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As práticas de comunicação em projetos globais de desenvolvimento de produtos em empresas multinacionais brasileiras; The practice of communication in global development projects of products in Brazilian multinational corporations

Silveira, Franciane Freitas
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/08/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
Os projetos globais de desenvolvimento de produtos passam pelas áreas de conhecimento da gestão tradicional de projetos e, adicionalmente, demandam maior atenção de diversos aspectos inerentes ao ambiente global, tais como: coordenação e controle; construção de confiança e cooperação entre as equipes dispersas geograficamente. Outro tema especialmente importante nesse contexto é o processo de comunicação que se torna bastante crítico à medida que os recursos tradicionais de comunicação em projetos (reuniões face-a-face, comunicação não-verbal, visualização do trabalho in loco, entre outros) passam a ser limitados e/ ou substituídos por outros baseados em meios eletrônicos (videoconferência, emails, mensagens instantâneas, entre outros). O objetivo desta pesquisa foi o de mapear as práticas de comunicação aplicadas aos projetos globais e analisar se essas práticas variam de acordo com o tipo e com algumas características do modelo de gestão dos projetos. A unidade de análise escolhida foram os projetos globais de desenvolvimento de produtos de empresas multinacionais brasileiras e o método de pesquisa, o estudo de casos múltiplos. Os resultados permitiram verificar que a freqüência da comunicação nos projetos globais diminui com a distância...

Dinâmicas dos modos de vida e  saúde ambiental no campo: os projetos de desenvolvimento sustentável em assentamentos rurais no Estado de São Paulo.; Dynamics of the livelihoods and environmental health in rural areas: sustainable development projects in rural settlements of São Paulo State.

Alves Filho, José Prado
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/06/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.09%
No Brasil, o contexto de algumas iniciativas voltadas ao desenvolvimento rural sustentável se mostra dissociado de um olhar sobre a saúde pública. A provável invisibilidade das inter-relações envolvendo as formas de intervenção nos ambientes naturais, os processos produtivos, a organização social e as questões de saúde, pode ser parte da explicação a ausência de uma visão integral. Objetivo - compreender como são percebidas as inter-relações entre os aspectos de saúde ambiental e os modos de vida, por parte de populações de assentados rurais que constituem alvo de políticas públicas inspiradas em princípios baseados no conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável. Método - Pesquisa qualitativa, baseada em estudo de caso explanatório e descritivo, abordando os Projetos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável em assentamentos rurais das regiões central e nordeste do Estado de São Paulo e desenvolvida mediante: a) oficinas de trabalho com atores, envolvendo os participantes dos projetos de assentamentos, discutindo aspectos sobre saneamento básico, manejo de resíduos e uso de agrotóxicos, dentre outros aspectos envolvendo a saúde ambiental, e b) entrevista semi estruturada, realizada junto a mediador de interlocução da organização social nos assentamentos. O trabalho de coleta de informações foi iniciado após prévia aprovação do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa Resultados - Há um grande distanciamento entre o discurso propositivo de algumas políticas públicas inspiradas nos princípios da sustentabilidade e a realização objetiva de sua prática...

Sistematização e análise da avaliação econômica de projetos de desenvolvimento de produtos e serviços; Systematization and analysis of economic evaluation of products and services development projects

Rodrigues, Kênia Fernandes de Castro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/08/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.12%
No contexto da avaliação econômica de projetos de desenvolvimento de produtos e serviços percebem-se muitas dificuldades: ausência de classificação dos métodos de avaliação de investimentos apropriados para o contexto de priorização e seleção de projetos; ausência de sistematização das condições necessárias (conhecimentos, informações, habilidades, formulações e critérios de avaliação) à aplicação dos métodos; ausência de um framework de avaliação econômica que integre condições necessárias para a aplicação dos métodos com o apoio à escolha e aplicação de métodos de avaliação de investimentos apropriados aos conhecimentos disponíveis. Com o objetivo de superar tais dificuldades, essa pesquisa propõe uma sistematização e análise da avaliação econômica de projetos de desenvolvimento de produtos e serviços para poder apoiar a escolha e aplicação de métodos. O método de pesquisa adotado consiste em múltiplos estudos de casos. A pesquisa compreende três fases: (1) Aquisição de conhecimentos; (2) Sistematização da avaliação econômica, com base na revisão bibliográfica e em pesquisa de campo exploratória; (3) Análise da avaliação econômica com base em sete casos. Os resultados colaboram com evidências de que uma sistematização da avaliação econômica pode apoiar a escolha e a aplicação de métodos de avaliação de investimentos para a priorização e seleção de projetos de desenvolvimento de produtos e serviços conforme os conhecimentos disponíveis. Além disso...

Logiche e dinamiche operative per la gestione delle trasformazioni urbane: il caso dei Large Scale Urban Development Projects

BOCA, ALESSANDRO
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
IT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
This research aims at investigate a topic probably not well examined by national and international literature, which is the one of the evolutions in operational rationales and patterns followed in contemporary urban planning. The hypothesis here discussed is that the transition from the so-called “modern” to the so-called “contemporary” city has engendered a number of issues, including a need for adjustment of a planning practice that is both not completed yet and can’t be longer avoided. In order to carry out such a survey two different case studies will be analyzed, the large scale urban development project of Paris Rive Gauche, in Paris, and King’s Cross Central, in London. From the late ‘70s a number of factors, among which the research pinpoints the disappearance of manufacturing industry from large urban contexts, caused a deep physical and socio-economic restructuring process in many European cities. As a consequence, also the urban planning models followed during the previous decades faced a corresponding restructuring process. In particular, what fell in crisis was the traditional plan-led rationale that for at least three decades characterized urban planning in many European countries. Indeed this rationale was considered by many scholars and practitioners no longer suitable to respond to the increased complexity characterizing contemporary urban contexts. During all the ‘80s a massive practice of deregulation has been proposed as the answer able to face such an issue. From the traditional plan-led model previously followed to implement urban strategies...

Good Countries or Good Projects? Macro and Micro Correlates of World Bank Project Performance

Denizer, Cevdet; Kaufmann, Daniel; Kraay, Aart
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.13%
The authors use data from more than 6,000 World Bank projects evaluated between 1983 and 2009 to investigate macro and micro correlates of project outcomes. They find that country-level "macro" measures of the quality of policies and institutions are very strongly correlated with project outcomes, confirming the importance of country-level performance for the effective use of aid resources. However, a striking feature of the data is that the success of individual development projects varies much more within countries than it does between countries. The authors assemble a large set of project-level "micro" correlates of project outcomes in an effort to explain some of this within-country variation. They find that measures of project size, the extent of project supervision, and evaluation lags are all significantly correlated with project outcomes, as are early-warning indicators that flag problematic projects during the implementation stage. They also find that measures of World Bank project task manager quality matter significantly for the ultimate outcome of projects. They discuss the implications of these findings for donor policies aimed at aid effectiveness.

Procurement Efficiency for Infrastructure Development and Financial Needs Reassessed

Estache, Antonio; Iimi, Atsushi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.07%
Infrastructure is the engine for economic growth. The international donor community has spent about 70-100 billion U.S. dollars on infrastructure development in developing countries every year. However, it is arguable whether these financial resources are used efficiently, particularly whether the current infrastructure procurement prices are appropriate. Without doubt a key is competition to curb public procurement costs. This paper analyzes procurement data from multi and bilateral official development projects in three infrastructure sectors: roads, electricity, and water and sanitation. The findings show that the competition effect is underutilized. To take full advantage of competition, at least seven bidders are needed in the road and water sectors, while three may be enough in the power sector. The paper also shows that not only competition, but also auction design, especially lot division, is crucial for reducing unit costs of infrastructure. Based on the estimated efficient unit costs, the annual financial needs are estimated at approximately 360 billion U.S. dollars. By promoting competition...

Local Conflict and Development Projects in Indonesia : Part of the Problem or Part of a Solution?

Barron, Patrick; Diprose, Rachael; Woolcock, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
Drawing on an integrated mixed methods research design, the authors explore the dynamics of the development-conflict nexus in rural Indonesia, and the specific role of development projects in shaping the nature, extent, and trajectories of "everyday" conflicts. They find that projects that give inadequate attention to dispute resolution mechanisms in many cases stimulate local conflict, either through the injection of development resources themselves or less directly by exacerbating preexisting tensions in target communities. But projects that have explicit and accessible procedures for managing disputes arising from the development process are much less likely to lead to violent outcomes. The authors argue that such projects are more successful in addressing project-related conflicts because they establish direct procedures (such as forums, facilitators, and complaints mechanisms) for dealing with tensions as they arise. These direct mechanisms are less successful in addressing broader social tensions elicited by...

Involuntary Resettlement Sourcebook : Planning and Implementation in Development Projects

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.08%
The book clarifies many policy, and technical issues that confront resettlement policymakers, and practitioners. It provides guidance on resettlement design, implementation, and monitoring, and, it discusses resettlement issues particular to development projects in different sectors, such as urban development, natural resource management, and the building of dams. Construction of infrastructure, a prerequisite for sustained socioeconomic growth, often requires the acquisition of land, and therefore, the physical relocation, and economic displacement of people. If such impacts, collectively characterized as involuntary resettlement, are not identified, and adequately mitigated, some already vulnerable populations are likely to be further impoverished, thereby undermining the objectives of the development process. Integration of involuntary resettlement issues into development projects facilitates expeditious project implementation, and improves incomes and living standards of affected populations.

Involuntary Resettlement Sourcebook : Planning and Implementation in Development Projects, Additional Appendices (from CD-ROM)

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
The book clarifies many policy, and technical issues that confront resettlement policymakers, and practitioners. It provides guidance on resettlement design, implementation, and monitoring, and, it discusses resettlement issues particular to development projects in different sectors, such as urban development, natural resource management, and the building of dams. Construction of infrastructure, a prerequisite for sustained socioeconomic growth, often requires the acquisition of land, and therefore, the physical relocation, and economic displacement of people. If such impacts, collectively characterized as involuntary resettlement, are not identified, and adequately mitigated, some already vulnerable populations are likely to be further impoverished, thereby undermining the objectives of the development process. Integration of involuntary resettlement issues into development projects facilitates expeditious project implementation, and improves incomes and living standards of affected populations.

ICT for Development : Contributing to the Millennium Development Goals - Lessons Learned from Seventeen infoDev Projects

Batchelor, Simon; Evangelista, Soc; Hearn, Simon; Peirce, Malcolm; Sugden, Susan; Webb, Mike
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.16%
The aim of this paper is to create a publicly available resource that provides concise descriptions of selected infoDev ICT-for-development projects, and their impact on poverty. The paper first presents case studies of a cross-section of projects funded by the infoDev Core Program, followed by an in-depth analysis of the impact, and limits of those projects. The main criterion for selecting projects for case study analysis was to be as representative as possible of the various environments (political, economic, social, geographic) in which infoDev has been operating since its inception. An attempt was also made to provide a balanced sample relative to the success rate of the projects. Rather than selecting the "best projects," the authors, in consultation with the task managers of the projects, gave priority to those initiatives likely to offer the best lessons and knowledge about how to use ICT for development purposes. infoDev case studies show that the presence of a project champion enhances the success of a project (FOOD...

Impact Evaluation Helps Deliver Development Projects

Legovini, Arianna; Di Maro, Vincenzo; Piza, Caio
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
Does research add value to aid? Specifically, does impact evaluation research help or hinder the delivery of development projects? This paper analyzes the question by constructing a new data set of 100 impact evaluations and 1,135 projects approved by the World Bank between 2005 and 2011. The analysis finds that the delivery of projects with impact evaluation is significantly timelier: common delays are avoided and the gap between planned and actual disbursements is reduced by half. Evidence-based mid-course corrections, a clearer implementation road map, strengthened capacity on the ground, and observer effects are possible channels to explain the results. Hopefully, this analysis will stimulate discussion over the optimal balance between project financing and the impact evaluation research needed to deliver development outcomes.

Evaluating configuration management tools for high assurance software development projects

Ziegenhagen, Lynzi
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xvi, 89 p. : ill. ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.05%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; This thesis establishes a framework for evaluating automated configuration management tools for use in high assurance software development projects and uses the framework to evaluate eight tools. The evaluation framework identifies a dozen feature areas that affect a high assurance project team's ability to achieve its configuration management goals and evaluates the different methods that existing tools use to implement each feature area. Each implementation method is assigned a risk rating that approximates the relative risk that the method adds to the overall configuration management process. The tools with the lowest total ratings minimize risk to high assurance projects. The results of the evaluation show that although certain tools are less risky to use than other tools for high assurance projects, no tool minimizes risk in all feature areas. Furthermore, none of the existing tools are designed to leverage high assurance environments-i.e. none run on operating systems that have themselves been evaluated as meeting high assurance requirements. Thus, high assurance development projects that want to leverage the benefits of configuration management tools and achieve a sufficiently strong configuration management solution must employ existing tools in a protected environment that specifically addresses the risks created by the tools' implementation methods.; Civilian...

Visualizing Uncertainties, or How Albert Hirschman and the World Bank Disagreed on Project Appraisal and Development Approaches

Alacevich, Michele
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.05%
Since its birth in 1944, the World Bank has had a strong focus on development projects. Yet, it did not have a project evaluation unit until the early 1970s. An early attempt to conceptualize project appraisal had been made in the 1960s by Albert Hirschman, whose undertaking raised high expectations at the Bank. Hirschman's conclusions -- published first in internal Bank reports and then, as a book in 1967 -- disappointed many at the Bank, primarily because they found it impractical. Hirschman wanted to offer the Bank a new vision by transforming the Bank's approach to project design, project management and project appraisal. What the Bank expected from Hirschman, HOWEVER, was not a revolution but an examination of the Bank's projects and advice on how to make project design and management more measurable, controllable, and suitable for replication. The history of this failed collaboration provides useful insights on the unstable equilibrium between operations and evaluation within the Bank. In addition...

Reflections on 20 Years of Land-Related Development Projects in Central America : 10 Things You Might Not Expect, and Future Directions

Siegel, P.B.; Childress, M.D.; Barham, B.L.
Fonte: International Land Coalition, Rome Publicador: International Land Coalition, Rome
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.18%
This paper takes a critical view of the challenges that lie ahead for land?related development projects in Central America. Drawing upon several sources of information and types of analysis, including literature reviews, field visits and rapid participatory assessments, along with decades of professional experience, the authors examine land-related development policies and projects over the past two decades in Central America (although monitoring and evaluation is admittedly weak). Reflections on past land?related development policies and projects in Central America are based on their contributions to growth and poverty reduction. The reflections, which are really stylized facts, are presented using a 'top ten list' of things that you might not expect from land policy reforms and projects in post?conflict Central America. In short, for a variety of initially unforeseen reasons, land?related development policies and projects have not fully lived up to expectations in terms of poverty reduction for rural residents...

Ecological approaches to rural development projects

Díaz,Sandra; Cáceres,Daniel M.
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.17%
Most rural development projects include ecological considerations, and most conservation projects include some reference to sustainable development. However, conservation projects frequently fail because they do not incorporate local communities' perceptions and needs. Many development projects are also unsuccessful because they are not based on adequate ecological assessment. We focus here on the most important ecological issues to be addressed in order to place development projects in an ecosystem context. Such projects should incorporate updated and precise ecological concepts and methods. Some key ecological issues in development projects are the relationships between ecosystem functions, services, and sustainability, the concept of loose connectivity, the distinct and complementary concepts of ecosystem resistance and resilience, and the links between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. We claim that an ecologically sound development project maximizes the preservation and improvement of ecosystem services, especially for local communities. We pose a series of questions aimed at placing rural development projects in an ecosystem context and suggest ways of organizing this information.

A systematic review of studies evaluating Australian indigenous community development projects: the extent of community participation, their methodological quality and their outcomes

Snijder, Mieke; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Stephens, Anne; Calabria, Bianca
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.16%
BACKGROUND: Community development is a health promotion approach identified as having great potential to improve Indigenous health, because of its potential for extensive community participation. There has been no systematic examination of the extent of community participation in community development projects and little analysis of their effectiveness. This systematic review aims to identify the extent of community participation in community development projects implemented in Australian Indigenous communities, critically appraise the qualitative and quantitative methods used in their evaluation, and summarise their outcomes. METHODS: Ten electronic peer-reviewed databases and two electronic grey literature databases were searched for relevant studies published between 1990 and 2015. The level of community participation and the methodological quality of the qualitative and quantitative components of the studies were assessed against standardised criteria. RESULTS: Thirty one evaluation studies of community development projects were identified. Community participation varied between different phases of project development...

Abrir no Mundo, Rasgando o Trecho: Mobilidade Popular, Família e Grandes Projetos de Desenvolvimento; On the road, tearing through the trecho: Popular Mobility, Family and Large Development Projects

Dumans Guedes, André
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/03/2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.94%
A partir de uma pesquisa realizada no extremo norte do estado de Goias, busco discutir alguns aspectos da vida de pessoas que rodam o trecho, circulando por diversas areas do centro-norte do pais em virtude do garimpo ou do trabalho itinerante para firmas ligadas a grandes projetos de desenvolvimento. Meu foco aqui reside na discussao das implicações dessa forma particular de mobilidade sobre relacoes de cunho sexual, amoroso e familiar. Busco entao extrair algumas consequencias do ponto de vista nativo a respeito de tais experiencias, argumentando que através delas e possivel ter acesso a elementos centrais da sociologia e cosmologia do grupo em questao. Ao mesmo tempo, procuro sugerir como as praticas e ideias associadas ao trecho articulam de maneira complexa continuidades e mudancas, uma tradicional “cultura da andanca” sertaneja persistindo e transformando-se diante da proliferacao de grandes projetos “modernos” de desenvolvimento economico.; In this paper I discuss some processes related to the “life on the trecho”: expression used in the North of the Brazilian state of Goias to describe the experiences of those people who work far away from their hometowns, as small scale miners or for companies related to large development projects. I present some of the implications of these experiences for family and sexual issues...

Communication practices in global product development projects of Brazilian multinational firms; Las prácticas de comunicación en proyectos globales de desarrollo de productos en empresas multinacionales brasileñas; As práticas de comunicação em projetos globais de desenvolvimento de produtos em multinacionais brasileiras

Silveira, Franciane Freitas; Sbragia, Roberto
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
This study sought to identify the most frequent and important communication practices used in the global product development projects of Brazilian multinationals and to analyze whether these communication practices vary according to certain project characteristics. The study has an exploratory nature and the research method chosen was the multiple case study. Our results indicate that the frequency of communication in global projects decreases as distance increases, making the control and coordination of the teams more difficult. However, distance, per se, despite adding to the challenges, does not necessarily cause communication problems, as one can bypass it with electronic communication tools. The study also concludes that communication practices and the importance ascribed to them vary depending on certain project characteristics, such as project type, product life cycle, project complexity and the integrative arrangements used in product development. Although these variations were identified, we found that communication practices do not arise in a standardized manner across all projects; conversely, they are improvised and circumstantial and do not rely on any specific planning at the beginning of the project.; El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar las prácticas de comunicación aplicadas a los proyectos globales de desarrollo de productos de empresas multinacionales brasileñas y analizar si esas prácticas varían de acuerdo con algunas características de los proyectos. Es un estudio de naturaleza exploratoria...

Siyazama entrepreneurial development project: Challenges of a community-university partnership within a Faculty of Theology

Botha,Marietjie J.; Albertyn,Ruth M.
Fonte: Acta Theologica Publicador: Acta Theologica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
Calls for global relevance and accountability are prevalent in private-public partnerships. Current community engagement projects in higher educational institutions reflect this focus. The academic partner can play a boundary spanning (bridge building) role in a community-university partnership. The university partner often enters the partnership without full realisation of the challenges of its role. The Siyazama Craft Project, an entrepreneurial development intervention for poverty alleviation in Stellenbosch is an example of the boundary spanning role of the academic partner in the Faculty of Theology. This intervention is in line with the community interaction policy of the faculty and the university. The Siyazama entrepreneurship project is described, and challenges experienced during the course of planning, implementation and evaluation are presented. Identification of challenges in projects of this nature could provide insight for university partners in development projects. Findings could be applied to the broader context of public-private partnerships, which form part of corporate social responsibility projects in response to needs for relevance, accountability and responsible sustainable development.

Ecological approaches to rural development projects

Díaz,Sandra; Cáceres,Daniel M.
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.17%
Most rural development projects include ecological considerations, and most conservation projects include some reference to sustainable development. However, conservation projects frequently fail because they do not incorporate local communities' perceptions and needs. Many development projects are also unsuccessful because they are not based on adequate ecological assessment. We focus here on the most important ecological issues to be addressed in order to place development projects in an ecosystem context. Such projects should incorporate updated and precise ecological concepts and methods. Some key ecological issues in development projects are the relationships between ecosystem functions, services, and sustainability, the concept of loose connectivity, the distinct and complementary concepts of ecosystem resistance and resilience, and the links between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. We claim that an ecologically sound development project maximizes the preservation and improvement of ecosystem services, especially for local communities. We pose a series of questions aimed at placing rural development projects in an ecosystem context and suggest ways of organizing this information.