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Conductive polymer gas sensor for quantitative detection of methanol in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit

Peres, Laura O.; Li, Rosamaria W. C.; Yamauchi, Elaine Yuka; Lippi, Renata; Gruber, Jonas
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD; OXFORD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD; OXFORD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.36%
A low-cost chemiresistive gas sensor is described, made by the deposition of a thin film of a conductive polymer, poly(2-dodecanoylsulfanyl-p-phenylenevinylene), doped with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (10%, w/w), onto interdigitated electrodes. The sensor exhibits linear electrical conductance changes in function of the concentration of methanol present in sugar-cane spirit in the range between 0.05% and 4.0%. Since the sensor is cheap, easy to fabricate, durable, presents low power consumption, and is not sensitive to ethanol, acetic acid or water, it can be used in portable equipments for monitoring methanol levels in distilled alcoholic beverages such as Brazilian sugar-cane spirit (cachaca). (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP); Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP) [06/59464-2]; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq) [303717/2010-6, 472297/2007-4]; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq)

Monoalkyl carbonates in carbonated alcoholic beverages

Rossi, Marcelo Rabello; Vidal, Denis Tadeu Rajh; Lago, Claudimir Lucio do
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD; OXFORD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD; OXFORD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
The presence of monoethyl carbonate (MEC) in beer and sparkling wine is demonstrated for the first time, as well as the formation of this species in drinks prepared with a distilled beverage and a carbonated soft drink. A capillary electrophoresis (CE) equipment with two capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector ((CD)-D-4) was used to identify and quantify this species. The concentrations of MEC in samples of lager beer and rum and cola drink were, respectively, 1.2 and 4.1 mmol/l, which agree with the levels of ethanol and CO2 available in these products. Previous results about the kinetics of the reaction suggest that only a small amount of MEC should be formed after the ingredients of a drink are mixed. However, in all three cases (whisky and club soda: rum with cola; gin and tonic water), MEC was quickly formed, which was attributed to the low pH of the drinks. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; CNPq; CNPq

Monoetil carbonato em bebidas alcoólicas carbonatadas; Monoethyl carbonate in carbonated alcoholic beverages

Rossi, Marcelo Rabello
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/08/2012 PT
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46.43%
Os monoalquil carbonatos podem ser vistos como produtos da hidrólise parcial de carbonatos orgânicos. Apesar de serem estudados desde a década de 1920, a literatura apresenta poucas evidências de sua formação em meio aquoso. Recentes estudos apontaram a eletroforese capilar (CE) com detecção condutométrica sem contato (C4D) como uma técnica versátil para a detecção e quantificação dessas espécies, a partir da qual foi possível evidenciar a formação de monoalquil carbonatos pela reação direta entre o bicarbonato e o álcool correspondente. A presença de monoetil carbonato (MEC) em amostras de cerveja foi demonstrada pela primeira vez no presente trabalho, bem como sua formação em drinks preparados a partir de uma bebida alcoólica destilada e um refrigerante. Um equipamento de CE com dois detectores do tipo C4D foi utilizado para a identificação e a quantificação dessa espécie, principais objetivos do presente trabalho. Uma propriedade intrínseca à detecção condutométrica - o fato de a resposta do detector estar, sob certas condições, exclusivamente relacionada às mobilidades dos compostos presentes - permitiu aquantificação do MEC apesar da impossibilidade de fazê-lo por meio de calibração externa...

Internal standardization combined with dilute-and-shoot preparation of distilled alcoholic beverages for Cu determination by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry

Raposo, Jorge Luiz; de Oliveira, Adriana Paiva; Jones, Bradley Todd; Gomes Neto, Jose Anchieta
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 53-57
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.8%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Internal standardization (IS) and dilute-and-shoot preparation of distilled alcoholic beverages were evaluated for the direct determination of Cu by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Among Bi, In, Sn and Te evaluated as internal standards, Bi and Te furnished best results. Calibration curves were built up by plotting A(cu)/A(Bi) and A(cu)/A(Te) versus Cu concentration (0.05-4.0 mg L-1) and linear correlation coefficients were 0.9994 and 0.9990, respectively. Contents of Cu in 22 commercial distilled beverages analyzed by the proposed method varied in the 0.029-3.608 mg L-1 interval. These results were in agreement (paired t-test) at 95% confidence level with those obtained by line source FAAS using standard addition calibration. Recoveries improved from 77-83% (without IS) to 99-101% (with IS) intervals. The relative standard deviation (n = 12) was 0.8-3.7% (IS-Bi), 0.4-4.4% (IS-Te), and 0.5-9.1% (without IS) and the limit of detection was ca. 5 mug L-1 using Bi or Te. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Própolis na produção de cachaça orgânica de qualidade

Montijo, Nayara Abrão
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: vii, 65 p.
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
Pós-graduação em Microbiologia Agropecuária - FCAV; Regulations are being created worldwide to reduce the amount of antimicrobial residues in food and beverages, especially distilled alcoholic beverages, because contaminant microorganisms from fermentation process may infect and depreciate the product quality. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of propolis extracts, monensin-based synthetic antimicrobial and previous physical-chemical treatment of the broth to control contaminants in the fermentation process for the production of cachaça. We studied the effects on the activity of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CA-11 and the composition of secondary metabolites and quality of the final distillate. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design in split splots with three replications, using main treatments (five antimicrobials) and secondary treatments (fermentation cycles). The main treatments were: control (untreated juice); sodium monensin; green propolis ethanolic extract (GPEE); brown propolis ethanolic extract (BPEE); physical-chemical juice treatment (PCT). Secondary treatments corresponded to five fermentation cycles. The amount of yeast cell and bud viability, and yeast bud rate during the fermentation were evaluated. The wines were analyzed for pH...

Determinação espectrofotometrica automatizada de cobre e zinco em amostras de interesse agroindustrial por metodos cineticos

Arnaldo Antonio Rodella
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/1993 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
A determinação de cobre e zinco em diversas matrizes como solos, material vegetal, ligas metálicas, entre outras, é de grande importância. Esses metais estão entre os mais utilizados pelo homem e são elementos essenciais às plantas e animais. Neste trabalho estudou-se a associação entre métodos cinéticos e sistema de análise por injeção em fluxo (FIA) para a determinação dos citados elementos, a qual possibilita o emprego de recursos analíticos que seriam inviáveis através de procedimentos manuais. Estudou-se a determinação espectrofotométrica de cobre por dois métodos catalíticos. O primeiro é baseado no efeito catalítico do íon Cu sobre a oxidação do resorcinol por H2O2. Empregando-se solução 1 mol L NaOH, 0,2 mol L H2O2 e 0,65 moI L resorcinol, à temperatura ambiente e 34. s de reação, obteve-se elevada sensibilidade no intervalo de 0,3 a 1,0 mg L Cu. Avaliaram-se os efeitos de variação de temperatura, acidez da amostra e força iônica. Observaram-se sérias interferências de Fe, Mn e Ni, e em menor grau de Al, Cd, Cr, Pb, Sn e Zn. A interferência do íon Fe limitou a aplicação do método a materiais como fertilizantes e plantas. Determinou-se o cobre pelo resorcinol em aguardentes, bronze e latão...

Carbamato de etila em bebidas alcoólicas (cachaça, tiquira, uísque e grapa)

Andrade-Sobrinho,Luiz Gualberto de; Boscolo,Maurício; Lima-Neto,Benedito dos Santos; Franco,Douglas Wagner
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2002 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
The presence of ethyl carbamate in cachaças, tiquiras, whiskies and grapes was investigated by GC-MS, monitoring the m/z 62 ion. The external standard method was used for quantitation in 188 samples (126 cachaças, 37 tiquiras, 6 grappas and 19 whiskies). The results of the study for cachaça were analysed considering the geographic origin, distillation type (still or column), bottle coloration (amber or transparent) and ageing. The average contents of ethyl carbamate in cachaças and tiquiras were 0.77 and 2.4 mg L-1, respectively. These values were higher than the mean concentration found in grapes (0.045 mg L-1) and whiskies (0.14 mg L-1). On average the cachaças distilled in column tend to present higher values of ethyl carbamate than those from still. In the sampling studied it was not possible to define a correlation between content of ethyl carbamate, bottle coloration and ageing time.

Alcohol consumption and gastric cancer in Mexico

López-Carrillo,Lizbeth; López-Cervantes,Malaquías; Ramírez-Espitia,Armando; Rueda,Celina; Fernández-Ortega,Cielo; Orozco-Rivadeneyra,Sergio
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
This paper presents an assessment of alcohol consumption, including the popular Mexican liquor tequila, in relation to the incidence of gastric cancer. We conducted a population-based case-control study in Mexico City, with 220 gastric cancer cases and 752 population-based controls. A food frequency questionnaire was used to measure consumption of alcohol and other dietary items. Grams of ethanol were estimated by the Food Intake Analysis System 3.0 software. After adjustment for known risk factors, wine consumption was positively associated with the risk of developing gastric cancer (OR = 2.93; CI 95% 1.27-6.75) in the highest category of wine consumption, corresponding to at least 10 glasses of wine per month, with a significant trend (p = 0.005). This association remained among intestinal (OR = 2.16; CI 95% 0.68-6.92, p-value for trend = 0.031) and diffuse (OR = 4.48; CI 95% 1.44-13.94, p-value for trend = 0.018) gastric cancer cases. A borderline significant trend between GC risk and total ethanol intake was observed (p = 0.068). Consumption of beer and distilled alcoholic beverages including brandy, rum, and tequila was not associated with GC risk. The results indicate the need to focus on the study of the potential effects of different types of wine...

A rapid and sensitive method for dimethylsulphide analysis in Brazilian sugar cane sugar spirits and other distilled beverages

Cardoso,Daniel R.; Andrade Sobrinho,Luiz G.; Lima-Neto,Benedito S.; Franco,Douglas W.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
A purge and trap concentrator coupled to gas chromatography was used to quantify dimethylsulphide in distilled beverages. A very good performance was obtained using a HP-FFAP column and a mass selective detector operating in SIM mode (m/z 62): detection limit 8 x 10-9 mol L-1; good repeatability and total time of analysis 25 minutes. The method has been applied for sixty samples of alcoholic beverages (cachaças, tiquiras, grappas, whiskies, brandies, vodkas, rum and a tequila). The cachaças exhibit the highest content of dimethylsulphide (median 3.16 x 10-4 mol L-1), followed by grappa (median 1.45 x 10-4 mol L-1). The presence of dimethylsulphide was not observed in the samples of rum.

Do alcoholic beverages interfere in the force of orthodontic elastics?

PITHON,Matheus Melo; BARRETTO,Jéssica Rocha; ANDRADE,Camilla Souza Santos; NOVAES,Fernando Pereira de; LUZ,Murilo de Novaes; ANDRADE,Ana Carolina Dias Viana de; COQUEIRO,Raildo da Silva
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.69%
Objective: To evaluate the effects of different alcoholic beverages on the decline in force of orthodontic elastics. Material and method: In a laboratory study, 6 groups of alcoholic beverages were tested. Control group (Group 1) was composed of distilled water. Experimental groups were Whisky (Group 2), Brandy (Group 3), Vodka (Group 4), Beer (Group 5), Sugar Cane Spirit/Rum (Group 6), Wine (Group 7). In the experimental groups, templates were used to enable elastics to be submerged in the alcoholic beverages for 30 seconds once a day. Force was measured with a digital dynamometer in six different time intervals: baseline, 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Result: There were no significant differences between the treatments in the time intervals: baseline, 7, 14 and 28 days. There were statistical differences between Group 7 and the others in the first 24 hours, and between Group 1 and the others after 21 days. After 28 days, there were no significant differences in the force pattern among all groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: Alcoholic beverages had no influence on the decline in force of the chain elastics.

Alcoholic beverages produced by alcoholic fermentation but not by distillation are powerful stimulants of gastric acid secretion in humans.

Teyssen, S; Lenzing, T; González-Calero, G; Korn, A; Riepl, R L; Singer, M V
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.86%
BACKGROUND: The effect of commonly ingested alcoholic beverages on gastric acid output and release of gastrin in humans is unknown. AIM AND METHODS: In 16 healthy humans the effect of some commonly ingested alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation plus distillation (for example, whisky, cognac, calvados, armagnac, and rum) or by alcoholic fermentation (beer, wine, champagne, martini, and sherry) on gastric acid output and release of gastrin was studied. Gastric acid output was determined by the method of intragastric titration. Plasma gastrin was measured using a specific radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: None of the alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation plus distillation had any significant effect on gastric acid output and release of gastrin compared with control (isotonic glucose and distilled water). Alcoholic beverages produced only by fermentation significantly (p < 0.05) increased the gastric acid output by 57% to 95% of maximal acid output (MAO) and release of gastrin up to 5.1-fold compared with control. If beer, wine, and sherry were distilled, only their remaining parts increased gastric acid output by 53% to 76% of MAO and increased release of gastrin up to 4.3-fold compared with control. CONCLUSIONS: (1) Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation but not by distillation are powerful stimulants of gastric acid output and release of gastrin; (2) the alcoholic beverage constituents that stimulate gastric acid output and release of gastrin are most probably produced during the process of fermentation and removed during the following process of distillation.

Carcinogenicity of dark liquor.

Rothman, K J; Cann, C I; Fried, M P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1989 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.8%
To investigate whether the non-alcohol content of distilled alcoholic beverages affects the carcinogenicity of the beverage, we conducted an epidemiologic study of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. We interviewed 384 cases (or spouses, for deceased cases), and compared their responses with those of 876 controls. We classed distilled liquors as dark or light, a rough division according to content of potentially carcinogenic compounds in the beverages. The relative effect on hypopharyngeal cancer risk was much stronger for those who reported high consumption of dark liquor (relative risk = 4.4, 90% confidence interval = 2.9, 6.8) than for those reporting comparable consumption of light liquor (relative risk = 1.3, 90% CI = 0.8, 2.1). For laryngeal cancer, consumption of dark liquor had a smaller effect, and there was little distinction between the effects of dark and light liquor. The data appear consistent with the theory that the non-alcoholic content of distilled alcoholic beverages is a determinant of cancer risk, and that alcoholic beverages act topically rather than systemically in their carcinogenic action.

Alcohol Control Laws and the Consumption of Distilled Spirits and Beer

Ornstein, Stanley I.; Hanssens, Dominique M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%
This article tests the social marketing effectiveness of alcohol control laws designed to reduce the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The study uses state-level historical data to estimate the demand for distilled spirits and beer using economic, sociodemographic, and control-law explanatory variables. Spirits and beer consumption are found to react differently to changes in economic, sociodemographic, and regulatory variables. These differences suggest a consumer and product segment-based approach to alcohol control laws or social marketing that emphasizes measures directed at youths for beer and at price for spirits.

Interaction of the contents of alcoholic beverages in the promotion of liver damage.; Interacção de constituintes das bebidas alcoólicas na promoção da lesão hepática.

Peneda, J; Hospital dos Capuchos, Centro de Anatomia Patológica, Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria, Lisboa.; Baptista, A; Lopes, J M
Fonte: Ordem dos Médicos Publicador: Ordem dos Médicos
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; article; article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/12/1993 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.9%
The adverse effects of the exposure of the liver to the interaction of ethanol with its congeners and acetaldehyde, coexisting in the contents of alcoholic beverages, have been little studied. Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Two groups (SH/DA; SH/FA) were submitted to daily treatment with synthetic hydroalcoholic solutions containing ethanol, methanol, higher alcohols and acetaldehyde in the same proportions as those found in most common distilled and fermented alcoholic beverages; the third group (SH/EA) was treated with a hydroalcoholic solution of ethanol; the fourth group served as control and received an equivalent volume of an isocaloric solution of dextrose. All the animals were killed at the end of the 9th week of the experiment. The ratio between the liver weight and body weight was found to be lower in the treated animals than in the control group. The histology of the liver was altered in the three groups which were submitted to treatment with the hydroalcoholic solutions, with quantitative and qualitative differences between the groups. These results suggest that the hepatoxicity of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is enhanced by interaction with its congeners and acetaldehyde; they also suggest that alcoholic beverages are not equivalent in their potential to cause liver damage.; The adverse effects of the exposure of the liver to the interaction of ethanol with its congeners and acetaldehyde...

Interaction of the constituents of alcoholic beverages in the promotion of liver damage.

Peneda, Jorge; National Health Institute, Department of Pathology, Santa Maria University Hospital, Lisbon.; Baptista, Amélia; Lopes, José M.
Fonte: Ordem dos Médicos Publicador: Ordem dos Médicos
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; article; article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/12/1994 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.9%
Little has been studied of the adverse effects of the exposure of the liver to the interaction of ethanol with its congeners and acetaldehyde, coexisting in the contents of alcoholic beverages. Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Two groups (SH/DA; SH/FA) were submitted to daily treatment with synthetic hydroalcoholic solutions containing ethanol, methanol, higher alcohols and acetaldehyde in the same proportions as those found in most common distilled and fermented alcoholic beverages; the third group (SH/EA) was treated with a hydroalcoholic solution of ethanol; the fourth group served as control and received an equivalent volume of an isocaloric solution of dextrose. All the animals were killed at the end of the 9th week of the experiment. The ratio between the liver weight and body weight was found to be lower in the treated animals than in the control group. The histology of the liver was altered in the three groups which were submitted to treatment with the hydroalcoholic solutions, with quantitative and qualitative differences between the groups. These results suggest that the hepatoxicity of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is enhanced by interaction with its congeners and acetaldehyde; they also suggest that alcoholic beverages are not equivalent in their potential to cause liver damage.; Little has been studied of the adverse effects of the exposure of the liver to the interaction of ethanol with its congeners and acetaldehyde...

FISCALIS Project Group - Analysis and Characterisation of Alcoholic Products (ACAP)

SEGEBARTH NICOLAS; SKORDI ELENI; ALONSO SALCES ROSA MARIA; GUILLOU CLAUDE
Fonte: OPOCE Publicador: OPOCE
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
The purpose of the ACAP working group (composed of JRC, TAXUD and 11 Member States Custom Laboratories) was to provide scientific support for the resolution of the issue of divergent classifications of alcoholic beverages for excise duties, whether by providing objective criteria for classification, or providing sound scientific information for revision of legislation. In particular, there is a need for analytical methods allowing for the differentiation between "fermented" and "distilled" ("non-fermented") beverages and for the detection of ethanol addition. At present there is no commonly agreed solution of these problems which has resulted in the Customs Laboratories of the Member States developing their own particular approaches to deal with these issues. This can lead to divergent classification between Member States and consequent problems both for administrations and the trade. Two complementary pathways of investigation have been examined in this study: NMR fingerprinting and "classical analysis", both handled by multivariate data analysis. It is the findings of this study that it is likely to be extremely difficult or even impossible to create workable ¿general¿ models based on analytical methods. Unfortunately, the difficulties are the greatest precisely with those categories that are the most problematic for excise classification purposes. Even if an analytical model was eventually developed it is likely to need to be an extremely complex mechanism in order to take account of the broad range of beverages...

Influence of fast and slow distillation on ethyl carbamate content and on coefficient of non-alcohol components in Brazilian sugarcane spirits

Lima, Urgel de Almeida; Teixeira, Cyro Goncalves; Bertozzi, José Carlos; Serafim, Felipe Augusto Thobias; Alcarde, André Ricardo
Fonte: INST BREWING; LONDON Publicador: INST BREWING; LONDON
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
Ethyl carbamate is an impurity present in distilled beverages. Given the risk of it being a carcinogenic substance, Brazilian legislation has determined that its presence in distilled beverages, such as 'aguardente' and 'cachaca' (two types of sugarcane spirits), should be limited to a maximum of 150 mu g/L. Ordinary spirits usually contain variable amounts of ethyl carbamate, although in lower concentrations than the maximum determined by law. The finding that commercial spirits had a much lower concentration of this impurity (around 50 mu g/L) led the authors to research the reasons for the differences, and these are explored in this paper, with a focus on the speed of the distillation process and its influence on the spirit's composition. The team conducted research in a sugarcane distillery producing 'aguardente' using a simple pot still and measured the influence of fast and slow distillation on the presence of ethyl carbamate and non-alcohol components in the process. The results demonstrated that the speed of distillation was proportionally related to the concentration of ethyl carbamate and secondary components in the beverage's composition. Copyright (c) 2012 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling

Benjamin Rush's educational campaign against hard drinking.

Katcher, B S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1993 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
More than 200 years ago, during a period of unprecedented production and consumption of distilled alcoholic beverages in the United States, Benjamin Rush launched a health education campaign that warned the public about the hazards of such beverages. He corrected erroneous notions about their presumed beneficial effects and accurately described more than a dozen alcohol-related health problems. Although the temperance movement has had a tumultuous history in the United States, the origin and long-standing tradition of temperance as a health promotion activity needs to be recognized.

An Analysis of a new tier pricing strategy in distilled spirit sales: a longitudinal approach

Dapolito, Dennis
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%

Improved automatic steam distillation combined with oscillation-type densimetry for determining alcoholic strength in spirits and liqueurs

Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Plato, Leander; Suessmann, Manuela; Di Carmine, Matthew; Krueger, Bjoern; Kukuck, Armin; Kranz, Markus
Fonte: Springer International Publishing Publicador: Springer International Publishing
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 18/12/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
The determination of the alcoholic strength in spirits and liqueurs is required to control the labelling of alcoholic beverages. The reference methodology prescribes a distillation step followed by densimetric measurement. The classic distillation using a Vigreux rectifying column and a West condenser is time consuming and error-prone, especially for liqueurs that may have problems with entrainment and charring. For this reason, this methodology suggests the use of an automated steam distillation device as alternative. The novel instrument comprises an increased steam power, a redesigned geometry of the condenser and a larger cooling coil with controllable flow, compared to previously available devices. Method optimization applying D-optimal and central composite designs showed significant influence of sample volume, distillation time and coolant flow, while other investigated parameters such as steam power, receiver volume, or the use of pipettes or flasks for sample measurement did not significantly influence the results. The method validation was conducted using the following settings: steam power 70 %, sample volume 25 mL transferred using pipettes, receiver volume 50 mL, coolant flow 7 L/min, and distillation time as long as possible just below the calibration mark. For four different liqueurs covering the typical range of these products between 15 and 35 % vol...