies. The structure of the report is as follows: chapter two looks at the poverty/growth/agriculture nexus in the poorest regions of Sri Lanka. It presents data on poverty and growth in the poorest provinces, especially Uva and Sabaragamuwa, and provides an analysis of factors associated with the rural poor. Chapter three provides an overview and brief discussion of the Government's agricultural policies and programs. Chapter four identifies constraints that restrict farmers' incomes in the four poorest provinces. It presents results from extensive stakeholder consultations carried out in these provinces. These results are complemented with findings from the 2005 rural investment climate assessment to identify some of the general constraints in the agriculture sector in Sri Lanka. Chapter five presents the findings of an agricultural resource audit of small-scale farmers in the poorest regions that analyzed production...

Armenia : Poverty Assessment, Volume 1. A Summary of Findings

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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45.51%
This report reviews poverty in Armenia in 2001, and examines the most recent trends covering the 1998/99 to 2001 period. It looks at the determinants of poverty, and analyzes linkages between economic growth, sector policies and poverty. The findings are based on two rounds of the Armenia Integrated Living Conditions Survey (ILCS), one carried out in 1998/99, and the other in 2001. The report has contributed to the development of Armenia's national strategy for growth and poverty reduction. Poverty is high in Armenia, with an estimated 48 percent of the population below the poverty line in 2001. Despite some 20 percent still living in extreme poverty, there has been nonetheless, a significant decline in poverty, as poverty incidence dropped by 12 percent, and extreme poverty incidence by 25 percent from their respective levels in 1998/99. There is a strong correlation between poverty and low educational attainment, while the unemployed and non-participants in the labor market, face the highest poverty risk...

Poverty Profile in Lao PDR; Poverty Report for the Lao Consumption and Expenditure Survey 2012–2013

Pimhidzai, Obert; Fenton, Nina Clare; Souksavath, Phonesaly; Sisoulath, Vilaysouk
Fonte: World Bank, Vientiane Publicador: World Bank, Vientiane
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.5%
The report starts with an overview of poverty and inequality estimates in chapter one, focusing on the trends in poverty and the distributional pattern of growth between 2002-3 and 2012-13. Chapter two then provides a description of the poverty profile by geographical and household characteristics, both in terms of the levels of poverty and its rate of change. Consumption patterns are presented in chapter three, and other socio-economic characteristics describing the living conditions of households are presented in chapter four, which is then followed by a chapter detailing the conclusions that can be drawn from this initial poverty profile analysis. The annexes provide additional detail. Annex one provides a detailed technical explanation of the methodology for measuring poverty while annex two presents sensitivity analysis for the poverty estimates including the confidence intervals of these estimates. Annex three provides additional tables and figures on poverty and inequality including other measures of poverty.

The Patterns and Determinants of Household Welfare Growth in Jordan : 2002-2010

Mansour, Wael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.5%
Jordan's economic growth in the past decade has translated into a significant rise in household consumption and a decline in poverty and inequality indicators. Yet, the sentiment of the overall population seems to point to worsening disparities. Using official household expenditure surveys for 2002, 2008, and 2010, this paper analyzes the patterns and determinants of household welfare growth and examines the extent to which economic growth has been inclusive of the more vulnerable groups. Using counterfactual decompositions, the paper dwells first on the dynamics observed behind the drop in poverty and inequality. It then carries out regression analysis using re-centered influence functions to examine the economic determinants of household welfare growth throughout the decade. The paper finds that welfare growth as opposed to welfare distribution was the main driver behind poverty reduction, and that the drop in inequality was primarily driven by a regional catching-up effect. In addition, the analysis identifies rent...

Predicting Action Content On-Line and in Real Time before Action Onset - an Intracranial Human Study

Maoz, Uri; Ye, Shengxuan; Ross, Ian B.; Mamelak, Adam N.; Koch, Christof
Fonte: Curran Associates Publicador: Curran Associates
Tipo: Book Section; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf; video/x-msvideo; video/mpeg
Publicado em //2013
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The ability to predict action content from neural signals in real time before the action occurs has been long sought in the neuroscientific study of decision-making, agency and volition. On-line real-time (ORT) prediction is important for understanding the relation between neural correlates of decision-making and conscious, voluntary action as well as for brain-machine interfaces. Here, epilepsy patients, implantded with intracranial depth microelectodes or subdural grid electrodes for clinical purposes, participated in a "matching-pennies" game against an opponent. In each trial, subjects were given a 5 s countdown, after which they had to raise their left or right hand immediately as the "go" signal appeared on a computer screen. They won a fixed amount of money if they raised a different hand than their opponent and lost that amount otherwise. The question we here studied was the extent to which neural precursors of the subjects' decisions can be detected in intracranial local field potentials (LFP) prior to the onset of the action. We found that combinded low-frequency (0.1-5 Hz) LFP signals from 10 electrodes were predictive of the intended left-/right-hand movements before the onset of the go signal. Our ORT system predicted which hand the patient would raise 0.5 s before the go signal with 68% accuracy in two patients. Based on these results...