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Spatial pattern of black spot incidence within citrus trees related to disease severity and pathogen dispersal

SPOSITO, M. B.; AMORIM, L.; BASSANEZI, R. B.; BERGAMIN FILHO, A.; HAU, B.
Fonte: BLACKWELL PUBLISHING Publicador: BLACKWELL PUBLISHING
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of citrus black spot, forms airborne ascospores on decomposing citrus leaves and water-spread conidia on fruits, leaves and twigs. The spatial pattern of diseased fruit in citrus tree canopies was used to assess the importance of ascospores and conidia in citrus black spot epidemics in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The aggregation of diseased fruit in the citrus tree canopy was quantified by the binomial dispersion index (D) and the binary form of Taylor`s Power Law for 303 trees in six groves. D was significantly greater than 1 in 251 trees. The intercept of the regression line of Taylor`s Power Law was significantly greater than 0 and the slope was not different from 1, implying that diseased fruit was aggregated in the canopy independent of disease incidence. Disease incidence (p) and severity (S) were assessed in 2875 citrus trees. The incidence-severity relationship was described (R-2 = 88.7%) by the model ln(S) = ln(a) + bCLL(p) where CLL = complementary log-log transformation. The high severity at low incidence observed in many cases is also indicative of low distance spread of G. citricarpa spores. For the same level of disease incidence, some trees had most of the diseased fruit with many lesions and high disease severity...

Modelagem espaço-temporal para dados de incidência de doenças em plantas.; Spatiotemporal modelling of plant disease incidence.

Lima, Renato Ribeiro de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/03/2005 PT
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55.9%
A informação sobre a dinâmica espaço-temporal de doenças de plantas é de importância fundamental em estudos epidemiológicos, podendo ser utilizada para descrever e entender o desenvolvimento das doenças, desenvolver planos de amostragem, planejar experimentos controlados e caracterizar perdas na produção ocasionadas pela doença. O estudo de padrões espaciais de doenças de plantas, que são reflexos do processo de dispersão dos patógenos, é importante em estudos epidemiológicos, como o de doenças dos citros, para se definirem estratégias mais adequadas para o controle das doenças, diminuindo os prejuízos causados. A Citricultura é uma das principais atividades agrícolas do Brasil e representa a principal atividade econômica de mais de 400 municípios do Triângulo Mineiro e do Estado de São Paulo, onde se encontra a maior área de citros do país e a maior região produtora de laranjas do mundo. Na avaliação do padrão espacial, diferentes métodos têm sido utilizados, dentre os quais incluem-se o ajuste de distribuições, como, por exemplo, a distribuição beta-binomial, o estudo da relação variância-média, o cálculo de correlação ao intraclasse, a utilização de técnicas de autocorrelação espacial...

Podridão floral dos citros: dinâmicas temporal e espacial, sensibilidade de Colletotrichum acutatum a fungicidas e controle da doença; Postbloom fruit drop: temporal and spatial dynamics, sensitivity of Colletotrichum acutatum to fungicide and disease control

Silva Junior, Geraldo José da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/08/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
A Podridão Floral dos Citros (PFC), causada por Colletotrichum acutatum, foi observada em 1956/57 em Belize e relatada posteriormente em 1979. Neste mesmo ano a PFC também foi relatada no Brasil e, desde então, tem causado prejuízos todas às vezes nas quais o período de florescimento coincide com a ocorrência de chuvas. O controle da PFC é realizado principalmente por meio de pulverizações preventivas com fungicidas. O uso indiscriminado de fungicidas com o mesmo modo de ação pode selecionar indivíduos resistentes. O conhecimento da epidemiologia da PFC pode gerar informações precisas a serem utilizadas na elaboração de estratégias de manejo no campo, bem como melhorar a eficiência do controle químico da doença. Assim, foi proposto este trabalho com os objetivos de: i) caracterizar as dinâmicas temporal e espacial da PFC em pomares jovens de laranja doce; ii) avaliar in vitro a sensibilidade de isolados de C. acutatum a fungicidas e; iii) avaliar o efeito de diferentes fungicidas, intervalos de aplicação e programas de pulverização no controle da PFC no campo. A dinâmica temporal e espacial da PFC foi caracterizada em três talhões de 2 a 4 anos de idade com 500 plantas cada. Crescimento explosivo da PFC foi observado com altas taxas diárias de progresso (r) descritas pelo modelo logístico de 0...

Análise da Incidência de Mutações no Gene HEXA na População Judaica Brasileira - Avaliação da Importância de um Programa Preventivo da Doença de Tay-Sachs; Frequency of HEXA mutations among the Brazilian Ashkenazi Jewish population - Evaluation of the importance of a screening program for Tay-Sachs disease

Rozenberg, Roberto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/12/2000 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
A doença de Tay-Sachs (DTS) é uma doença neurodegenerativa, de herança autossômica recessiva, que se manifesta a partir do sexto mês de vida. Crianças afetadas desenvolvem degeneração física e mental intensa, levando à morte até os 5 anos de idade. Não há atualmente cura ou tratamento disponível. Na população judaica, 1 em cada 31 indivíduos é portador da DTS, e a incidência da doença (aproximadamente 1 em cada 4.000 nascimentos) é cerca de 100 vezes maior nesta do que em outras populações. O advento do diagnóstico pré-natal para a DTS e o concomitante desenvolvimento de programas de detecção e orientação de heterozigotos da DTS em populações de judeus Ashkenazitas, iniciados em massa desde 1970, levaram a uma diminuição de 90% da incidência da doença nesta população. Estes programas são realizados em Israel, EUA e no Canadá, na população francocanadense. Três mutações no gene HEXA, codificador da sub-unidade ? da enzima hexosaminidase A, são responsáveis por 98% dos casos da DTS na população judaica Ashkenazita. Esse fato possibilita a utilização de um teste de DNA para a identificação de portadores da DTS nesta população. Segundo o censo do IBGE de 1991, a população judaica no Brasil é de 86.416 indivíduos. Este trabalho visou analisar a necessidade e a aceitação de um programa de detecção e orientação de portadores da DTS nesta população. Em particular...

The frequency of Tay-Sachs disease causing mutations in the Brazilian Jewish population justifies a carrier screening program

Rozenberg,Roberto; Pereira,Lygia da Veiga
Fonte: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM Publicador: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
CONTEXT: Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by progressive neurologic degeneration, fatal in early childhood. In the Ashkenazi Jewish population the disease incidence is about 1 in every 3,500 newborns and the carrier frequency is 1 in every 29 individuals. Carrier screening programs for Tay-Sachs disease have reduced disease incidence by 90% in high-risk populations in several countries. The Brazilian Jewish population is estimated at 90,000 individuals. Currently, there is no screening program for Tay-Sachs disease in this population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the importance of a Tay-Sachs disease carrier screening program in the Brazilian Jewish population by determining the frequency of heterozygotes and the acceptance of the program by the community. SETTING: Laboratory of Molecular Genetics - Institute of Biosciences - Universidade de São Paulo. PARTICIPANTS: 581 senior students from selected Jewish high schools. PROCEDURE: Molecular analysis of Tay-Sachs disease causing mutations by PCR amplification of genomic DNA, followed by restriction enzyme digestion. RESULTS: Among 581 students that attended educational classes, 404 (70%) elected to be tested for Tay-Sachs disease mutations. Of these, approximately 65% were of Ashkenazi Jewish origin. Eight carriers were detected corresponding to a carrier frequency of 1 in every 33 individuals in the Ashkenazi Jewish fraction of the sample. CONCLUSION: The frequency of Tay-Sachs disease carriers among the Ashkenazi Jewish population of Brazil is similar to that of other countries where carrier screening programs have led to a significant decrease in disease incidence. Therefore...

The relationship between herd level disease incidence and a return over feed index in Ontario dairy herds

McLaren, Chris J.; Lissemore, Kerry D.; Duffield, Todd F.; Leslie, Ken E.; Kelton, David F.; Grexton, Bill
Fonte: Canadian Veterinary Medical Association Publicador: Canadian Veterinary Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
The objective of the current research was to examine the association of herd level disease incidence with the return over feed (ROF) (milk income minus feed cost) herd profit index offered through Canwest Dairy Herd Improvement. The lactational incidence risks (LIR) for displaced abomasum, retained placenta, clinical mastitis, milk fever, clinical ketosis, and lameness submitted by producers (n = 48) were similar to previous reports. However, there was no negative association of clinical disease LIR’s with ROF. Subclinical ketosis and subclinical mastitis cumulative incidence were determined during the early postpartum period by using a cow-side test for betahydroxybutyrate in milk and the California Mastitis Test, respectively. Subclinical mastitis was not associated with ROF. However, a unit increase in the cumulative incidence of subclinical ketosis was associated with a decrease of $0.015/cow/day in the ROF. The results highlight the economic significance that subclinical ketosis may have in Ontario dairy herds.

Coronary heart disease incidence in northern and southern European populations: a reanalysis of the seven countries study for a European coronary risk chart

Menotti, A; Lanti, M; Puddu, P; Kromhout, D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
OBJECTIVE—A systematic reanalysis of 10 year coronary heart disease incidence data from the northern and the southern European cohorts of the seven countries study, to contribute indirectly to the production of a European coronary risk chart.
DESIGN AND SETTING—Men aged 40-59 years at entry were studied in three northern European cohorts based in Finland and Netherlands (n = 2213); and in 10 southern European cohorts based in Italy, former Yugoslavia, and Greece (n = 5897). Multiple logistic models for the prediction of coronary deaths, coronary incidence (hard criteria), and coronary incidence (any criterion) were solved for the two geographical groups and their pool. Risk factors fed into the models were age, systolic blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and cigarette smoking.
RESULTS—10 year coronary heart disease mortality and incidence were higher in northern than in southern Europe, with ratios around 2.65. Ratios among the three coronary heart disease manifestations were identical in the two cultural groupings. Coefficients of the multiple logistic models were similar and not significantly different between the two groupings. When applying the coefficients back to the same or the opposite population, the relative risk was large and similar in the different cultures. Relative risk was larger for more severe coronary heart disease manifestations. The absolute risk was overestimated when applying the northern European model to southern European populations and vice versa...

Observations on the application of EPI cluster survey methods for estimating disease incidence

Rothenberg, R. B.; Lobanov, A.; Singh, K. B.; Stroh, G.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1985 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
The present study attempted to assess the incidence of target diseases of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (poliomyelitis, tetanus, measles, pertussis, neonatal tetanus, diphtheria), using cluster samples and a household interview form. The results suggest that this method can indeed serve to estimate the incidence of these diseases with reasonable precision and may also be used to demonstrate reduction in incidence for the more common diseases. Analysis of 37 surveys for poliomyelitis and neonatal tetanus in India revealed a relative uniformity in the design effect (i.e., the ratio of the variance for the cluster estimate to the variance for the binomial estimate) for diseases with low incidence and prevalence. Diseases with higher prevalence tend to have a larger design effect, which may be indicative of the epidemic and “clustered” nature of the disease. A large design effect, therefore, does not necessarily indicate a need for a larger sample size, particularly if precision is acceptable. There is no one single design that is ideal for all surveys of disease incidence and decisions must be made in the light of local conditions and available resources.

Changes in ascertainment of Hib and its influence on the estimation of disease incidence in the United Kingdom

LADHANI, S.; SLACK, M. P.; HEATH, P. T.; RAMSAY, M. E.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
Enhanced surveillance for Hib infection, initially covering Wales and five English regions, began in 1990 and in 1995 was extended to the whole of England and Wales. To determine whether changes in the ascertainment of Haemophilus influenzae may have affected estimates of Hib disease incidence, data from January 1990 to December 2003 were analysed. A total of 8887 and 4020 (45%) cases of H. influenzae and Hib respectively were reported. The proportion of isolates that were serotyped increased over time, and therefore reported incidence may have underestimated the true incidence in the early years of the study. Adjusting for this under-ascertainment, the incidence in children aged <5 years declined from a peak of 28·3/100 000 in 1991 to 0·97/100 000 in 1998 and increased to 3·8/100 000 in 2003. Following the implementation of universal vaccination a dramatic decline in the true incidence of invasive Hib disease occurred. The observation of the subsequent resurgence was real but the highest incidence reached was 85% below the corrected incidence in the pre-vaccine era. Continued high-quality surveillance is needed in order to accurately monitor and detect changes in disease incidence.

Regional Differences in the Association Between Land Cover and West Nile Virus Disease Incidence in Humans in the United States

Bowden, Sarah E.; Magori, Krisztian; Drake, John M.
Fonte: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Publicador: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/02/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
West Nile virus (WNV) is generally considered to be an urban pathogen in the United States, but studies associating land cover and disease incidence, seroprevalence, or infection rate in humans, birds, domesticated and wild mammals, and mosquitoes report varying and sometimes contradictory results at an array of spatial extents. Human infection can provide insight about basic transmission activity; therefore, we analyzed data on the incidence of WNV disease in humans to obtain a comprehensive picture of how human disease and land cover type are associated across the United States. Human WNV disease incidence in Northeastern regions was positively associated with urban land covers, whereas incidence in the Western United States was positively associated with agricultural land covers. We suggest that these regional associations are explained by the geographic distributions of prominent WNV vectors: Culex pipiens complex (including Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus) in the Northeast and Cx. tarsalis in the Western United States.

Improving the Performance of Outbreak Detection Algorithms by Classifying the Levels of Disease Incidence

Zhang, Honglong; Lai, Shengjie; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Dan; Zhou, Dinglun; Lan, Yajia; Buckeridge, David L.; Li, Zhongjie; Yang, Weizhong
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/08/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
We evaluated a novel strategy to improve the performance of outbreak detection algorithms, namely setting the alerting threshold separately in each region according to the disease incidence in that region. By using data on hand, foot and mouth disease in Shandong province, China, we evaluated the impact of disease incidence on the performance of outbreak detection algorithms (EARS-C1, C2 and C3). Compared to applying the same algorithm and threshold to the whole region, setting the optimal threshold in each region according to the level of disease incidence (i.e., high, middle, and low) enhanced sensitivity (C1: from 94.4% to 99.1%, C2: from 93.5% to 95.4%, C3: from 91.7% to 95.4%) and reduced the number of alert signals (the percentage of reduction is C1∶4.3%, C2∶11.9%, C3∶10.3%). Our findings illustrate a general method for improving the accuracy of detection algorithms that is potentially applicable broadly to other diseases and regions.

Antibiotics in Early Life Alter the Gut Microbiome and Increase Disease Incidence in a Spontaneous Mouse Model of Autoimmune Insulin-Dependent Diabetes

Candon, Sophie; Perez-Arroyo, Alicia; Marquet, Cindy; Valette, Fabrice; Foray, Anne-Perrine; Pelletier, Benjamin; Milani, Cristian; Ventura, Marco; Bach, Jean-François; Chatenoud, Lucienne
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/05/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
Insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes is a prototypic autoimmune disease whose incidence steadily increased over the past decades in industrialized countries. Recent evidence suggests the importance of the gut microbiota to explain this trend. Here, non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice that spontaneously develop autoimmune type 1 diabetes were treated with different antibiotics to explore the influence of a targeted intestinal dysbiosis in the progression of the disease. A mixture of wide spectrum antibiotics (i.e. streptomycin, colistin and ampicillin) or vancomycin alone were administered orally from the moment of conception, treating breeding pairs, and during the postnatal and adult life until the end of follow-up at 40 weeks. Diabetes incidence significantly and similarly increased in male mice following treatment with these two antibiotic regimens. In NOD females a slight yet not significant trend towards an increase in disease incidence was observed. Changes in gut microbiota composition were assessed by sequencing the V3 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Administration of the antibiotic mixture resulted in near complete ablation of the gut microbiota. Vancomycin treatment led to increased Escherichia, Lactobacillus and Sutterella genera and decreased members of the Clostridiales order and Lachnospiraceae...

Floating Row Covers for the Exclusion of Virus Vectors and the Effect on Disease Incidence and Yield of Cantaloupe

Perring, Thomas M.; Royalty, Reed N.; Farrar, Charles A.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.92%
The effects of gloating row covers on aphid and whitefly densities in cantaloupe, Cucumis melo L. and the associated virus disease incidence and cantaloupe yield were evaluated. Reemay, Kimberly Farms Row Cover, and Agryl covers prevented aphids from feeding and delayed symptom expression of the spring viruses, zucchini yellow mosaic virus and watermelon mosaic virus 2. When weeds were controlled under the covers in spring plantings, there were significantly higher yields from plants in the covered plots. In fall plantings, Reemay prevented sweetpotato whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), from feeding on the plants and this delayed symptom expression of disease caused by lettuce infectious yellows virus. Despite this delay, yields were not different probably because reduced light under the covers was compounded by low light conditions in late September and early October, offsetting any advantage from the delay in disease incidence. Further studies suggested that covers should be removed during the mid-vegetative period in the fall and during perfect flowering in the spring to maximize yields.

Altering Transplantation Time to Avoid Periods of High Temperature Can Efficiently Reduce Bacterial Wilt Disease Incidence with Tomato

Wei, Zhong; Huang, Jian-Feng; Hu, Jie; Gu, Yi-An; Yang, Chun-Lan; Mei, Xin-Lan; Shen, Qi-Rong; Xu, Yang-Chun; Friman, Ville-Petri
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
Tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum bacterium is a severe problem in Southern China, where relatively high environmental temperatures commonly prevails during the crop seasons. Previous research has indicated that bacterial wilt disease incidence generally increases during the warm months of summer leading to reduced tomato yield. Moreover, the efficacy of bio-organic fertilizers (BOFs)–organic compost fortified with pathogen-suppressive bacteria—is often lost during the periods of high environmental temperatures. Here we studied if the disease incidence could be reduced and the BOF performance enhanced by simply preponing and postponing the traditional seedling transplantation times to avoid tomato plant development during periods of high environmental temperature. To this end, a continuous, two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of BOF in two traditional (late-spring [LS] and early-autumn [EA]) and two alternative (early-spring [ES] and late-autumn [LA]) crop seasons. We found that changing the transplantation times reduced the mean disease incidence from 33.9% (LS) and 54.7% (EA) to 11.1% (ES) and 7.1% (LA), respectively. Reduction in disease incidence correlated with the reduction in R. Solanacearum pathogen density in the tomato plant rhizosphere and stem base. Applying BOF during alternative transplantation treatments improved biocontrol efficiency from 43.4% (LS) and 3.1% (EA) to 67.4% (ES) and 64.8% (LA). On average...

Periostite metacarpiana dorsal: incidência e fatores pré-disponentes; Dorsal metacarpal disease: incidence and predisposing factors

Oliveira, Flávio Gomes de; Brass, Karin Erica; De La Corte, Flávio Desessards; Silva, José Henrique Souza da; Silva, Carlos Antonio Mondino
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2006 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
Forty two 2-year-old thoroughbreds were examined clinically at intervals of 15 days during their training for the first race to determine the incidence and the predisposing factors of dorsal metacarpal disease. During the first year 25 horses were followed during 2 months and in the second year the follow up was done for 4 months in 17 . Horses' data like gender, average speed, speed exercise work and trainer were also collected. Dorsal metacarpal disease was diagnosed in 28% and 70,6% of the 2 year-old thoroughbreds in the first and second year of the study, respectively. Total incidence was 45%. The incidence and average speed was not affected by gender. The average speed achieved by affected and none affected horses remained between 16 and 18m/s. On 500 and 700m speed exercise, the average speed of affected horses was higher than of none affected ones (p<0,05). Ten out of 19 horses showed dorsal metacarpal disease signs at the distance of 700m. There was significant difference between trainers regarding the incidence of dorsal metacarpal disease and average speed of their horses. 2-year-olds under care of trainers whose horses had the highest incidence o dorsal metacarpal disease also were the fastest one's. Therefore, fast speed associated with longer distances (700m) and trainer are factors that predispose young horses to dorsal metacarpal disease.; Quarenta e dois potros Puro Sangue de Corrida...

The effect of meteorological variables on the transmission of hand, foot and mouth disease in four major cities of Shanxi province, China: a time series data analysis (2009-2013)

Wei, J.; Hansen, A.; Liu, Q.; Sun, Y.; Weinstein, P.; Bi, P.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
Increased incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has been recognized as a critical challenge to communicable disease control and public health response. This study aimed to quantify the association between climate variation and notified cases of HFMD in selected cities of Shanxi Province, and to provide evidence for disease control and prevention. Meteorological variables and HFMD cases data in 4 major cities (Datong, Taiyuan, Changzhi and Yuncheng) of Shanxi province, China, were obtained from the China Meteorology Administration and China CDC respectively over the period 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2013. Correlations analyses and Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) models were used to identify and quantify the relationship between the meteorological variables and HFMD. HFMD incidence varied seasonally with the majority of cases in the 4 cities occurring from May to July. Temperatures could play important roles in the incidence of HFMD in these regions. The SARIMA models indicate that a 1° C rise in average, maximum and minimum temperatures may lead to a similar relative increase in the number of cases in the 4 cities. The lag times for the effects of temperatures were identified in Taiyuan, Changzhi and Yuncheng. The numbers of cases were positively associated with average and minimum temperatures at a lag of 1 week in Taiyuan...

Invasive pneumococcal disease in the Australian Capital Territory and Queanbeyan region: Do high infant rates reflect more disease or better detection?

Andresen, D; Collignon, Peter
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
Objective: To describe the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and Queanbeyan region prior to the introduction of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines. Methodology: Residents with sterile site isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from 1998 to 2000 were identified from a prospective bacteraemia surveillance project involving all ACT public hospitals, supplemented by retrospective laboratory-based detection of other sterile site isolates. Results: Incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease was 15.2 cases per 105 per year, and 193.4 per 105 per year in infants under 2 years. Primary bacteraemia was significantly more common in infants and young children than in older subjects. Reduced penicillin susceptibility was observed in 9.6% of isolates, and no high-level penicillin resistance was observed. Conclusions: Infants in the ACT and Queanbeyan have a higher invasive pneumococcal disease incidence than similar populations worldwide. Better detection is the most likely explanation. This population would be ideal for studies of the 'real life' effectiveness of infant conjugate vaccination.

Diferentes manejos de irrigação de adubação no progresso da ferrugem do cafeeiro

Barbosa Junior, Mauro Peraro
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Lavras; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Agronomia/Fitopatologia; UFLA; brasil; Departamento de Fitopatologia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Lavras; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Agronomia/Fitopatologia; UFLA; brasil; Departamento de Fitopatologia
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em 18/12/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
Rust is an important disease for coffee. Its occurrence affects nutritional balance and water supply to plants. In certain cases, irrigation can impart greater resistance to the host. However, a provided microclimate can increase the progress rate of the disease. Poor or unbalanced mineral nutrition may predispose plants to fungus infection. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of rust in coffee plantations with different irrigation and fertilization managements. The study was conducted with adult coffee of cultivar MGS Travessia, in an experimental area of the Department of Agriculture of the Universidade Federal de Lavras, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Disease ratings were elaborated from March of 2012 to November of 2014. The experimental design was a completely randomized block design, with twelve treatments (3 fertilization managements) x (4 drip irrigated managements) and three replicates, in a total of 36 installments. The results for the average rate of disease incidence was graphically plotted in a disease progress curve for rust incidence (AACPDIF). We observed higher AACPDIF values (P<0.05) in no irrigation (NI) and treatment with suspended irrigation for 70 days (I70) throughout the study period. Plants that have suffered greater water stress were more susceptible to infection.; A ferrugem é uma das principais doenças do cafeeiro...

Spatial variability of disease incidence and mortality in the sea fan Gorgonia ventalina in Puerto Rico (Alcyonacea: Goorgoniidae)

Zuluaga-Montero,Anabella; M. Sabat,Alberto
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
Populations of the common sea fan (Gorgonia ventalina) were decimated by an aspergillosis outbreak throughout the Caribbean two decades ago. Since then, aspergillosis has been considered as the principal cause of mortality in sea fans. However, prevalence and presumably incidence of this disease have been declining in the Caribbean since the mid 1990s. Incidence indicates new cases of disease in previously healthy colonies, while prevalence indicates percent of diseased colonies at a given sample. Most coral disease studies use prevalence rather than incidence to assess the temporal dynamics of diseases. Nevertheless, conclusions based only on prevalence should be handled carefully to avoid misinterpretation. This study was carried out at six reefs in Eastern Puerto Rico. We monitored a total of 448 colonies to (1) obtain estimates of incidence and prevalence of disease and other types of lesions, and (2) to determine causes of sea fan mortality plus their spatial and temporal variation. Three transects (10x1m) were haphazardly placed at each study site. At each transect, every colony was numbered and photographed and its height measured to the nearest cm. Transects were monitored at six months intervals and health status of the colonies was recorded. Also...

Coeliac disease: clinical features in adult populations

Fernández,A.; González,L.; Fuente,J. de la
Fonte: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas Publicador: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2010 ENG
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Introduction: coeliac disease (CD) is a chronic disease of the small intestine, which is caused by gluten intolerance, producing malabsorption of nutrients and vitamins. Clinical manifestations of CD in adults are highly variable, including intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms. The disease may also occur in individuals who are asymptomatic. Objective: our objective is to describe the incidence and clinical manifestations of CD in adults. Material and methods: a retrospective study was carried out in patients diagnosed of CD between January 1990 and December 2008. Diagnosis was based on serologic tests and duodenal biopsy, which were compatible with CD in all of them. Results: sixty eight adult patients were diagnosed of CD in this period. Mean age was 33 (18-65) years and 50 (74%) were women. The clinical manifestations were diarrhoea in 38 (55%), abdominal pain in 27 (40%), loss of weight in 15 (22%), dyspepsia in 13 (19%). Analytical results showed a slight increase of transaminases in 26 (38%), ferropenic anaemia in 33 (48.5%) cases, sub-clinical hypothyroidism in 3 (4.5%) patients, and folic acid deficiency in 16 (23.5%) cases. Almost all patients were diagnosed between 2000 and 2008: 60 (87%). Population-based incidence of CD in adults had increased from 0.7-2/100...