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Assessment of Pharmaceutical Equivalence: Difference Test or Equivalence Test?

Lourenço, Felipe Rebello; Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli
Fonte: COLEGIO FARMACEUTICOS PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES; LA PLATA Publicador: COLEGIO FARMACEUTICOS PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES; LA PLATA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
Pharmaceutical equivalence is an important step towards the confirmation of similarity and Interchangeability among pharmaceutical products, particularly regarding those that win not be tested for bioequivalence. The aim of this paper is to compare traditional difference testing to two one-side equivalence tests in the assessment of pharmaceutical equivalence, by means of equivalence studies between similar, generic and reference products of acyclovir cream, atropine sulfate injection, meropenem for injection, and metronidazole injection. All tests were performed in accordance with the Brazilian Pharmacopeia or the United States Pharmacopeia. All four possible combinations of results arise in these comparisons of difference testing and equivalence testing. Most of the former did not show significant difference, whereas the latter presented similarity. We concluded that equivalence testing is more appropriate than difference testing, what can make it a useful tool to assess pharmaceutical equivalence in products that will not be tested for bioequivalence.

Avaliação da percepção da diferença de cor entre profissionais da odontologia; Evaluation of color difference perception among different dental personnel

Arakaki, Yuri
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/06/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
Este estudo comparou a percepção da diferença de cor entre profissionais da Odontologia e a influência de cada coordenada na percepção da diferença de cor. O critério de exclusão dos participantes foi a deficiência na visão cromática que foi avaliada através da versão simplificada do teste de Ishihara. Dois homens identificaram incorretamente 1 ou mais pranchas e foram excluídos do estudo. Participaram desta pesquisa 51 pessoas: 20 alunos do último ano de graduação, 20 clínicos gerais e 11 professores. Todas avaliações foram realizadas sob iluminante D65 e em cabine de luz. Neste experimento foram utilizados 1 cartão padrão e 3 conjuntos de cartões. Cada conjunto de cartões foi composto por 1 cartão que apresenta os mesmos valores de L*, a* e b* que o cartão padrão e 6 cartões que apresentavam variações em apenas uma das coordenadas. Solicitamos aos participantes que selecionassem: 1 cartão que não apresentasse diferença de cor em relação ao cartão padrão, 1 cartão cuja diferença de cor em relação ao cartão padrão seria aceitável e 1 cartão cuja diferença de cor seria inaceitável. A análise dos resultados sugere que não houve diferença na percepção da diferença de cor entre homens e mulheres e entre alunos de graduação...

Influência de três iluminantes e da rugosidade superficial de dentes artificiais de resina composta na percepção da diferença cor entre profissionais da Odontologia; Influence of three illuminants (D65, A and F2) and surface roughness of composite resin artificial tooth on the difference color perception among dental professionals

Arakaki, Yuri
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/12/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
Este estudo avaliou a influência de três iluminantes e da diferença na rugosidade superficial de réplicas de dentes artificias na percepção da diferença de cor entre profissionais da Odontologia e verificou se houve variação na opinião de 20 profissionais uma semana após a primeira avaliação. O único critério de exclusão dos participantes foi a deficiência na visão cromática, avaliada através da versão simplificada do teste de Ishihara. Dos 117 profissionais entrevistados, 6 (5,1%) homens e 11 (9,4%) mulheres foram excluídos do estudo, pois identificaram incorretamente 1 ou mais pranchas da versão simplificada do teste de Ishihara. Neste estudo foram utilizados 4 pares de réplicas de dentes artificiais, sendo que cada par foi confeccionado em resina composta nas cores A1, A3, B1 ou B2, porém uma réplica apresentava superfície lisa e a outra, superfície rugosa. Todas as avaliações foram realizadas em cabine de luz sob os iluminantes D65, A e F2. Para cada iluminante, os participantes foram questionados se havia diferença de cor entre as réplicas. Após uma semana, todo o experimento foi repetido por 20 profissionais selecionados aleatoriamente. A análise dos resultados sugeriu que os iluminantes e a diferença na textura superficial influenciaram a percepção da diferença cor entre as réplicas e que após uma semana houve variação na opinião dos observadores.; This study evaluated the influence of three different illuminants and the difference on surface roughness of artificial teeth replica on the color difference perception among dental professionals and if there were variations on 20 professionals opinion 1 week after the first evaluation. The color vision deficiency was the only exclusion criteria used and a screening for color defective vision was conducted by using the simplified version of Ishihara test. Among the 117 professionals interviewed...

Identidade e diferença : impertinências; Identity and difference: improprieties

Silva, Tomaz Tadeu da
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
A questão da identidade e da diferença está no centro de boa parte das discussões educacionais atuais. Nessa discussão, a diferença acaba, em geral, reduzida à identidade. Nesta pequena coleção de afirmações, tento, inspirado sobretudo na filosofia da diferença de Gilles Deleuze, desequilibrar o jogo em favor da diferença.; The question of identity and difference is the center of the current educational debate where, usually, difference is reduced to identity. In this small collection of assertions, I try, inspired mostly by Gilles Deleuze’s philosophy of difference, to shift the balance to the side of difference.

Fibrose cística : avaliação diagnóstica através da diferença de potencial nasal e sua correlação com duas mutações genéticas; Cystic fibrosis diagnostic evaluation through nasal potential difference and its correlation with two genetic mutations

Ronny Tah Yen Ng
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/08/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
A fibrose cística (FC) é uma doença genética autossômica recessiva, resultante da ausência total na proteína CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator), ou de alterações qualitativas ou quantitativas do gene que transcreve esta proteína, em células de diversos órgãos do corpo humano, resultando em inúmeros genótipos e fenótipos desta doença. Em muitos pacientes, o diagnóstico é difícil de ser definido, pelo método clássico de dosagem de sódio e cloro no suor, ou pelo sequenciamento genético, justificando a utilização de novas técnicas de auxílio diagnóstico, como a Diferença de Potencial Nasal (DPN). Este teste proporciona uma forma de avaliação direta e sensível, através do epitélio nasal, do transporte de sódio e cloro das membranas celulares, baseado nas propriedades bioelétricas transepiteliais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se existe diferença dos valores obtidos no exame de DPN em pacientes com FC em comparação com indivíduos controles saudáveis; e verificar se este teste permite diferenciar pacientes com FC das subclasses funcionais mais graves (I, II, III) das subclasses menos graves (IV, V, VI). Foram incluídos no estudo 15 pacientes FC, 10 com mutações mais graves (grupo A) e 5 com mutações menos graves (grupo B)...

Birdman, educação da cultura visual e diferença cultural; Birdman, education, visual culture and cultural difference

SÉRVIO, Pablo Petit Passos
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Artes e Cultura Visual; Linguística, letras e Artes Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Artes e Cultura Visual; Linguística, letras e Artes
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
This study explores and discusses how students from the teacher training program of the Visual Arts School of the Federal University of Goiás relate to the idea of cultural difference taking as reference the video clip Birdman, from Coca-cola. The study articulates three focus: 1) what students understand as cultural difference the phenomenon and the social actors with whom they identify this theme; 2) what values cultural difference has for their lives and for society; 3) what motivates them to discuss - or not - questions about cultural difference based on publicity images and how they would do it. The research promotes a discussion crossing the student s point of views, my own positions and the points of view of various authors (from cultural studies and visual culture education) building an analyses about repertoires, interests, conflicts and ambiguities that orientate such positionings. These focus were achieved through the choice of a qualitative approach guided by the expectation to work deeply the subjects perceptions and interpretations. The methodological procedures chosen to gather the data were individual and focal open interviews. Six students of the program participated on the investigation: two attending the fourth semester of the program...

When Race Displaces: queer/race geographies and the politics of difference

Wong, Emily
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
This thesis explores the spatialities of oppression between individuals involved in activist organizations. Oppression is a concept which has been extensively examined and challenged in feminist and anti-racist geographies. Yet those who practice anti-oppressive politics are still under the influence of those systems, as resistance is also influenced and produced through systems of oppression. This research project draws on the experiences of queer and racialized individuals in order to explore how oppression is enacted within communities which seek to challenge domination and marginalization. Qualitative interviews with participants reveal patterns of oppression and how processes of human differentiation take place within their respective community organizations. Participants’ constructions of identity and community provide insight into the prevalence of the ideal of community, and the ways in which communities may be failing to actualize solidarity across difference. Namely, they discuss how normatively white queer organizations can often struggle with issues of racialization. Conceptualizations of identity are situated within theories of intersectionality and performativity, revealing uneven affective geographies and tensions of identity politics. Using the framework of the politics of difference...

Transmembrane electric potential difference of germ tubes of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi responds to external stimuli

Ayling, S.; Smith, S.; Smith, F.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
Measurements of the electric potential difference across the hyphal wall and the cell membrane were made on external hyphae of three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita, Scutellospora calospora and Glomus coronatum and on germ tubes of Gi. margarita. The values of transmembrane electric potential difference recorded (∼–40 mV) are less negative than those previously reported from hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi closely associated with roots and from filamentous fungi. The external hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi grown in soil had similar values of electric potential difference to those grown in soil-less culture, and to germ tubes. Thermodynamic calculations showed that despite these low values of electric potential difference, efficient high-affinity uptake of phosphate is possible. The transmembrane electric potential difference of germ tubes of Gi. margarita became more negative when plant root extract was added to the medium, showing for the first time that the early stages of interaction between plant and fungus occur via direct effects on the plasma membrane rather than via effects on gene expression. Addition of K⁺ reversibly depolarized the transmembrane electric potential difference of germ tubes of Gi. margarita...

GDF9 and BMP15: species difference and synergistic interactions.

Martin, Georgia Alice
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
GDF9 and BMP15 are two oocyte-secreted proteins which have been shown to be essential for normal mammalian fertility. There are a number of factors which impact their efficiency, including species difference of the proteins, GDF9/BMP15 interactions and the presence of post-translational modifications. However, factors such as species difference and post-translational modifications have yet to be investigated in terms of their effects on GDF9/BMP15 interactions. The aims of this study were to produce well purified human and mouse GDF9 and human BMP15 to test the effects of these factors. We found clear species differences between mouse and human GDF9 in thymidine incorporation in mouse and bovine granulosa cells. However, not only did we find a species difference due to the species of the protein, but also a difference due to the species of the cells on which the proteins were acting. GDF9 and BMP15 were found to interact synergistically on mouse granulosa cells, but not on bovine cells. Human GDF9 was found to be dependent on the presence of BMP15 for bioactivity in both species of cell however, the introduction of mouse-like residues into the human GDF9 sequence was able to produce a protein capable of functioning independent of BMP15 and with even higher bioactivity than wild-type mouse GDF9. Post-translational modifications were also found to have significant effects on synergistic GDF9/BMP15 synergistic interactions. Both GDF9 and BMP15 have previously been shown to be phosphorylated. This appears to be more important to the correct functioning of GDF9. Loss of GDF9 phosphorylation was found not only to decrease its bioactivity but also to decrease its synergistic interactions with BMP15. Phosphorylation was not found to affect BMP15 however; the loss of o-linked glycosylation decreased its ability to synergise with GDF9. To fully assess the implications and applications of this work...

A triangular grid finite-difference model for wind-induced circulation in shallow lakes

McInerney, David John
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2625173 bytes; 68878 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em //2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
In this study, the development and testing of a finite-difference model for wind-induced flow in shallow lakes, and, in particular, a new technique for improving the land--water boundary representation, are documented. The model solves nonlinear, as well as linear, versions of the two-dimensional depth-integrated shallow water equations. Finite-difference methods on rectangular grids are widely used in numerical models of environmental flows. In these models, land--water boundaries are usually approximated by a series of perpendicular line segments, which enable the impermeability condition to be easily implemented. A disadvantage of this approach is that the actual boundary is often poorly approximated, particularly in regions which have complicated coastlines, and, as a result, currents in these regions cannot be accurately predicted. A technique for improving the land--water boundary representation in finite-difference models is introduced. This technique permits the model boundary to contain diagonal line segments, in addition to the vertical and horizontal line segments used in traditional models. The new technique is based on a simple concept and can easily be included in existing finite-difference models. In order to test the new method...

L'intégration de la différence en milieu de travail entre les travailleurs ayant des déficiences ou des incapacités et les travailleurs sans déficience, sans incapacité

Picard, France
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
Un certain nombre d’éléments semblent reliés à la problématique de l’intégration des personnes vivant avec des déficiences ou des incapacités. Parmi ces éléments se retrouvent : la formation, la compensation de l’incapacité, le recrutement de ces personnes et autres. La pertinence de cette thèse repose sur l’intégration de la différence en milieu de travail en ce qui concerne les personnes ayant des déficiences ou des incapacités qui s’inscrit dans les orientations sociales contemporaines et reliées à l’exercice effectif du droit à l’égalité. Le but de cette thèse est de connaître comment se construit l'intégration de la différence en milieu de travail entre les travailleurs ayant des déficiences ou des incapacités et ceux qui n'en n'ont pas. Pour atteindre cet objectif, le modèle du RIPPH/SCCIDIH (1998) portant sur Le Processus De Production Du Handicap a été utilisé. De même, les écrits de Goffman (1973, 1974) sur les interactions de la vie quotidienne, en particulier, ont servi de base pour comprendre ce phénomène. Afin de bien saisir la réalité au quotidien et de comprendre en profondeur l’intégration en tant que processus, il m’a semblé important de suivre une méthodologie qui comprend deux volets : l’observation ethnographique de travailleurs réunis en trois équipes ayant des vocations différentes dans un milieu bancaire pendant une durée de neuf mois et la tenue de quinze entretiens semi-dirigés avec des travailleurs ayant des déficiences ou des incapacités...

De l'école secondaire à aujourd'hui : la différence, les jeunes gais et les nouveaux médias

Ortiz Nunez, Roberto
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
Cette recherche tente de comprendre le rôle de la culture des nouveaux médias (Jenkins, 2006a) dans le processus d'affirmation qui mène au dévoilement de l'orientation sexuelle (aussi nommé « sortie du placard ») des jeunes gais, population souvent perçue en tant que vulnérable. Pour ce faire, une approche interprétative a été choisie ainsi qu'une méthode d'entrevues rétrospectives semi-structurées et axées sur la participation des jeunes gais en ligne, telle qu'abordée par Ito et al. (2010). Suite aux deux entrevues avec chacun des cinq participants, il semble que leur engagement en ligne soit influencé par leurs contextes hors ligne. Les résultats montrent le rôle des nouveaux médias dans la construction identitaire et la sortie du placard des participants, notamment via l'exploration des relations affectives, la création et la gestion de profils et leurs réflexions sur la culture néomédiatique et sur « être gai ». Toutefois, le cœur de la discussion est centré sur le processus de ce que j'appelle l'accueil de la différence. J'aborde et je discute alors des concepts tels que la différence (Hall, 1997)et la normativité sociale (Butler, 1990; Duggan, 2002).; This research attempts to understand how does new media participate in gay youth's - often perceived as a vulnerable population - self assertion and coming out processes (Jenkins ...

Diabo e fluoxetina : formas de gestão da diferença; Devil and fluoxetine : forms of difference´s management

Mariana Magalhães Pinto Côrtes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/01/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
Quando a diferença surge como problema? Quando o diferente torna-se objeto de intervenção? Qual foi a primeira agência que se ocupou com a diferença como questão a ser administrada? A religião monoteísta e o Estado-nação apresentam modelos análogos no combate à diferença? Essas são questões que motivam a presente tese. Na primeira parte do trabalho, analisa-se a gestão moderna da diferença, condensada em três modalidades de guerra: a guerra contra os estranhos (Zygmunt Bauman), a guerra contra os anormais (Michel Foucault), a guerra contra os homini sacri (Giorgio Agamben). No drama das três guerras, desvela-se a íntima solidariedade entre liberalismo e racismo, democracia e totalitarismo. Eugenia, genocídio, biopolítica, assimilação, disciplina compuseram as estratégias modernas da batalha contra a diferença. Elas permanecem sendo as formas de administração da diferença na sociedade contemporânea? Para responder a pergunta, a pesquisa toma dois grupos como objeto de estudo: 1) pregadores-itinerantes evangélicos, que vivem do expediente de vender suas histórias de vida violentas e despedaçadas no mercado religioso de pregações; 2) sujeitos oriundos do universo social do campesinato que foram diagnosticados...

Inhabiting Difference

Ong, James Abordo
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.18%

I investigate how Baruch de Spinoza and Friedrich Nietzsche conceive of difference as bearing a distinctive normative significance for modern social and political life. Both Spinoza and Nietzsche ascribe special importance to the difference embodied by exceptional individuals, and to the attitudes towards difference that such individuals avow when they interact or cooperate with other individuals in society. I then reanimate this neglected aspect of their writings in my own constructive proposal. In particular, I argue that by inhabiting and harnessing our differences, we can realise new yet unknown possibilities that make for deep and meaningful social change.

According to Spinoza, exceptional individuals--namely, free men or those who live solely by the guidance of reason--avow the attitude of generosity towards individuals they engage. That is to say, the free man actively seeks to establish close friendships with other individuals in society, so that he may increase their power of acting through direct and dynamic interactions. In such interactions, the free man initiates others to the life of reason by getting them to directly experience what it is like to exercise their own powers of thinking, feeling, and acting. Nietzsche criticises Spinoza for diluting the depth and richness of human experience with the formulas and categories of logic...

Uniform color spaces based on CIECAM02 and IPT color difference equations

Xue, Yang
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
Color difference equations based on the CIECAM02 color appearance model and IPT color space have been developed to fit experimental data. There is no color space in which these color difference equations are Euclidean, e.g. describe distances along a straight line. In this thesis, Euclidean color spaces have been derived for the CIECAM02 and IPT color difference equations, respectively, so that the color difference can be calculated as a simple color distance. Firstly, the Euclidean line element was established, from which terms were derived for the new coordinates of lightness, chroma, and hue angle. Then the spaces were analyzed using performance factors and statistics to test how well they fit various data. The results show that the CIECAM02 Euclidean color space has performance factors similar to the optimized CIECAM02 color difference equation. To statistical significance, the CIECAM02 Euclidean color space had superior fit to the data when compared to the CIECAM02 color difference equation. Conversely, the IPT Euclidean color space performed poorer than the optimized IPT color difference equation. The main reason is that the line element for the lightness vector dimension could not be directly calculated so an approximation was used. To resolve this problem...

Color difference formula and uniform color space modeling and evaluation

Shen, Shizhe
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
Defining color tolerances numerically continues to be a topic of intense interest in colorimetry. A technique was developed to evaluate formula performance that incorporated visual uncertainty. In this technique, visual uncertainty was represented by randomized equal color-difference ellipsoids or randomized visual color differences. STRESS, a multivariate statistical tool, was employed to quantify these randomized equal color-difference ellipsoids or visual color differences. The STRESS clouds were composed of the STRESS values between the randomized equal color-difference ellipsoids and T50 equal color-difference ellipsoids, or between the randomized visual color differences and T50 visual color differences where T50 represented visually determined tolerances equivalent to an anchor-pair stimulus. These STRESS values clouds were taken as rulers to evaluate whether one color-difference formula over-, under- or well-fitted a specified color-difference dataset, based on an F-test. This technique is a necessary addition to the current deviation evaluation metrics, e.g., PF/3. In follow-on research, a Euclidean color space was developed with the color-difference formula based on IPT color space for supra-threshold color differences. The color-difference formula has similar chromatic modeling to CIE94. A lightness transformation function was applied to model color difference along lightness. A rotation matrix on the chromatic plane was also applied to achieve better characteristics of the color space. A step-wise optimization was performed to achieve better consistency and remove conflicts between different color-difference datasets. The evaluations include STRESS...

Relative significance of the terms in the CIEDE2000 and CIE94 color-difference formulas

Melgosa, Manuel; Huertas, Rafael; Berns, Roy
Fonte: Optical Society of America Publicador: Optical Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 329374 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
CIELAB-based color-difference formulas are used to improve the prediction of visually perceived color differences through the introduction of various corrections to CIELAB. In our study we analyze the relative importance of these corrections. From the combined dataset employed for the development of CIEDE2000, we found that the improvement of CIE94 over CIELAB was considerably greater than that of CIEDE2000 over CIE94. Chroma-difference correction was the most important correction in both CIE94 and CIEDE2000. With an arbitrary value of 100 assigned to this correction, the score of the hue-difference correction in CIE94 was 21, and the scores of the four remaining corrections in CIEDE2000 were as follows: hue difference, 29; rotation term, 8; lightness difference, 8; and gray correction, 6. At 95% confidence level each of the corrections introduced in CIEDE2000 or CIE94 was statistically significant for the whole combined dataset, in agreement with the results reported by CIE TC 1-47 and 1-29. For the combined dataset, the differences between CMC and CIEDE2000 were found to be statistically significant at 95% confidence level, but the differences between CMC and CIE94 were not. From subsets of the combined dataset it was concluded that further analyses of the lightness-difference and gray corrections proposed by CIEDE2000 would be desirable...

Cyclic Relative Difference Sets and Their p-Ranks

Chandler, D.B.; Xiang, Qing
Fonte: Department of Mathematical Sciences Publicador: Department of Mathematical Sciences
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 284058 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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By modifying the constructions in [10] and [15], we construct a family of cyclic ((q 3k − 1)/(q − 1), q − 1, q 3k − 1 , q 3k − 2 ) relative difference sets, where q = 3 e . These relative difference sets are “liftings” of the difference sets constructed in [10] and [15]. In order to demonstrate that these relative difference sets are in general new, we compute p-ranks of the classical relative difference sets and 3-ranks of the newly constructed relative difference sets when q = 3. By rank comparison, we show that the newly constructed relative difference sets are never equivalent to the classical relative difference sets, and are in general inequivalent to the affine GMW difference sets.

Deleuze, Merleau-Ponty and the challenges of difference; Deleuze, Merleau-Ponty e os desafios da diferença

Ramos, Silvana Souza; Universidade de São Paulo
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/12/2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
Que significa fazer uma filosofia da diferença? Como é possível captar o movimento singular de algo, sem subordiná-lo a categorias universais, sem submetê-lo aos limites da identidade e da representação? Ademais, como podemos capturar a experiência de nós mesmos sem reduzi-la à expressão de faculdades desde sempre prontas para agir sob a unidade sintética de um eu ou, ainda, sem espacializar a densidade criadora que a permeia? Certamente, essas questões ditam o norte do pensamento de Deleuze, embora já estivessem de algum modo presentes na filosofia de Merleau-Ponty, sugerindo direções pouco exploradas pelo autor de Diferença e repetição. Afinal, enquanto Merleau-Ponty pretende desvelar o caráter originariamente não-intelectual das ligações produzidas no interior da experiência, Deleuze busca dar dignidade ontológica à diferença tomada em si mesma. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste artigo é fazer uma reflexão sobre o lugar concedido à diferença nos dois filósofos no intuito de compreender alguns dos desafios enfrentados por um pensamente que recusa se submeter ao império da identidade.; To create a philosophy of difference: what does it mean? How is it possible to capture the movement of something singular...

Objections to equality and democracy: difference as basis of aristocratic education; Objeciones a la igualdad y la democracia: La diferencia como base de la educación aristocrática; Objeções à igualdade e à democracia: a diferença como base da educação aristocrática

Mendonça, Samuel
Fonte: ETD - Educação Temática Digital Publicador: ETD - Educação Temática Digital
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Avaliado pelos pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/11/2010 POR
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 Equality, a constant in mass education and a reason to justify democracy, levels human development on a low standard, weakening society. Aristocratic education, on the other hand, focus on developing the individual’s autonomy; in this case, difference becomes an aim to be achieved by the philosopher. It is not about thinking on difference as opposed to equality, apart from anything else; nevertheless, difference exists precisely within equality. In this article there will be presented Nietzsche’s critique to democracy, as well as his critique to equality. Furthermore, there will be analyzed the meaning of aristocratic education in the context of Prussian hegemony, beside some fundamental aspects of Nietzsche’s philosophy, specially the will to power. With these elements, it is intended to assert that, paradoxically, mass education reveals itself as an important teaser to aristocratic education, in the same way that equality indicates the need for difference as a possibility of fulfillment for the future philosopher, very free, so that it is in difference that aristocratic education is based on.; A igualdade, presente na educação de rebanho e que justifica a democracia, nivela o desenvolvimento humano por baixo, para o pior...