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Aderência de crianças e adolescentes que vivem com deficiências físicas em relação a personagem virtual com deficiência física; Adherence of children and adolescents living with disabilities regarding to an avatar with physical disabilities

Garcia, Paulo de Figueiredo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/05/2014 PT
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Segundo dados oficiais, há no Brasil 45 milhões de pessoas com alguma deficiência, o que corresponde a 23,5 por cento da população, este número tem crescido devido a diversos fatores, entre eles ao aumento da morbidade que acarretam deficiências motoras e cognitivas. À luz deste quadro abordam-se as possibilidades de recursos e serviços desenvolvidos para proporcionar ou aumentar habilidades funcionais de indivíduos com deficiência, com o objetivo de promover a vida independente e a inclusão, definidos como Tecnologia Assistiva. Espera-se que estes novos aplicativos contribuam na desestigmatização da deficiência no âmbito da sociedade, contribuindo para que a coletividade perceba o deficiente em toda sua potencialidade. Objetivo: analisar a aderência de crianças e adolescentes com deficiências físicas em relação a personagem virtual com deficiência física. Método: trata-se de um estudo transversal aninhado ao desenvolvimento e utilização de um aplicativo na forma de jogo eletrônico a ser instalado em plataforma IOS para telefones celulares. População: 29 crianças e adolescentes entre seis e dezoito anos de idade, cadeirantes devido a lesões dos sistemas músculo-esquelético, portadores da Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne (DMD)...

A inclusão de pessoas com deficiência no mercado de trabalho : um estudo de caso; Inclusion of people with disabilities in the labor market : a case study

Leandro Cássio Rodrigues
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/12/2011 PT
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O presente trabalho teve por objetivo a análise do processo de inclusão de pessoas com deficiência no mercado de trabalho a partir de um estudo de caso. O estudo discutiu a tensa relação entre trabalho globalizado, produtividade e algumas concepções que fazem parte do arcabouço teórico de grande parte dos estudos produzidos atualmente, como a concepção de "Gestão da Diversidade" e de "inclusão". O objetivo geral foi compreender as transformações ocorridas no mundo do trabalho (como é entendido nos tempos atuais) e os caminhos possíveis para a inserção de pessoas com deficiência nas empresas. Os objetivos específicos foram: Compreender as transformações no mundo do trabalho atual e as possibilidades para a inclusão de pessoas com deficiência no mesmo; Estudar o papel das políticas públicas nesse processo; Conhecer as percepções de gestores sobre a inclusão de pessoas com deficiência no mercado de trabalho, Conhecer as percepções de pessoas com deficiência sobre a sua participação na empresa. Participaram duas empresas que estão contratando pessoas com deficiência, sendo utilizados dois roteiros norteadores das entrevistas, um aplicado às pessoas com deficiência e outro aos gestores (chefes) imediatos delas. Os dados qualitativos (falas dos sujeitos) foram coletados durante as entrevistas por meio de gravação e registro escrito elaborado pelo entrevistador. A análise e interpretação foram realizadas a partir da articulação da revisão bibliográfica com os dados coletados...

Auto-representação de estudantes com deficiência intelectual: a imagem de si na escola pública regular em Goiânia; Self-representation of students with intellectual disabilities: the image of himself in the regular public school in Goiânia

Faria, Raclene Ataide de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Sociologia (FCS); Faculdade de Ciências Sociais - FCS (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Sociologia (FCS); Faculdade de Ciências Sociais - FCS (RG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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The 20th century was characterized by triggering debates about human rights and citizenship. The offset of the claims of the macrstructural plan for the identity-oriented for the emergence of new social movements and the mobilization for the rights of persons with disabilities to live in segregated and not discriminatory environments. These mobilizations is the paradigm of inclusive education, subject and object of a few conventions, international agreements, of "review" of the Brazilian educational legislation, the extension of theoretical productions and re/organization of school classes. This process intensified in the second half of the year 1990, has caused significant changes in life and social relations of persons with disabilities, since questions and forge the breakup of dichotomous division between special education and regular education and allows a wider social coexistence. With the goal of realizing the auto representações that adolescents with intellectual disabilities have of themselves, formed a research group with students of cycle III in municipal schools in Goiânia. The choice of the subject of the research is the result of the contradiction that exists between the emergence of inclusive paradigm and the process of gene silencing of people with intellectual disabilities...

How friendship is understood in adults with intellectual disabilities across three life stages.

Sheridan, Paula
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis; all_ul_research; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
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non-peer-reviewed; Background Community participation is a major goal for all disabled people, but one which has proven difficult for adults with intellectual disabilities (HSE 2011). With a strong history of isolation and current change in policy towards community integration, research shows social networks for adults with intellectual disabilities has been restricted. The experience of friendship has long been recognised as an important element in a satisfying lifestyle for people with intellectual disabilities (Knox and Hickson 2001). Objectives The purpose of this study was to look at how adults with Intellectual disabilities create lasting friendships at home and in the community. It aimed to do this by investigating how friendship is understood in adults with intellectual disabilities across three life stages using Levinson’s developmental theory. Methods This is a qualitative study. Six participants with intellectual disabilities were interviewed using semi structured interviews. The interviews were transcribed and the data was analysed thematically. Results Two categories emerged from the data. (1) Elements that shape friendship. Participants discussed how family, services, community and housing impact on friendships. (2) The meaning of friendship. Participants’ defined friendship by the amount of time spent with people and by describing different relationships they had. The importance of community participation was identified by a number of participants in creating friendships. Conclusion The preliminary findings suggest where people live...

Escaping Stigma and Neglect : People with Disabilities in Sierra Leone

Ovadiya, Mirey; Zampaglione, Giuseppe
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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The objective of this policy note on people with disabilities in Sierra Leone is to: (i) provide a diagnosis on the scale and nature of the problem; (ii) analyze current public policies in support of people with disabilities; (iii) review public and private programs; and (iv) propose some policy options to policy makers and development partners. This note contains five chapters, the first of which is this introduction. Chapter two summarizes the diagnosis of the scale and nature of the people with disabilities issue by examining the prevalence, types, and causes of disability and by discussing the socioeconomic profiles of people with disabilities, particularly their access to health, education, and social protection services. Chapter three includes an analysis of current public policies and of the legal and institutional framework for the protection and promotion of the rights of people with disabilities in Sierra Leone. Chapter four provides an overview of the current public and private programs to support people with disabilities...

Education for All : Including Children with Disabilities

Peters, Susan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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An estimated 40 million of the 115 million children out of school have disabilities. The vast majority of these children have moderate impairments that are often not visible or easily diagnosed. Disabled children include those with learning difficulties, speech difficulties, physical, cognitive, sensory and emotional difficulties. Children with disabilities are likely to have never attended school. A 1991 report by the UN Rapporteur on Human Rights and Disabilities found that at least one in ten persons in the majority of countries has a physical, cognitive, or sensory (deaf/blind) impairment. Fewer than 5 percent are believed to reach the "Education For All" goal of primary school completion. This number may be growing due to global conditions of increasing poverty, armed conflict, child labor practices, violence and abuse, and HIV/AIDS. Because these children are part of a family unit, it is estimated that at least 25 percent of the world population is directly affected by the presence of disability.

Accessibility of Urban Transport for People with Disabilities and Limited Mobility : Lessons from East Asia and the Pacific

Babinard, Julie; Wang, Wei; Bennett, Christopher R.; Mehndiratta, Shomik
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Accessibility of transport is not always a priority in transport planning and implementation. There can be barriers in the physical environment and delivery of services that render transport inaccessible. The principle of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CPRD) brings new momentum to ensuring accessibility in the delivery of transport infrastructure and services. The CRPD recognizes that obstacles and barriers to indoor and outdoor public facilities and buildings and the physical environment should be removed to ensure equal access by people with disabilities and all members of society. This note summarizes the analysis done of the accessibility features of recent transport projects in the East Asia and Pacific (EAP) region. It seeks to highlight good practice in national laws, policies and project implementation to improve the welfare of transport users across projects. The overarching objective is to suggest how to improve the implementation of accessibility features in transport projects for people with disabilities and people with limited mobility. Mobility and access requirements of people with disabilities should be considered by planning and designing barrier- free transport systems. This implies an understanding and identification of the circumstances that create barriers for people with disabilities. Many countries have made progress in reducing barriers in the transport environment...

Optimization Models for Selecting Bus Stops for Accessibility Improvements for People with Disabilities

Wu, Wanyang
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Bus stops are key links in the journeys of transit patrons with disabilities. Inaccessible bus stops prevent people with disabilities from using fixed-route bus services, thus limiting their mobility. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 prescribes the minimum requirements for bus stop accessibility by riders with disabilities. Due to limited budgets, transit agencies can only select a limited number of bus stop locations for ADA improvements annually. These locations should preferably be selected such that they maximize the overall benefits to patrons with disabilities. In addition, transit agencies may also choose to implement the universal design paradigm, which involves higher design standards than current ADA requirements and can provide amenities that are useful for all riders, like shelters and lighting. Many factors can affect the decision to improve a bus stop, including rider-based aspects like the number of riders with disabilities, total ridership, customer complaints, accidents, deployment costs, as well as locational aspects like the location of employment centers, schools, shopping areas, and so on. These interlacing factors make it difficult to identify optimum improvement locations without the aid of an optimization model. This dissertation proposes two integer programming models to help identify a priority list of bus stops for accessibility improvements. The first is a binary integer programming model designed to identify bus stops that need improvements to meet the minimum ADA requirements. The second involves a multi-objective nonlinear mixed integer programming model that attempts to achieve an optimal compromise among the two accessibility design standards. Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were used extensively to both prepare the model input and examine the model output. An analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to combine all of the factors affecting the benefits to patrons with disabilities. An extensive sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the reasonableness of the model outputs in response to changes in model constraints. Based on a case study using data from Broward County Transit (BCT) in Florida...

A Study of the Relationship Between Educational Placment and the Achievement of Urban Low Socioeconomic Hispanic Middle School Students With and Without Specific Learning Disabilities

Barrocas, Lisa A
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Public schools traditionally have been held accountable for educating the majority of the nation’s school children, and through the years, these schools have been evaluated in a variety of ways. Currently, evaluation measures for accountability purposes consist solely of standardized test scores. In the past, only test scores of general education students were analyzed. Laws governing the education of students with disabilities, however, have extended accountability measures not only to include those students, but to report their scores in a disaggregated form (No Child Left Behind Act, 2002). The recent emphasis on accountability and compliance has resulted in the need for schools to carefully examine how programs, services, and policies impact student achievement (Bowers & Figgers, 2003). Standard-based school reform and accountability systems have raised expectations about student learning outcomes for all students, including those with disabilities and minority students. Yet, overall, racial/ethnic minority students are performing well below their White non-Hispanic peers in most academic areas. Additionally, with respect to special education, there exists an enduring problem of disproportionate representation of racial/ethnic minority students (National Research Council...

Factors influencing the oral health of adults with physical and intellectual disabilities.

Pradhan, Archana
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008
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Background: People with physical and intellectual disabilities have varying health needs and living arrangements. They depend on their carers for their daily oral hygiene care. Objectives: 1. To describe the dental practices and oral health among people aged 18–44 years with physical and intellectual disabilities and 2. To determine if residential setting is associated with care recipients’ oral health status, or if there are other factors, which if modified, could improve the oral health of adults with physical and intellectual disabilities. Methods: Cross-sectional mailed questionnaire survey (February 2005 – June 2006) of carers of adults with physical and intellectual disabilities (18–44 years) living in South Australia in three settings: family home; community housing; and institutions, followed by oral examinations of care recipients by trained examiners at recalls or new appointments. Decayed (D), missing (M) and filled (F) teeth (DMFT), tooth wear, oral hygiene and gingival status were recorded. Results: Carers completed the questionnaire for 485 adults, a yield of 37.9%, of which 267 care recipients were examined (completion rate = 55.1%). Some 47.4% of the care recipients lived in family homes, 31.4% in community housing and 21.2% in institutions. Some 39.3% of care recipients had their teeth brushed once a day or less...

Support needs assessment for individuals with intellectual disabilities : an investigation of the nature of the support needs construct and disability factors that impact on support needs.

Harries, Julia Anne
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2009
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Individualised needs based approaches are increasingly being utilised to fund disability support services. Frequently, standardised assessments such as adaptive behaviour scales and, more recently, measures of support needs are used for determining level of need. The aim of this thesis is to understand the relationship between adaptive behaviours and support needs and to investigate factors that impact functional capacity and need for supports for individuals with an intellectual disability. Although a conceptually attractive approach to assessment, concern exists regarding the adequacy of the theoretical framework for guiding the development of support needs instruments. Though possessing theoretical similarities, adaptive behaviour and support needs scales are considered to measure different, albeit related constructs, prompting investigation into the nature of the relationship and the structure of the support needs construct. Accordingly, in Study 1 the Supports Intensity Scale (SIS), the Adaptive Behaviour Scale–Residential and Community (ABS-RC:2), and the Inventory for Client and Agency Planning (ICAP) were used to examine this relationship (N = 80). Dimensionality of the SIS (Section 1) was examined in reference to the three areas of conceptual...

Making Disability Work: Increasing Workforce Participation of People with Disabilities

Gunasegaran, Sivaranjaniy
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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This report is primarily focused with the low employment rates of people with a disability in Australia. According to latest available data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, only 54 per cent of people with a disability are in the workforce compared to 83 per cent of people with no disabilities.1 Amongst the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries too, Australia has performed poorly in terms of employment rates for people with disabilities. In 2010, it was ranked 21 out of 29 countries for employment rates for people with a disability. These data are causes for concern. With Australia's ratification of United Nation's Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2008, there is now a heightened responsibility for it to ensure employment and equal participation of people with a disability in the labour force. Moreover, employment of people with disabilities ensures their social inclusion and economic independence in society. Australia as a whole would benefit from increasing the employment rates of people with disabilities economically. This report began with an analysis of current policies and programs in place to increase the employment rates of people with disabilities. While the Disability Employment Services and reforms to Disability Support Pension are a welcome move to get more people with disabilities into the workforce...

Accessing the airways: special assistance measures for people with disabilities and their carers

Kailasam, Punitha
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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This research report explores the levels of assistance available for people with disabilities at Australian airports. This is achieved by analyzing the legislative acts and disability assistance systems at major international airports around the world and a simultaneous examination the current codification and practices at Australian airports. One of the reasons that prompted this study is the recent media attention that has been given to the negative experiences of people with disabilities at Australian airports. For example, in November 2009, Kurt Feamley, who crawled the Kokoda Track in New Guinea ended up doing the same through a Brisbane airport terminal and to a restroom after Jetstar staff refused to allow him to use his own wheelchair 1 • In Australia, airlines have contractual and statutory obligations to provide services to people with disabilities. However, there is no mandatory regulation or code of practice for the aviation industry to provide services to people with disabilities in Australia. Further, it should be noted that the aviation industry has to comply with provisions from bodies such as Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA), Australian Building Codes Board (ABCB) in Australian and International Aviation Transport Authority (lATA) and International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) internationally. These laws are intended to cater to the needs of people with disabilities and their carers in accessing air travel. However...

Children living with disabilities: the case for early intervention

Dobson, Niamh
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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It is vital that children with a disability have their condition recognised early and subsequently receive access to high quality early intervention (EI) services. Research shows that EI results in significant benefits and sustainable outcomes for these children. This report seeks to examine how the Federal government can best serve the needs of children with disabilities and their families through the provision and funding of EI services. This report focuses on an expansion of the Helping Children with Autism (HCWA) package as a possible Commonwealth government funding model, to include children who are deaf or hearing impaired; blind or visually impaired; or who have Cerebral Palsy (CP) or Down Syndrome (DS). Families of children with disabilities are at greater risk of a number of social and psychological stresses, including mental and physical health problems, marital problems and divorce, poor housing and increased expenses coupled with reduced income. Additionally, it is estimated that bringing up a disabled child cost three times that of bringing up a non-disabled child. These families require additional government assistance to help with the challenges they face. The argument for allocating disability funds to assist in accessing EI services can be summarised under four key pillars: ethical...

Offenders as victims: coping with non-physical disabilities in the criminal justice system.

Mei, Anna Lee Li
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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This report argues that the current paradigm of criminal justice is not conducive to the rehabilitation and treatment of people with non-physical disabilities, a general term referring to people with disabilities associated with mental and intellectual impairments. In order to prevent people with non-physical disabilities from entering the criminal justice system, or divert those who enter it, the criminal justice system and human services providers (namely, the health and social services) must develop an integrated approach for the early identification and appropriate treatment for them. Not only do the level of integration between human service providers and the criminal justice system need to improve, resources should be directed to build the overall capacity within these institutions and the wider community to effectively deal with them. Research has shown that persons with non-physical disabilities are over-represented in the criminal justice system. The complexities in conceptualising and assessing people with nonphysical disabilities in the clinical realm present major challenges to identifying them within the criminal justice system, impacting on the ability to obtain a precise understanding on the prevalence of offenders with non-physical disabilities. Consequently...

Insider Perspectives: Disability Identity Formation of Two Teachers with Disabilities

McNeely, MICHAEL
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
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Abstract The purpose of this study is to provide a descriptive account of the experiences of two teachers with disabilities in order to report how disability influences them both personally and professionally. My research questions were as follows. Firstly, how do participants understand themselves as adults, adults with disabilities, and as adults with disabilities who are teachers? Secondly, how does disability contribute to their pedagogy and how do their experiences as educators contribute to their understanding of disability? Thirdly, for these teachers with disabilities, what is the nature of their relationships in both educational and workplace contexts? Fourthly, what is their perspective on accommodations? Finally, what is their advice to aspiring teachers who have disabilities, including myself? I conducted interviews that addressed these research concerns with two participants, both experienced teachers with self-identified disabilities. For data analysis, I used the method of constant comparison to create codes and find themes within the data collected from the interview, based on disability identity and self-advocacy theories. It is discussed that individuals with disabilities face unique identity-related challenges aside from the physical and mental aspects of having a disability. A key finding is that participants were shaped by prior experiences in childhood and in the education system that were related to their disability which now influence their teaching. Other findings include: their independence...

Enabling Healthier Living through Group Empowerment: A Critical Ethnographic Study of Adolescents with Disabilities in the Urban Slums of North India

Gulati, SONIA
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 10057669 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
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Given the importance placed on participation and empowerment in global health initiatives, the perspective of young people with disabilities has emerged as a vital field of study. This critical ethnographic study gained insight into the perspectives of adolescents with disabilities aged 12 to 18 years who were affiliated with a community-based rehabilitation program in the urban slums of North India. The purpose of this research was to highlight the collective voices of adolescents with disabilities about their rehabilitation challenges, to explore how the culture influenced the rehabilitation challenges faced by adolescents, and to support collaborative work among adolescents with and without disabilities that would inform organizational activities. Fieldwork was conducted from January to May 2005 and October 2006 to March 2007 with 21 adolescents with disabilities, 11 adolescents without disability, and 10 community-based rehabilitation team members. Multiple data collection methods were utilized to ensure that participants could comfortably express their views. A conceptual framework called the ‘Adolescent Group Empowerment Pyramid’ was developed that illustrates one process for empowering adolescents with disabilities and their peers without disabilities within a community setting. Group empowerment involves adolescents with disabilities working towards assuming greater ownership over their rehabilitation while collaborating with their peers. The ‘group’ concept provided the foundation for the framework because adolescents viewed the group setting as enjoyable and effective. Three areas associated with meaningful group empowerment included: group participation...

Patterns of Workplace Support: An Exploration of the Experiences of Workers with Mental Health Disabilities

Luong, Dorothy
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
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Purpose: To evaluate differences in perceived workplace social support for different disability groups, and to better understand the support experiences of persons with mental health disabilities. Methods: A sequential mixed methods design was used. Phase I involved the analysis of an existing dataset to compare perceived social support scores between participants with different disabilities. Phase II, rooted in the phenomenology tradition, involved interviews with workers with mental health disabilities. Triangulation of methods was done in the analysis phase by comparing participant interviews with their corresponding support scores. Results: Phase I - No significant differences were found between participants with orthopaedic and emotional disabilities regarding their total perceived social support score, or support scores according to type (e.g. informational) or source (e.g. supervisor) of support; however, trends suggested that participants with emotional disabilities had higher perceived support scores for friends/family support and lower perceived support scores for appraisal support. Regression models developed from the demographic variables did not predict the perceived amount of social support. Phase II – 9 theme clusters concerning the role of supervisors...

Connecting the dots: A guide to finding services for people with disabilities in Delaware

Mann, Tracy L.; Phillips, Ann
Fonte: Center for Disabilities Studies Publicador: Center for Disabilities Studies
Tipo: Outros
EN_US
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The purpose of this booklet is to help anyone with a newly diagnosed disability to find supports and services. This guide is meant to help you identify the first steps to take to find the supports and services you and your family members may need.; This project was partially funded by the Administration on Developmental Disabilities of the Administration for Children and Families in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Barriers to advocacy and litigation in the equality courts for persons with disabilities

Holness,W; Rule,S
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
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The effective implementation of the Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act4 of 2000 (PEPUDA) and the fulfilment of the South African state's obligations in terms of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) are dependent on two fundamental tools, advocacy and litigation. This article discusses the outcome of three cases in the Equality Courts and how these cases promote accessibility and access to justice for persons with disabilities. The authors then consider the impact of CREATE, a KwaZulu-Natal NGO's advocacy initiatives to promote the rights of persons with disabilities and the utilisation of the Equality Court to realise those rights. Participants of ten workshops in KwaZulu-Natal identified three barriers to access to justice in accessing the Equality Courts. Firstly, some Equality Courts are geographically (and financially) inaccessible. Secondly, the negative and insensitive attitudes of front-line workers impact on the ability of persons with disabilities to bring equality claims to and access the services of the Equality Court. These barriers constitute discrimination and flout articles 9 and 13 of the CRPD, which require the provision of support for persons with disabilities to access the justice system and the promotion of accessibility to the physical environment...