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Measuring displacement field detection of unbounded regions in a single lap Joint with moiré

Ribeiro, J.E.; Vaz, M.A.P.; Lopes, H.; Monteiro, J.; Piloto, P.A.G.
Fonte: Michel Grédiac & Jonathan Huntley Publicador: Michel Grédiac & Jonathan Huntley
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.64%
The goal of this work is the development of an experimental technique to measure the displacement field and to perform detection of unbonded regions [1] in a single lap joint [2, 3]. The proposed experimental technique is based on the use of Moiré Interferometry. It is a field technique that allows in-plane displacement measurements without contact and with high resolution [4, 5]. Grating replication techniques were developed to record high quality diffraction gratings onto the specimen’s surfaces [6]. It was also, developed an optical assembly of laser interferometry used to generate the master grating (virtual) [7]. A tension load was applied to a lap joint and its deformation was accessed by the interference between the reference grating, recorded on the object surface, and virtual master grating generated by laser interferometry. A phase shifting technique [8] was developed to allow the phase map calculation. Image processing techniques [9] will be used to assess the in-plane displacement field. A finite elements code (ANSYS®) will be used to calculate the displacement field [10, 11]. An unbonded region in a single lap joint was numerically simulated and the obtained results will be compared with those obtained in the experimental work. In the figure 1 it’s possible to observe the displacement field...

"Deslocamentos condilares entre RC e MIH em indivíduos sintomáticos e assintomáticos e suas correlações com as disfunções temporomandibulares"; Condylar displacement between CR and MIC in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects and their correlations with the temporomandibular dysfunctions.

Weffort, Soo Young Kim
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/03/2007 PT
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36.77%
Os tratamentos da oclusão levaram à escolha da relação cêntrica (RC) como posição de referência devido à sua reprodutibilidade, o que favorece maior precisão do diagnóstico. As interferências oclusais e os conseqüentes deslocamentos condilares entre as posições mandibulares de RC e a máxima intercuspidação habitual (MIH) têm sido revelados como parte dos fatores etiológicos das disfunções temporomandibulares. Na tentativa de melhor esclarecer o papel dos deslocamentos condilares dentro do contexto da oclusão, morfológica e funcional, como fator de risco no desenvolvimento da DTM, este estudo transversal prospectivo propôs-se a avaliar os referidos deslocamentos. A amostra foi composta por 70 participantes, não desprogramados, divididos em grupo sintomático, segundo o critério RDC/TMD, e grupo assintomático. Para avaliação dos participantes, empregaram-se modelos de gesso montados em articulador Panadent. Foram obtidos registros de cera em MIH e RC, sendo este último obediente à técnica power centric (Roth). As diferenças entre as duas posições foram medidas nos três planos do espaço, em gráficos correspondentes aos lados direito, esquerdo e transversal, avaliadas quanto à magnitude e direção e comparadas quanto à sintomatologia e o gênero pela análise de variância. A possível correlação quanto à direção do deslocamento foi avaliada pelo teste qui-quadrado de homogeneidade. Para verificar a reprodutibilidade das medidas intra e interobservador foram calculadas correlações intraclasses e índice de Dahlberg. Os resultados mostraram repetibilidade e reprodutibilidade das medidas condilares. Nos indivíduos com DTM...

Desenvolvimento econômico e deslocamento populacional no primeiro governo Vargas (1930-1945); Economic development and displacement population in the first government of Vargas (1930-1945)

Costa, Julio Cesar Zorzenon
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/01/2008 PT
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36.64%
Esta tese discute a integração do mercado nacional, ocorrida no primeiro Governo Vargas (1930-1945), como importante fator para a construção de uma estrutura econômica de base industrial, que permitiu a entrada da economia brasileira em uma fase de grande desenvolvimento e crescimento econômicos. Enfoca, nesse processo, a função exercida pelos deslocamentos populacionais. A integração do mercado nacional reclamava a construção de um novo padrão de deslocamentos populacionais no país. Embora as características dos deslocamentos populacionais já estivessem se modificando, o Estado interveio nesse processo, mediante a elaboração de políticas específicas, visando aprofundar e acelerar a integração do mercado, inclusive a do mercado de trabalho. As políticas relativas aos deslocamentos populacionais, praticadas e elaboradas no primeiro Governo Vargas, evidenciam a intencionalidade desse governo em apoiar e impulsionar o desenvolvimento de um novo padrão de acumulação urbano-industrial. Mesmo que não tenham alcançado a concretização dos objetivos propostos, as políticas relativas aos deslocamentos populacionais, iniciadas no primeiro Governo Vargas, permitiram a constituição de bases sobre as quais se daria...

Lateral vibration analysis of continuous bridges utilizing equal displacement rule

Wei,Biao; Xia,Ye; Liu,Weian
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Ciências Mecânicas Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Ciências Mecânicas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
The application of equal displacement rule simplifies the evaluation of lateral displacement demand forSDOF system. For complex multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) structures such as continuous bridge systems, however, it requires more investigations. In this paper, a comprehensive parametric study of the ratio of maximum inelastic displacement to maximum elastic displacement for typical continuous bridges is performedto advance the application of equal displacement rule to MDOF systems. Particurlarly for the bridges with long periods, this adapted methodlogy is further simplified. It is concluded that equal displacement rule of MDOF is applicable to continuous bridges when the periods of the main modes are no less than the limiting period, which usually serves as an indication to the level of inelastic deformation for a bridge subjected to an earthquake.

Relationship between sounds and disc displacement of the temporomandibular joint using magnetic resonance imaging

Bisi,Maurício André; Chaves,Karen Dantur Batista; Puricelli,Edela; Ponzoni,Deise; Martins,Eleutério Araújo
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.64%
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful for interpreting temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders including disc displacement. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between TMJ sounds and disc displacement with and without reduction by clinical examination and MRI. METHODS: A sample of 58 patients was clinically examined when after being referred to MRI due to signs and symptoms of unilateral or bilateral TMJ disc displacement. The diagnosis obtained using MRI was compared with the clinical findings for the presence or absence of articular sounds. RESULTS: Most patients (n=39; 67%) had joint sounds manifested as clicking; the other 19 patients (33%) did not present sounds. Among the 39 patients with sounds, bilateral clicking was observed in 29 (74%), and unilateral clicking in 10 (26%) patients. Unilateral clicking was equally observed on the right and left sides, each occurring in 5 five patients (13%). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that articular sounds do not occur exclusively in TMJ with disc displacement with reduction. The presence or absence of joint sounds will not suffice as the only aspect criterion to be considered in the differential diagnosis of disc displacement with and without reduction.

A zone-based iterative building displacement method through the collective use of Voronoi Tessellation, spatial analysis and multicriteria decision making

Basaraner,Melih
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Paraná Publicador: Universidade Federal do Paraná
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
An iterative displacement method working based on generalisation zones is proposed as a part of contextual building generalisation in topographic map production at medium scales. Displacement is very complicated operation since a compromise ought to be found between several conflicting criteria. Displacement requirement mainly arises from the violation of minimum distances imposed by graphic limits after the enlargement of map objects for target scale. It is also important to maintain positional accuracy within scale limits and to propagate the changes to the related neighbouring objects by preserving spatial configurations as far as possible. In the proposed method, first it is decided where and when to initiate building displacement based on spatial analysis in the generalisation zones created for building clusters in the blocks. Secondly, relevant criteria are defined to control the displacement. Finally displacement candidate and vector are decided by means of Voronoi tessellation, spatial analysis techniques and combined multiple criteria (i.e. displacement controls) in each iteration. The evaluation of the findings demonstrates that this method is largely effective in zone-based displacement of buildings.

Rupture Nucleation on an Interface with a Power-Law relation between Stress and Displacement Discontinuity

Rice, James R.; Uenishi, Koji
Fonte: Springer Verlag Publicador: Springer Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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We consider rupture initiation and instability on a displacement-weakening interface. It is assumed to follow a power-law relation between a component of displacement discontinuity (whether tensile opening in mode I or shear slippage in modes II or III) and the reduction from peak strength of a corresponding component of stress (normal or shear stress) on the interface. That is, the stress decrease from peak strength, as the interface discontinuity develops, is assumed to be proportional to displacement-discontinuity to some exponent (n > 0). The study is done in the 2D context of plane or anti-plane strain, for an initially coherent interface which is subjected to a locally peaked “loading” stress which increases quasi-statically in time. We seek to establish the instability point, when no further quasi-static solution exists for growth of the ruptured zone along the interface, so that dynamic rupture ensues. We have previously addressed the case of linear displacement-weakening ((n = 1)), and proven the remarkable result that for an unbounded solid, the length of the displacement-weakening zone along the interface at instability is universal, in the sense of being independent of the detailed spatial distribution of the locally peaked loading stress. Present results show that such universality does not apply when (n) differs from (1). Also...

Character Displacement in the Drumming of Sympatric Species of Campephilus Woodpeckers

Andrews, Krysta
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 685800 bytes; application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.64%
Character displacement plays a role in the generation of diversity in animal communication systems. However, we know little of how widespread it is across species in nature. My study tests whether character displacement predicts any of the variation in the drumming of nine species of the woodpecker genus (Campephilus) found from the southern United States to Argentina. I quantified variation in four variables for representative sonograms of drumming from each species. I also quantified the degree of sympatry between taxa and calculated the genetic distances using cytochrome b DNA sequences. I used general linear models to evaluate the influence of sympatry on each drumming variable, controlling for genetic distances (my proxy for evolutionary time). I transformed highly correlated drumming variables into single components using a principal component analysis. I found no influence of sympatry on the variables: F=1.17, df= 1, p=0.36; F=0.01, df=1, p=0.91; and F=0.55, df=1, p=0.51 for the variables PC1 (a composite variable encompassing both number of strikes and duration), cadence and interstrike respectively. The results suggest character displacement was not driving the variation in the woodpecker drumming. The lack of evidence for character displacement in my study could reflect the importance of other selective pressures acting on Campephilus drumming...

Forced Displacement : Overview of the World Bank Portfolio

Gomez, Margarita Puerto; Christensen, Asger; Harild, Niels
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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For the purposes of this note, forced displacement refers to the situation of persons who are forced to leave or flee their homes due to conflict, violence, or persecution. Those displaced can either be refugees outside their country of nationality or be people displaced inside their country of nationality (IDPs). This notwithstanding, the portfolio review of Bank activities addressing displacement indicates a need for systematically incorporating information on displaced (both people in displacement and returnees) in the household income surveys that provide the data for the poverty assessments, which in turn furnish critical information for poverty reduction strategies and the different types of country assistance strategy documents. If and when information is available on the poverty situation of displaced households and the specific needs and vulnerabilities of those displaced compared to other poor groups, it will be possible to assess the need for additional analytical work or activities across the wide spectrum of operations...

Forced Displacement : Moving from Managing Risk to Facilitating Opportunity

Lakhani, Sadaf
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.67%
Displacement is most commonly perceived as a situation of crisis; a time in which risks to the displaced and to host communities need to be mitigated and managed. However, if managed well, displacement can also bring new opportunities for the displaced and host communities to improve their lives. This paper looks at the predominant reasons why displacement is viewed and assisted by the aid community as a humanitarian issue, rather than as a phenomenon for which development thinking and development solutions are to be applied. Policies and program approaches that facilitate the realization of opportunities are also explored. Specifically, the authors examine the obstacles associated with the shift away from perceiving displacement through a humanitarian lens, to responding to displacement as a development challenge. The paper asserts that the second point of view can open up opportunities to significantly improve the life of millions around the world.

Political Economy and Forced Displacement : Guidance and Lessons from Nine Country Case Studies

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
This report was produced for the Global Program on Forced Displacement and describes why and how to conduct political economy analysis (PEA) of forced displacement. It also illustrates how PEA may contribute to understanding forced displacement crises with nine case studies: Casamance (Senegal), Colombia, Cote dapos;Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, the Philippines, Somalia, South Sudan, and Zimbabwe. Forced displacement is understood here as a situation where persons are forced to leave or flee their homes due to conflict, violence, or human rights violations. The key elements of forced displacement PEAs include: i) a review of the historical context and displacement characteristics; ii) durable solutions prospects; iii) environmental, geographic, social, political, and economic drivers, constraints and opportunities; (iv) needs of the displaced and hosts; v) existing policies, government/institutional context, and operations; and vi) recommendations. Recommendations on development policies and programs that result from a PEA characteristically fall into at least four categories...

Analysis of Displacement in Somalia

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.67%
Development and humanitarian actors currently engaged in Somalia face the challenge of delivering assistance in such a way that it is supportive of peace and state building, addresses the acute vulnerability, and dependence of large shares of the population while operating in a still insecure and changing environment. Forced displacement is a key feature of the current political economy context of Somalia. The necessity of addressing displacement is partly due to the scale and duration of the phenomenon. Displacement dynamics have fundamentally reshaped Somali culture in multiple ways. The purpose of this study is to inform the Bank and other development and humanitarian actors on the scale, characteristics, and political economy dimensions of displacement in Somalia. The study was undertaken between February and June 2013 by a team from the Tana Copenhagen. The conceptual framework for the study was based on one for political economy assessments. In this context the report presents, introduction; history...

Inelastic displacement demand of strength-degraded structures

Lumantarna, E.; Lam, N.; Wilson, J.; Griffith, M.
Fonte: Imperial College Press Publicador: Imperial College Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
This article presents findings from parametric studies involving nonlinear time-history analyses of inelastic systems with and without strength degradation. Results showed that estimates based on the equal-displacement and equal-energy propositions can be exceeded significantly by the inelastic displacement demands in the acceleration and velocity-sensitive regions of the response spectrum. The displacement demand behaviour is sensitive to the strength degradation and the frequency properties of the ground shaking. With a modest strength reduction factor of 2, the inelastic displacement demand would typically be constrained by the Peak Displacement Demand as indicated on the elastic displacement response spectrum for 5% damping.; Elisa Lumantarna, Nelson Lam, John Wilson, and Michael Griffith

Intra- and inter-rater reliability for analysis of hyoid displacement measured with sonography

Macrae, P.; Doeltgen, S.; Jones, R.; Huckabee, M.L.
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons Inc Publicador: John Wiley & Sons Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
PURPOSE: Anterior hyoid displacement is essential for efficient swallowing and is usually investigated with videofluoroscopy. Ultrasound offers a less expensive and noninvasive method of investigation. The present study investigated the viability of a novel method of quantifying hyoid displacement from sonograms using an anatomic reference point, through an evaluation of inter- and intra-rater reliability. METHODS: Three raters reviewed the sonographic video sweeps of five discrete swallows from each of five participants for inter-rater reliability. The primary investigator measured each swallow on two occasions for intra-rater reliability. Electronic calipers were used to measure distances from a "rest" frame prior to the swallow of interest and a "maximal displacement" frame, at which the hyoid bone was at maximal anterior displacement during each swallow. RESULTS: Single-measure intraclass correlation coefficient was high for inter-rater agreement at 0.86 for rest measures and 0.86 for maximal displacement. Intra-rater reliability was even higher at 0.95 for rest and 0.98 for maximal displacement. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results suggest that by using a novel analysis approach involving an anatomic reference point, raters can achieve high agreement on measurement of position of hyoid at maximal displacement relative to rest.; Phoebe R. Macrae...

Flow visualization and simulation of miscible displacement with gravity domination.

Mohiuddin, Zeeshan
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
Gravity assisted miscible gas injection into oil reservoirs is an efficient method of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). Carbon dioxide injection into aquifers for sequestration purposes is another application of miscible displacement under gravity control. This dissertation reports pore-scale experimental and simulation studies to determine the role of different parameters on the frontal stability of the miscible displacement process under gravity domination. Experimental studies were based on visualization of first contact miscible flooding under gravity domination. Visualization was conducted using the glass micromodel technique. Facilities were designed and fabricated to perform the experiments. Two micromodels with different patterns of loose packing and close packing were prepared through the sandblasting technique. The porous patterns for these micromodels were generated using the MATLAB program. The injection of the lighter and less viscous iso-octane was carried out in comparatively heavier and high viscous butanol. The injections were carried out at different dipping angles (0≤θ≤90) and injection velocities (representing near wellbore and reservoir flow rates). The images were captured and processed to analyse the frontal movement and to estimate the concentration of injecting fluid in the flow domain. The experimental results presented in this thesis demonstrate the dependencies of various characteristics such as dip angle and porous medium heterogeneity on the process at pore scale. The simulation studies were performed using the Finite Element Analysis technique. The simulation model was initially validated by matching results with flow visualization experimental studies using glass micromodels. The Navier–Stokes...

Adaptive sampling and tessellation for displacement mapping hardware; Adaptive Abtastung und Tesselliereung für Displacement Mapping Hardware

Hirche, Johannes
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
In this thesis, new algorithms and architectures are presented for the acquisition and rendering of displacement maps. Displacement mapping is a popular rendering technique commonly found in commercial rendering packages, it modifies the surface of an otherwise flat triangle by displacing its points according to a height field, giving the impression of a structured surface. Although widely used in software renderers for many years, hardware accelerated rendering was long missing, because of the diculties involved. The main focus of this work is on adaptively rendering techniques, especially adaptively tessellating triangular meshes to improve rendering performance and reduce bandwidth requirements. Following a general definition of displacement maps, possible sources of displacement maps are presented and examples are given. To allow adaptive tessellation, sophisticated sampling techniques are required, and multiple sampling strategies are described and compared with respect to quality and ease of implementation. The presented strategies range from locally defined geometry tests to image-based methods like edge-detection. Possible modifications to available graphics hardware pipelines are discussed to enable support for adaptive tessellation with as little modifications as possible. With the latest generation of commodity graphics chips...

Spatial displacement and diffusion of benefits among geographically focused policing initiatives

Bowers, Kate; Johnson, Shane; Guerette, Rob T.; Summers, Lucia; Poynton, Suzanne
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Aufsatz; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
One of the most common criticisms of spatially focused policing efforts (such as Problem-Oriented Policing, police 'crackdowns' or hotspots policing) is that crime will simply relocate to other times and places since the ―root causes‖ of crime were not addressed. This phenomenon—called crime displacement—has important implications for many policing projects. By far, spatial displacement (movement of crime from a treatment area to an area nearby) is the form most commonly recognized. At the extreme, widespread displacement stands to undermine the effects of geographically focused policing actions. More often, however, research suggests that crime displacement is rarely total. On the other end of the displacement continuum is the phenomenon of ‗diffusion of crime control benefits‘ (a term coined by Ron Clarke and David Weisburd in 1994). Diffusion occurs when reductions of crime (or other improvements) are achieved in areas that are close to crime prevention interventions, even though those areas were not actually targeted by the intervention itself. Objectives: To synthesize the evidence concerning the degree to which geographically focused policing initiatives are related to spatial displacement of crime or diffusion of the crime control benefits. Main results: The main findings of the meta-analysis suggested that on average geographically focused policing initiatives for which data were available were (1) associated with significant reductions in crime and disorder and that (2) overall...

Flow and displacement of viscoplastic fluids in eccentric annuli.

Deawwanich, Thana
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.8%
In the construction of oil and gas well, improper displacement work (primary cementing job) may cause poor zonal isolation, cement channeling, remedial squeeze cementing, and thus lead to a severe problem. The leakage of the wellbore fluids and contamination of sensitive zones resulting from poor primary cementing job such as the Gulf of Mexico's oil spill in April 2010 has been the biggest disaster accidents for mankind history since then. The experimental flow system was developed for systematic study of both single-fluid flow and two-fluid displacement in eccentric annuli. This flow is relevant to the drilling operation and cementing operation in oil well completions, where drilling fluids are displaced from the annulus between the casing and the well bore by a series of spacer/wash fluids and cement slurries. The design of the system is based on the helical flow geometry, which is a combination of annular axial flow and tangential rotating flow in an annulus. The annular flow apparatus can be operated at various degrees of eccentricity and different angles of inclination to simulate the type of flows in oilfield drilling and cementing operations. A special feature of the flow system is that the inner pipe can be rotated during displacement...

Legitimating Displacement: Exploring the Blame-game of Gentrification Discourse

MASSEY, JENNIFER
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
This dissertation explores the blame-game embedded in gentrification discourses that legitimize displacement in working-class neighbourhoods. It unpacks the multi-layered blaming rhetoric embedded in gentrification discourses that problematize poor households and hold them accountable for their eventual displacement. The dissertation makes four important contributions to critical understandings of gentrification processes. First, while previous literature has examined the consequences of gentrification and displacement, this study focus on the discourses that legitimate state-led gentrification. It argues regeneration policy remains a catalyst of displacement and a rhetorical blame-game embedded deep within gentrification discourses masks and legitimates this potentially controversial policy. Second, by merging literatures from cultural geography and urban political economy, this work reveals the multifaceted discourses of blame that justify the displacement of the poor in urban areas. It shows how sets of distinctive and independent narratives are combined and layered to advance the gentrification agenda and argues pro-gentrification discourses are powerful because they draw upon an array of arguments to place blame on the poor. Third...

Internal Displacement, the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, the Principles Normative Status, and the Need for their Effective Domestic Implementation in Colombia.; Internal Displacement, the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, the Principles Normative Status, and the Need for their Effective Domestic Implementation in Colombia.

K. Goldman, Robert
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/05/2010 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
El artículo analiza el fenómeno del desplazamiento forzado alrededor del mundo, así como la génesis del mandato de las Naciones Unidas para luchar contra este problema. Examina las conclusiones clave del estudio de la ONU que encontró que las normas existentes del derecho internacional tienen varios vacíos y zonas grises relativos a las necesidades de los desplazados internos. También analiza los orígenes y el contenido de los principios guía del desplazamiento interno, así como el estatus normativo de los mismos. Así mismo, sugiere que, a pesar de no ser vinculante para los Estados, estos principios guía se convirtieron en la expresión más autorizada de los estándares mínimos aplicables a los desplazados internos como consecuencia de la práctica estatal, es decir, que la mayoría de estos principios se volverán costumbre internacional. El artículo también señala la necesidad de que haya una implementación efectiva en el derecho interno de estos principios guía; examina cómo las autoridades gubernamentales, la Corte Constitucional y la sociedad civil en Colombia, así como las entidades intergubernamentales, respondieron a la crisis del desplazamiento interno en el país. Observando el marco legal colombiano en desplazamiento interno...