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Razões da desistência da prática da ginástica artística de atletas de alto rendimento do sexo feminino no Rio Grande do Sul

Stringhini, Sérgio
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.79%
Ao analisarem-se súmulas dos campeonatos estaduais de ginástica artística dos últimos anos observou-se uma redução drástica no número de praticantes a partir dos 12 anos de idade. A desistência nesta faixa etária no RS passou a ser um problema para a ginástica artística (GA) de alto rendimento do Estado. Devido à falta de estudos específicos para esta modalidade esportiva no RS esta pesquisa propõese aos seguintes objetivos: (1) analisar os fatores que levam à desistência das ginastas de alto rendimento no RS; (2) identificar e descrever os fatores positivos e negativos do desenvolvimento no processo de formação das ginastas; (3) correlacionar o tipo de treinamento aplicado as ginastas em formação com os resultados obtidos na carreira; (4) verificar se há trabalho psicológico com as ginastas e que tipo de trabalho é realizado; (5) correlacionar a influência da iniciação precoce com a formação das ginastas; (6) verificar a influência do nível sócio econômico no desenvolvimento das ginastas; (7) identificar e analisar o papel da família no processo de formação das ginastas; (8) identificar e analisar o papel do técnico no processo de formação das ginastas. Para a pesquisa, foram selecionadas 10 ex-ginastas que treinaram no RS e participaram de Campeonatos Brasileiros de 1ª divisão e que desistiram da GA a partir de janeiro de 1998. Foram incluídos seus respectivos pais e/ou responsáveis. O instrumento utilizado para a coleta de informações foi a entrevista semiestruturada em duas versões...

The Liverpool Desistance Study and probation practice: Opening the dialogue

Shadd Maruna; Louise Porter; Irene Carvalho
Fonte: Universidade do Porto Publicador: Universidade do Porto
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
The notion of #8216;desistance#8217; (or #8216;going straight#8217;) is becoming a moreprominent one in criminological discourse, and the Liverpool Desistance Study(LDS) aimed to provide a deeper understanding of this process from the perspectiveof the individuals taking this life path. However, the LDS was not intended toaddress how the research might be applied in practice. This article therefore brieflyoutlines the research and discusses some of the policy implications, in order toopen a debate with practitioners and others about the way that the research mightbe relevant to everyday practice with people who offend. The papers that followthis article were written in response to the challenge of applying the findings of theLDS in probation practice.

SUBJECTIVE DESISTANCE AND THE TRANSITION TO ADULTHOOD

MASSOGLIA, MICHAEL; UGGEN, CHRISTOPHER
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.15%
This paper introduces two new conceptualizations of desistance based on individuals’ personal assessments of their own movement away from crime. Drawing from qualitative accounts of changes in offending, we develop survey items indexing subjective desistance and reference group desistance. We then use a representative community sample of young adults to compare these new conceptualizations of desistance against more established measures derived from changes in arrest and self-reported crime. The results indicate that the prevalence and the predictors of desistance vary with these alternative conceptualizations. While relationship quality is consistently related to each desistance measure, the effects of prior crime, peer relationships, race, gender, and parental status depend upon the outcome under consideration. These results show both the generality of the desistance process and the utility of comparing subjective accounts of this process alongside official and self-reported behavioral measures.

Childhood Predictors of Desistance and Level of Persistence in Offending in Early Onset Offenders

van Domburgh, L.; Loeber, R.; Bezemer, D.; Stallings, R.; Stouthamer-Loeber, M.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
Childhood predictors of adolescent offending careers were studied in 310 boys from the longitudinal Pittsburgh Youth Study who started offending prior to age 12. Three main groups were distinguished: serious persisters (n = 95), moderately serious persisters (n = 117), desisters (n = 63), and an intermittent group (n = 35). Group membership was predicted using risk and promotive factors measured in childhood. Serious and moderately serious persisters could be distinguished well from desisters (29.2% and 32.3% explained variance). Distinction between the two persister groups proved somewhat more difficult (20.9% explained variance). More serious persisters than desisters showed disruptive behavior, while moderately serious persisters fell in between. Further, more moderately serious persisters were marked by social disadvantage. Family involvement, small family and positive peer relationships were promotive of desistance. Concluding, early onset offenders show considerable heterogeneity in their adolescent offending careers which seem to some extent to be predicted by different sets of risk and promotive factors.

THEORY AND RESEARCH ON DESISTANCE FROM ANTISOCIAL ACTIVITY AMONG SERIOUS ADOLESCENT OFFENDERS

Mulvey, Edward P.; Steinberg, Laurence; Fagan, Jeffrey; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R.; Chassin, Laurie; Knight, George P.; Brame, Robert; Schubert, Carol A.; Hecker, Thomas; Losoya, Sandra H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/07/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
Improving juvenile court decision making requires information about how serious adolescent offenders desist from antisocial activity. A systematic research agenda on this topic requires consideration of several processes, including normative development in late adolescence, what constitutes desistance, and the factors likely to promote the end of involvement in antisocial behavior and successful adjustment in early adulthood. This article presents an overview of the major points to consider in pursuing this research agenda.

OPERATIONAL LESSONS FROM THE PATHWAYS TO DESISTANCE PROJECT

Schubert, Carol A.; Mulvey, Edward P.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Losoya, Sandra H.; Hecker, Thomas; Chassin, Laurie; Knight, George P.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
Implementing a large, longitudinal study of any sample is a major undertaking. The challenges are compounded when the study involves multiple sites and a high-risk sample. This article outlines the methodology for the Pathways to Desistance study, a multisite, longitudinal study of serious juvenile offenders, and discusses the key operational decisions with the greatest impact on the study design.

Trajectories of desistance and continuity in antisocial behavior following court adjudication among serious adolescent offenders

MULVEY, EDWARD P.; STEINBERG, LAURENCE; PIQUERO, ALEX R.; BESANA, MICHELLE; FAGAN, JEFFREY; SCHUBERT, CAROL; CAUFFMAN, ELIZABETH
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
Because many serious adolescent offenders reduce their antisocial behavior after court involvement, understanding the patterns and mechanisms of the process of desistance from criminal activity is essential for developing effective interventions and legal policy. This study examined patterns of self-reported antisocial behavior over a 3-year period after court involvement in a sample of 1,119 serious male adolescent offenders. Using growth mixture models, and incorporating time at risk for offending in the community, we identified five trajectory groups, including a “persister” group (8.7% of the sample) and a “desister” group (14.6% of the sample). Case characteristics (age, ethnicity, antisocial history, deviant peers, a criminal father, substance use, psychosocial maturity) differentiated the five trajectory groups well, but did not effectively differentiate the persisting from desisting group. We show that even the most serious adolescent offenders report relatively low levels of antisocial activity after court involvement, but that distinguishing effectively between high-frequency offenders who desist and those who persist requires further consideration of potentially important dynamic factors related to this process.

The Role of Heavy Alcohol Use in the Developmental Process of Desistance in Dating Aggression during Adolescence

McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
The current study examined the role of heavy alcohol use in the developmental process of desistance in physical dating aggression during adolescence. Using longitudinal data spanning grades 8 through 12 we tested the hypotheses that (a) higher levels of early heavy alcohol use would be associated with decreased deceleration from dating aggression during late adolescence and (b) higher levels of heavy alcohol use during time-points in late adolescence would be contemporaneously associated with elevated levels of dating aggression at those same time points. Contrary to expectations, findings indicate that the effects of both early and continuing heavy alcohol use on dating aggression were strong during early adolescence but tended to diminish over time. Unexpectedly, the contemporaneous effects of alcohol use on dating aggression were stronger in the spring than in the fall semesters. Implications for prevention and for understanding developmental relations between the two behaviors are discussed.

Crystal methamphetamine use among American Indian and White youth in Appalachia: Social context, masculinity, and desistance

BROWN, RYAN A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.92%
Rural areas and American Indian reservations are hotspots for the use of crystal methamphetamine (“meth”) in the United States, yet there is little ethnographic data describing meth use in these areas. This study draws upon three years of ethnographic work conducted with American Indian and White youth in Appalachia during the height of the meth epidemic. It describes how historical, cultural, and socioeconomic processes influence vulnerability to meth use in Appalachia, and highlights the role of social relationships and meaning-making in facilitating desistance and recovery from meth use. The first section shows how crystal meth filled a particular functional niche in the lives of many young men, alleviating boredom and anomie linked to recent socioeconomic changes and labor opportunities in the region, and intersecting with local understandings of masculinity and forms of military identity. Here, ethnographic and interview data converge to illustrate how social role expectations, recent socioeconomic change, and meth’s pharmacological properties converge to create vulnerability to meth use in Appalachia. The second section draws upon two American Indian narratives of desistance. These youth described recently severed social relationships and acute feelings of social isolation during the initiation of meth use. Both also described dramatic close calls with death that facilitated their eventual desistance from use...

“Recovery Came First”: Desistance versus Recovery in the Criminal Careers of Drug-Using Offenders

Colman, Charlotte; Vander Laenen, Freya
Fonte: The Scientific World Journal Publicador: The Scientific World Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/12/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.02%
The aim of our paper is to gain insight in the desistance process of drug-using offenders. We explore the components of change in the desistance process of drug-using offenders by using the cognitive transformation theory of Giordano et al. as a theoretical framework. The desistance process of drug-using offenders entails a two-fold process: desistance of criminal offending and recovery. The results however indicate that desistance is subordinate to recovery because of the fact that drug-using offenders especially see themselves as drug users and not as “criminals.” Their first goal was to start recovery from drug use. They were convinced that recovery from drug use would lead them to a stop in their offending. In the discussion, we explore the implications of this result for further research.

SHIFTING PERSPECTIVES: COGNITIVE CHANGES PARTIALLY MEDIATE THE IMPACT OF ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS ON DESISTANCE FROM CRIME

Simons, Ronald L.; Barr, Ashley B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.09%
Although research regarding the impact of marriage on desistance is important, most romantic relationships during early adulthoood, the period in the life course when involvement in criminal offending is relatively high, do not involve marriage. Using the internal moderator approach, we tested hypotheses regarding the impact of non-marital romantic relationships on desistance using longitudinal data from a sample of approximately 600 African American young adults. The results largely supported the study hypotheses. We found no significant association between simply being in a romantic relationship and desistance from offending. On the other hand, for both males and females quality of romantic relationship was rather strongly associated with desistance. Partner antisociality only influenced the offending of females. Much of the effect of quality of romantic relationship on desistance was mediated by a reduction in commitment to a criminogenic knowledge structure (a hostile view of people and relationships, concern with immediate gratification, and cynical view of conduct norms). The mediating effect of change in affiliation with deviant peers was not significant once the contribution of criminogenic knowledge structure was taken into account. The findings are discussed in terms of social control and cognitive accounts of the mechanisms whereby romantic relationships influence desistance.

Understanding Desistance from Crime

Sampson, Robert; Laub, John
Fonte: University of Chicago Press Publicador: University of Chicago Press
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.15%
The study of desistance from crime is hampered by definitional, measurement, and theoretical incoherence. A unifying framework can distinguish termination of offending from the process of desistance. Termination is the point when criminal activity stops and desistance is the underlying causal process. A small number of factors are sturdy correlates of desistance (e.g., good marriages, stable work, transformation of identity, and aging). The processes of desistance from crime and other forms of problem behavior appear to be similar. Several theoretical frameworks can be employed to explain the process of desistance, including maturation and aging, developmental, life-course, rational choice, and social learning theories. A life-course perspective provides the most compelling framework, and it can be used to identify institutional sources of desistance and the dynamic social processes inherent in stopping crime.; Sociology

Motivating and maintaining desistance from crime: male Aboriginal serial offenders' experience of 'going good'

Sullivan, Katherine Maree
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.27%
Aboriginal people are over represented in prison in Australia, being 13 times more likely to be incarcerated than non-Indigenous people. Repeat offenders make up a high proportion of the Aboriginal prison population, yet most repeat offenders eventually cease offending or desist from crime. Why do they stop? The process of desistance is complex, non-linear and varies between individuals. North American and British studies report the role of structure and, more latterly, cognition and agency in desistance and re-formation of offender identities. Few of these studies examine the context, particularly the cultural context, of desisters and desistance. This thesis uses anthropological and ethnographic approaches to present and analyse the life narratives of Aboriginal men from north-western New South Wales who have been repeat offenders and are now ‘going good’ (i.e. have ceased offending). Concepts of agency (and its temporal orientations), cultural schemas and figured worlds are applied. The stories of the early lives of participants and the views of community members paint the backdrop of offence, desistance, identity formation and re-formation. The agentic role of the motivating cultural schemas of fatherhood, life partnership...

Criminal achievement and offender self-efficacy

Laferrière, Dominique
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.59%
La notion de réussite criminelle a essentiellement été définie au moyen de l’indicateur objectif des gains monétaires. Si l’idée selon laquelle l’argent est au coeur de la réussite professionnelle fait l’objet d’un large consensus social, il semble improbable que les gains monétaires permettent à eux seuls d’appréhender la réussite. Pour mieux comprendre certaines dimensions des carrières criminelles telles que la persistance et le désistement, il paraît utile de se pencher sur la manière dont les criminels définissent leur propre réussite. Il a été établi que l’auto-efficacité, soit la croyance que possède un individu en sa capacité à accomplir une tâche, permet de prédire plusieurs dimensions des carrières légitimes. À partir de la théorie sur l’auto-efficacité, ce mémoire examine de quelle manière se forme l’auto-efficacité criminelle. Nous soutenons que les perceptions relatives à la réussite criminelle sont affectées par des facteurs semblables à ceux qui jouent dans le développement de l’auto-efficacité légitime. Nous partons de l’hypothèse que les criminels forgent leur auto-efficacité à partir de quatre sources d’expérience : les réussites personnelles, l’apprentissage vicariant...

Romantic Relationships and Criminal Desistance: Pathways and Processes

Wyse, Jessica JB; Harding, David J.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.92%
In dominant theories of criminal desistance, marital relationship formation is understood to be a key “turning point” away from deviant behavior. Empirical studies supporting this claim have largely focused on the positive role of marriage in men's desistance from crime, and relatively few studies have examined the role that non-marital relationships may play in desistance. Drawing on 138 longitudinal in-depth interviews with 22 men and women reentering society from prison, this paper extends the scope of desistance research by additionally considering the significance of more fleeting and fluid relationships, and the diverse processes through which romantic relationships of all sorts are linked with criminal behaviors. We present an empirically-based typology detailing six processes, grouped within three conceptual categories, through which romantic relationships had their effects. These pathways include material circumstances, social bonds and interactions, and emotional supports and stressors. We also consider gender differences in these processes. While more tenuous bonds to marginally conventional partners would seem to exert little effect, as one of the few relationships and social roles available to many former prisoners...

Turning points and returning points : understanding the role of family ties in the process of desistance

Cid Moliné, Josep; Martí Olivé, Joel
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.59%
The objective of this article is to identify the interpersonal factors that explain narratives of desistance among offenders who have been sentenced to prison. Through narrative interviews, we have studied a purposeful age-graded sample of men convicted of acquisitive crimes. Although the results confirm the leading research of Laub and Sampson (2003) about the importance of social bonds as a change catalyst, they also suggest that changes in narratives may depend not only on participation in new social institutions but also on the new meaning that institutions present during the criminal career of offenders, such as family relationships, may acquire in adulthood.

La perspectiva del desistiment en el sistema de justícia juvenil : l’execució de la llibertat vigilada

Martínez Rusiñol, Meritxell
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; Text Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 CAT
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.59%
Durant els últims anys, ha estat nombrosa la recerca que ha intentat aportar explicacions al desistiment que es sol produir durant la transició de l’adolescència a l’edat adulta, entenent que durant aquest període té una gran importància l’involucrament en els rols adults. Aquest treball té com a objectiu veure com es reflecteix tota la recerca teòrica sobre el desistiment delictiu en el sistema de justícia juvenil i, més concretament, en l’execució de la mesura de llibertat vigilada. D’aquesta manera, a través d’entrevistes a cinc delegats d’assistència al menor de diferents àrees de Barcelona s’explorarà com es duu a terme actualment la intervenció en llibertat vigilada, partint del fet que és una mesura que atorga una gran discrecionalitat al professional que l’executa; There has been a great research, during the last years, trying to provide some explanation to that kind of desistance which takes place during the stage of transition between the adolescence and the adult life, where the importance of the adult role is a main theme. This project has the objective to see how all the entire theoretical research about this kind of desistance is reflected in the juvenile justice system, specifically in the execution of probation. Provided that probation officers have a large discretion to enforce the orders...

Restorative justice and desistance. The impact of victim-offender mediation on desistance from crime

Meléndez Peretó, Anna
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.79%
El objeto principal de la tesis doctoral es conocer la capacidad de la justicia restaurativa de incidir en el desistimiento del delito e identificar los posibles mecanismos explicativos entre la participación en programas de mediación y el cese en la conducta antisocial de los implicados en los procesos restauradores. Concretamente la tesis se centra en analizar el papel que juegan en el proceso restaurativo el uso de las técnicas de neutralización por parte del infractor, concretamente en qué medida el ofensor es capaz de reconocer haber causado un daño a otra persona y mostrar la capacidad de responsabilizarse por ello. Así mismo se pretende analizar si dicho proceso permite la expresión de actitudes, emociones y sentimientos que permitan llevar al infractor a la reflexión, al arrepentimiento y a expresar vergüenza por lo sucedido. El estudio empírico se divide en dos fases con cuatro momentos distintos. La primera fase se comprende de tres momentos. El primero se sitúa al inicio del proceso, en el que se administra un cuestionario pre-proceso, cuyo objetivo es conocer la predisposición inicial del infractor a su participación en el proceso, así como su actitud hacia el conflicto. El segundo, tiene lugar durante el transcurso del proceso restaurativo y consiste en una observación no participante de la sesión de mediación conjunta. El objetivo es observar la actitud del infractor ante la interacción con la víctima...

Adult Family Relationships and Desistance from Crime

Forrest, Walter
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Buch (Monographie); info:eu-repo/semantics/book
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.02%
Despite considerable evidence that certain life-course transitions can play a significant role in helping some offenders abandon crime, several fundamental issues remain unresolved. In this dissertation, I examine the links between crime and two lifecourse transitions related to the development of families in adulthood: cohabitation and marriage. Using data from the National Youth Survey (NYS), I investigate the extent to which both types of relationships can contribute to desistance. I then evaluate the major theoretical mechanisms through which marriage is most likely to promote behavioral change. Finally, I examine the degree to which these relationships foster desistance for both men and women. Results indicate that marriage has the capacity to promote desistance, whereas cohabitation does not, and that the effects of marriage on crime are conditional on both the social orientation of the spouse and the quality of the marital relationship. These and other results are mostly consistent with social control and social learning theories of crime and desistance. In addition, the results of the analyses indicate that the effects of marriage on crime are similar among men and women.

The Role of Subjective and Social Factors in the Desistance Process: A Within-Individual Examination

Crank, Beverly
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Buch (Monographie); info:eu-repo/semantics/book
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.3%
Many scholars examining desistance from crime have emphasized the importance of social factors in triggering the desistance process. Most notably, the work of Sampson and Laub (1993) focuses on the role of social bonds (e.g., marriage and employment), which serve as turning points in offenders’ lives, while other scholars have emphasized other important social factors, such as antisocial peer influence (Stouthamer-Loeber, Wei, Loeber, Masten, 2004; Warr, 1998, 2002). However, missing from such works is the role of subjective factors (e.g., thinking patterns, expectations, self-identity) in the desistance process, despite evidence that changes in identity and other cognitive transformations promote desistance from criminal offending (Giordano, Cernkovich, & Rudolph, 2002; Maruna, 2001). Examining the combined role of subjective and social factors is important, because it may lead to a more comprehensive understanding of the desistance process. Desistance researchers typically focus on one set of factors, while downplaying the other set of factors. Rarely have researchers examined the effects of social and subjective factors simultaneously (for exceptions, see Healy, 2010; Laub & Sampson, 2003; Morizot & Le Blanc, 2007). And even fewer attempts have been made to examine the interplay between social and subjective factors (for exceptions...